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Samuel Clemens

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Victoria Armstrong

on 2 June 2013

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Transcript of Samuel Clemens

Samuel Clemens The Great Mark Twain Historical and Literary Periods The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County Plot Literary Devices/Elements/Techniques Major Realists Mark Twain's Influences American Realism Life Works Videos 'Classic.' A book which people praise and don't read. - Mark Twain Westward expansion
Politics (1860 to 1914) William Dean Howells (1837 to 1920)
Promoter of local color fiction and realists
The Rise of Silas Lapham (1885)
Stephen Crane (1871 to 1900)
Maggie, Girl of the Streets (1893)
The Open Boat
Kate Chopin (1851 to 1904)
The Awakening (1899)
Henry James (1843 to 1916)
Americans vs. Europeans
The Americans (1877) Summary Introduction
Eastern narrator inquires about a man named Rev. Leonidas Smiley at a western mining camp
Simon Wheeler knows a man named Jim Smiley
Rising Action
Jim Smiley is a man who loves to bet
Specifically bets on animals who are "underdogs"
Trains a frog named Daniel Webster to jump and bets on him with a stranger
Stranger fills Daniel with quail shot
Falling Action
Stranger wins the bet and makes off with the money
Jim tries to find the stranger but cannot locate him
Simon Wheeler is called to the front yard
Narrator leaves Simon Wheeler By Vicki Armstrong Early Years Born on November 30th, 1835
Florida, Missouri
Two-room rented shack
John Marshall and Jane Lampton Clemens
Samuel Longhorne Clemens - "Little Sammy"
Seven siblings
Fourth son
Sixth child
Four survived to adulthood Father
Merchant and a lawyer
From Virginia
Stern and unsmiling character
Died on March 24th, 1847 of pneumonia
Always "of a sunny disposition" Parents Orion Clemens Pamela Clemens Henry Clemens Birth Childhood Middle Years Late Years (1867) Advice for Little Girls (fiction)
(1867) The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County (fiction)
(1868) General Washington's Negro Body-Servant (fiction)
(1868) My Late Senatorial Secretaryship (fiction)
(1869) The Innocents Abroad (non-fiction travel)
(1870-71) Memoranda (monthly column for The Galaxy magazine)
(1871) Mark Twain's (Burlesque) Autobiography and First Romance (fiction)
(1872) Roughing It (non-fiction)
(1873) The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today (fiction)
(1875) Sketches New and Old (fictional stories)
(1876) Old Times on the Mississippi (non-fiction)
(1876) The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (fiction)
(1877) A True Story and the Recent Carnival of Crime (stories)
(1878) Punch, Brothers, Punch! and other Sketches (fictional stories)
(1880) A Tramp Abroad (non-fiction travel)
(1880) 1601: Conversation, as it was by the Social Fireside, in the Time of the Tudors (fiction)
(1882) The Prince and the Pauper (fiction)
(1883) Life on the Mississippi (non-fiction)
(1884) Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (fiction)
(1889) A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (fiction)
(1892) The American Claimant (fiction)
(1892) Merry Tales (fictional stories) (1893) The £1,000,000 Bank Note and Other New Stories (fictional stories)
(1894) Tom Sawyer Abroad (fiction)
(1894) Pudd'n'head Wilson (fiction)
(1896) Tom Sawyer, Detective (fiction)
(1896) Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc (fiction)
(1897) How to Tell a Story and other Essays (non-fictional essays)
(1897) Following the Equator (non-fiction travel)
(1900) The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg (fiction)
(1901) Edmund Burke on Croker and Tammany (political satire)
(1902) A Double Barrelled Detective Story (fiction)
(1904) A Dog's Tale (fiction)
(1905) King Leopold's Soliloquy (political satire)
(1905) The War Prayer (fiction)
