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Child Labour during the Industrial Revolution

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Kelly Lee

on 1 June 2013

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Transcript of Child Labour during the Industrial Revolution

Child Labour in the Industrial Revolution Why did businesses and bosses exploit children and women? What kinds of conditions did children work
in? Conditions in the Mines Children worked jobs such as trappers, drawers and coal-bearers within the mines. Trappers pulled on a string to open trap doors whenever they saw coal carts approaching. Drawers had heavy chains around their waists to pull carts of cut coal to the surface. Graph of Child Labour The graph shows the number of children at work in 2000 and 2004. There are two groups, one for ages 5-14 and the other for ages 15-17. The grey bars show the amount of legal children at work, while the orange represents non-hazardous child labour and the blue represents hazardous child labour. In 2000, a little over 200 million children were at work and half the amount involved jobs where children were in danger. 4 years later, the bar has decreased to under 200 million. There are little to no non-hazardous jobs for ages 15-17 but there are also less of them working. Children were easy to exploit because they would work anywhere no matter how much they were paid and because they needed the money to support their families and for their own basic needs. Coal bearers were usually older kids and carried large baskets of coal on their back. Conditions in the Factories Laws Passed to Protect Children from Unfair Labour Practices Often subject to beatings as a punishment if they attempted to run away or worked poorly
In danger of gas explosions and tunnels collapsing when working in the mines.
Coal dust was unhealthy to be breathing in
If the child lived long enough to grow up then they developed lung problems Child Labour In Today's World Sweatshops Current Events Factory Acts Factory Acts Continued 1802 1831 1833 1842 1844 1847 1864 1867 *acts not enforced until 1833 Labour in Cotton Mills Act Factory Act Labour of Children in Factories Act Mines and Colleries Act no working at night for anyone under the age of 21 *pivotal act concerning effective legislation against child labour ages under 9 are banned from working in textile factories
ages 9-13 limited to 9 hour days, 48 hours a week ages 13-18 limited to 12 hour days, 69 hours a week ages under 11 were required 2 hours of education per day government factory inspectors were appointed and sent to enforce the act * the age 13 is when childhood ends, under the age of 13 were children, 13-17 were young people and 18+ were considered adults Factory Act Fielder's Factory Act Factory Act Factory Act children under 18 or women began to work 10 hour days women and children under 10 were banned from working in the mines no one under 15 could operate winding gears legislation began to aid in improving the conditions in factories
one of the first acts to regulate conditions in factories 8 years old became the minimum age for working in a factory 8-13 year old kids worked 6 and a half hours at most on weekdays while it was a maximum of 6 hours on saturdays previous regulations now covered factories besides those involved with textiles and coal mining all factories with more than 50 workers now fell under the regulations The Demand of Child Labour Children were a cheap source of labour that allowed companies to stay competitive
Managers saw that children were advantages to have in their factories because they were obedient and responded to punishments fast
Kids with smaller hands than others were great to keep so they could clean the machines and because the machines were made closely to the ground
Industrial Revolution created working situations where they could be very productive Children as young as 6 worked around large heavy equipment for up to 19 hours a day with little- no breaks. The temperature of the room was unbearable for kids of that young of age. Bibliography Why did so many work? http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/tuttle.labor.child.britain
children were considered 'young adults' if they were working and so companies were allowed to employ children as young as 6 years old
the most common explanation for the increase in supply was poverty
families were struggling and children had to work to support their family Explanations for Child Labour What did they earn? For up to 16 hours of work the children earned up to $1.50 http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/40-survivors-found-still-trapped-in-collapsed-building-in-bangladesh/article11541822/
http://www.dosomething.org/tipsandtools/background-sweatshops The children were dragged out the door to the factories, (sometimes with no clothes!) because they couldn't be late for work. They had to get that extra dollar to keep their family just above the poverty line. "We went to the mill at five in the morning. We worked until dinner time and then to nine or ten at night; on Saturday it could be till eleven and often till twelve at night. We were sent to clean the machinery on the Sunday." Man interviewed in 1849 who had worked in a mill as a child. "The smallest child in the factories were
scavengers. They go under the machine,
while it is going. It is very dangerous
when they first come, but they become
used to it." -Charles Aberdeen worked
in a Manchester cotton factory, written
in 1832. Few breaks during their work day of 10-12 hours
Little to show for their labor as they were paid low wages.
Suffered from malnutrition due to the lack of nutrition in the food they were fed Quotes Fire in Bangladesh in November 2012 Collapsed Factory in Bangladesh in April 2013 Common Punishment A common punishment for coming late or not working up to par would be "weighted". The supervisors would tie a weight to the child's necks and they would have to drag the weights up and down the isles of the factory for up to an hour. This way the children would take by example. Being "Weighted" Safety The machines caused injuries deaths, illnesses, and disease. Arms, legs and fingers were easily caught by the machines. The supervisors had no sympathy for the children. They were physically and verbally abused. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/children_industrial_revolution.htm
http://www.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=43529 Video from the 18th century Education The children were very limited in education. The family needed the children to work the long hours for income. The lucky ones only went every few weeks. The children would get extremely exhausted during the afternoons. The supervisors whipped the children to keep them awake. Conditions in Sweatshops low wages failed to meet basic living needs
it was an unsafe environment to be working in and overtime equaled to no extra pay
children were often receiving their money late from their bosses
if children left early without finishing their job they were often beat or wouldn't get paid for the month Products made in Sweatshops shoes
rugs What did workers want? Workers wanted enough to meet their basic living needs which could also help them plan for a better future. They wanted to be educated about their rights and their local labour laws. They wanted to be treated with respect from their bosses and for everyone to hear their ideas. toys
etc event left at least 110 people dead
the 8 storey building had only 3 storeys officially approved of
building lacked emergency exits and evacuation plans * Bangladesh is the second largest exporter of apparel.
Some companies that relied on materials from Bangladesh were:
Disney workers had been told that the fire alarm was only a drill; they were forced to continue working
gates were locked and they were trapped
only those on the 4th floor and above had a chance to jump to safety; the rest died in the flames left at least 230 people dead supplied materials for companies such as Wal-Mart and Joe Fresh cracks had been reported on the walls a day before the collapse instructions to evacuate were ignored and the workers were assured that the building was safe to work in a 5 storey building had been approved but the building was 8 storeys high before the collapse
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