(1906) The $30,000 Bequest and Other Stories (fiction)
(1906) What Is Man? (essay)
(1907) Christian Science (non-fiction)
(1907) A Horse's Tale (fiction)
(1907) Is Shakespeare Dead? (non-fiction)
(1909) Captain Stormfield's Visit to Heaven (fiction)
(1909) Letters from the Earth (fiction, published posthumously)
(1910) Queen Victoria's Jubilee (non-fiction, published posthumously)
(1924) Mark Twain's Autobiography (non-fiction, published posthumously)
(1935) Mark Twain's Notebook (published posthumously) Moved to Hannibal when he was four
Poor but happy
Best friend was Tom Blankenship
Did not like church
Loved reading and was good at spelling
Went to John Quarles' farm every summer
Stayed in school until age fourteen
Printer's apprentice at the Missouri Courier
Began working at the Hannibal Journal during the spring of 1850 Characteristics
Plausible: tries to match the world closely
Character is of utmost importance
Control their own destiny
Ethical choices
Natural speaking patterns/regional dialect
Mostly regarding middle class
Turning away from Romanticism
Limited use of symbolism Historical Events The Alamo (1835)
Trail of Tears (1838)
Texas is annexed (1845)
New Mexico is annexed (1846)
Irish Potato Famine (1846)
Women's Rights Convention in Seneca Falls (1848)
Gold Rush (1849)
The Plague (1850)
Republican Party Formed (1854)
Abraham Lincoln becomes President (1861)
Civil War (1861 to 1865)
13th (1865) and 14th (1868) Amendments
Alaska is bought (1868)
Spanish-American War (1898)
Hawaii is annexed (1898)
The Wright Brothers (1903)
Model T (1908) Narrator from the East visits a western mining camp
Inquires about a man named Rev. Leonidas Smiley for his friend
Simon Wheeler knows about a Jim Smiley
Jim Smiley liked to bet on everything
He usually won
Bet on things like:
A man's sick wife
A "lame horse"
His bulldog named Andrew Jackson
Died after losing a fight
Found a frog - Daniel Webster
"Taught it how to jump"
Bets on Daniel with a stranger
Stranger fills Daniel with quail shot
Jim discovers what the stranger did after losing the bet but cannot find the stranger
Simon Wheeler is called to the front yard
Narrator tries to slip out
Wheeler returns and begins to continue his story
Narrator leaves Spring of 1853 - set off to see the world
St. Louis - setting type for the Evening News
New York - print shop
Philadelphia - compositor for the Inquirer
Spring of 1854 - moved back to be with family
Keokuk, Iowa
Worked for Orion's print shop
Began writing for the Keokuk Post under the pen name of Thomas Jefferson Snodgrass
Later moved to St. Louis, Chicago, and Cincinnati
February of 1857 - boarded a steamboat to New Orleans Setting Out Living on a River Heading Out West Going Abroad Family Life Financial Ruin The Dark Years Death Taken under the wing of Horace Bixby, pilot of the Paul Jones
Became a cub pilot on the Pennsylvania
Found Henry work as a clerk
Sam was transferred to the A.T. Lacey after a quarrel with the chief pilot
The Pennsylvania's boilers blew up and she sunk
Approximately 150 people died
Henry was badly injured
Slipped into a coma and died
Spring of 1859 - received his official riverboat pilot's certificate
Earned $250 per month
Civil War began - commercial traffic on the Mississippi River ceased
Sam joined a small Confederate militia called the Marion Rangers
Was elected second lieutenant
Disbanded after two weeks July 26th, 1861 - left St. Joseph, Missouri
On the Central Overland and Pike's Peak Express Company stagecoach
Cost $300
Three weeks - Carson City, capital of Nevada Territory
Attempted to mine
Virginia City, Nevada - full-time reporter for the Territorial Enterprise
$25 per week
Eventually became editor - $31 per week
February 3rd, 1863 - took on the pen name of Mark Twain
May of 1864 - moved to San Francisco
Worked at the Morning Call for $40 per week
Went back to mining camps
Angels Camp, Calaveras County - heard a story about a gambler
Elaborated on this story and sent it to his friend Artemus Ward
Did not have enough money to go home
Artemus submitted his story into the New York Saturday Press
March 13th, 1866 - arrived in Honolulu
Writing about Hawaii for the Sacramento Union Europe
June 8th, 1867 - steamship Quaker City
$1,250 five month pleasure cruise
Met Czar Alexander II
September 10th, 1867 - journeyed from Beirut to the Holy Land by pack train
Nazareth, Bethlehem, Jericho, Jerusalem, Egypt
November 19th, 1867 - arrived in New York April 21st, 1910 - died at 6:22 pm
Was 74 years old
Stormfield - Redding, Connecticut
Buried in Elmira, New York
With wife, son, Susy, and Jean Clemens was spending $30,000 per year on household expenses
Made unwise investments
$25,000 each in a steam generator, a steam pulley, a marine telegraph, and twice that amount in an engraving process called Kaolotype
Attempted to patent his own inventions
His investment with James W. Paige left him bankrupt
Spring of 1895 - returned to the lecture circuit
Susy died of spinal meningitis while he was on tour
Eliminated all debts after publishing Following the Equator October 15th, 1900 - returned to New York
Moved into a furnished house at 14 West Tenth Street
Began speaking out on political issues
Did not support Clara's musical dreams
August of 1902 - Livy was struck by heart palpitations and asthma attacks
Went to Florence, Italy in hopes of helping Livy
Died on June 5th, 1904
Clara check herself into a New York sanitarium
Jean's seizures continued to worsen
Isabel Lyon took care of Clemens' needs after Livy's death
Jean attempted to kill a house worker twice and sent to a sanitarium
Clara left the hospital and moved back in with Sam
Relationship was rocky - turned towards his fans as a source of solace
Received an honorary doctorate of letters from Oxford University in 1907
Stayed in Bermuda while his home was being built in Redding, Connecticut
June 18th, 1908 - moved into his new home, Stormfield
Jean moved back home and she became in charge of the house
October - Clara and Ossip Gabrilowitsch married
December 24th - Jean died of a heart attack in the bathtub
Sam refused to attend the funeral and left for Bermuda
His angina worsened
Taken back to Stormfield in March Met Olivia Louise Langdon in the fall of 1868
Asked her four times to marry him
Married on February 2nd, 1870
November 1870 - Langdon was born
Died of diphtheria on June 3rd, 1872
Olivia Susan was born on March 19th, 1872
Clara Clemens was born in June of 1874
Jean was born in 1880
Wrote The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn during his daughters' childhood
They moved into their Hartford house in September of 1874
Daughters adored their father, but were often frightened by him Works Point of View
Frame Narrative
First Person Setting
Gold mining camp - Angel's Camp
Middle of the 1800's Tone
Disinterest Characters
Man from the East
Simon Wheeler
Seemingly uneducated
Jim Smiley
Likes to bet
Is trusting despite his own tendency to "deceive" others
Cheats Jim out of winning the bet Conflict
Man versus man Motifs
East versus West
Competition Allusions
Andrew Jackson
7th President
Was known to be a fighter
Daniel Webster
Was a lawyer, Senator, and Secretary of State
Opposed Andrew Jackson Diction
Educated versus uneducated Similes
"...his under-jaw'd begin to stick out like the fo'castle of a steamboat..."
"...the next minute you'd see that frog whirling in the air like a doughnut..."
"...Dan'l give a heave, and hysted up his shoulders - so - like a Frenchman..." Parenthesis
"(Here Simon Wheeler heard his name called in the front yard, and got up to see what was wanted.)" Dramatic Irony
The readers knew that Daniel had been filled with quail shot while Jim did not Satire
Tall tale
Outwitted Anthropomorphism
"Ornery," "genius," "'peared surprised"
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