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Copy of Chapter 2 Rizal

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Roderick Gatdula

on 16 September 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Chapter 2 Rizal

By: Lou Iris P. Lausingco

Chapter 2:
The 19th Century World of Jose Rizal

Is a sense of loyalty or psychological attachment that members of a nation share, based on a common language, history, culture, and desire for independence (Jackson & Jackson, 2000)
It is a feeling that drives people together as a nation. It is love of country expressed in devotion to advocacy of national interest and independence

Nationalism

The growth of nationalism can be attributed to two major revolutions of their century:
American Revolution of 1776
(gave birth to the United States of America)
And
French Revolution of 1789

(led to the overthrowing of the absolute rule of the Bourbon Dynasty and the abolition of the feudal system)

Both Revolutions gave birth to the idea that an individual’s loyalty has to be to his nation not to the king

Nationalism
is one of the
radical ideas
in the years after 1815,
which influenced the modern world tremendously

3 points that stand out in Nationalism

-It has evolved from a real or imagined cultural unity, manifesting itself in a common language, history, and territory
-Nationalists have usually sought to turn this cultural unity into political reality so that territory of each people coincides with its state boundaries
-Nationalists believed that every nation has the right to exist in freedom and develop its character and spirit

McKay et al, 1995


While nationalism can foster national unity, progress, and independence, it also has a negative side

The ideas of national superiority and national mission can lead to aggressive crusades and counter-crusades

It can also stress differences among people

The development of nationalism in the Philippines was very slow. Loyalty to the nation only began after the unjust execution of the GOMBURZA on February 17, 1872

The rise of the spread of LIBERALISM and DEMOCRACY was actually a consequence of the growth and development of nationalism (Black, 1999)

Liberalism’s principal ideas: liberty and equality
were first realized successfully in the American Revolution and then achieved in part in the French Revolution


Liberalism demanded representative government as opposed to autocratic monarchy, equality before the law as opposed to legally separate classes

The idea of
liberty also meant specific individual freedoms:

freedom of the press; freedom of speech; freedom of assembly; and freedom of arbitrary arrest

Democracy became a way of life in many European countries, like Britain, Belgium, and Switzerland

Democracy was gradually established thru the following means:

-promulgation of laws that advance democracy
-undertaking of reforms thru legislation
-abolition of slavery; adoption of a liberal constitution
-providing the citizens the opportunity to propose laws
-adoption of manhood suffrage
-granting of political economic and social rights to the people

Optimism and confidence in progress can be gleaned from the achievements of men in the 19th century. Notable among these were the following (Capino, 1977):

-Extension of human rights to many people
-Promotion of higher education for men and women
-Education for nationalism in schools
-Investment in science to serve mankind
-Improvement of public health thru the establishment of numerous hospitals; and
-Emergence of realistic literature, depicting the life of the time

Optimism or faith
in society and man’s ability to progress was brought about by the advancement of science, the coming of steam-powered industry, an the spread of liberalism and socialism (Chodorow et al, 1994)

The
optimism of the century was summed by Marquis de Condorcet in his work, Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind.

He saw that “the strongest for believing that nature has set no limit to the realization of our hopes” and foresaw “the abolition of inequality between nations, the progress of equality within nations, and the true perfection of humanity. Progress was now independent of any power that might wish to halt it and it will never be reversed.”

Western expansion had far-reaching consequences. For the first time in human history, the world became in many ways a single unit. Moreover, European expansion diffused the ideas and techniques of a highly developed civilization.

Yet, the West relied on force to conquer and rule and treated non-Western elites, armed with Western doctrines, gradually responded to Western Challenge.

They launched a national, anti-imperialist struggle for dignity, genuine independence, and modernization.
Colonized peoples, therefore, started to assert their right to
self-determination
or the right to choose the kind of government under which they would live.

Resurgence of Western Imperialism

In the 19th century, the industrializing West entered the third and most dynamic phase of its centuries-old expansion into non-Western lands. In doing so, these Western nations profitably subordinated those lands to their economic interests, sent forth millions of immigrants, and political influence in Asia and vast political empires in Africa.

The reasons for this culminating surge were many, but the economic thrust of robust industrial capitalism an ever-growing lead in technology, and the competitive pressures of European nationalism were particularly important.

German, French, and English scientists were at the forefront of this revolution and abroad, explorers, archeologists, and anthropologists scoured all parts of the world for new discoveries

Unfortunately, however, Spain was at the backwater of this scientific upheaval and this was felt by
Rizal himself when he left the Philippines, feeling that his education in the colony was inadequate.

He eventually left Spain for more advanced studies in Germany and France to improve his competencies as a physician.


Effects of science revolution spilled to the challenging of traditional beliefs in religion and politics.
A belief emerged that the Church is not the sole source of knowledge but everyone can be capable of achieving knowledge and challenging the old established belief as long as this could be scientifically explained, replicated and validated.

The scientific revolution gained headway in Western European countries like Germany, France, and England, which became centers of learning in the 19th century.

Its universities and society became free market places of ideas, characterized by a large degree of intellectual freedom that is unhampered by religious dogma and superstition.

Triumph of science and technology’s 3 significant consequences:

-Everyday experience and innumerable scientists impressed the importance of science on the mind of ordinary citizens.
-Philosophical implications of science spread to broad sections of the population. Technical advances led the people to develop optimistic faith in man’s capability to achieve progress.
-Methods of science acquired unrivaled prestige after 1850. for many, the union of careful experiment and abstract theory was the only route to truth and objective reality.

Breakthroughs in industrial technology enormously stimulated basic scientific inquiry. The result was an explosive growth of fundamental discoveries were increasingly of better scientific knowledge into practical benefits was evident in biology. Medical sciences, physics, and chemistry.

19th century was the time for the expansion of scientific knowledge.
This means that search for knowledge and truth could be explained by a rational and empirical approach. This was the result of the Age of Enlightenment during the 18th century when blind belief and dogma were challenged by the principle that everything could be explained by reason.
This resulted in the development of the scientific method.

The
socialists
assert that the government has to control vital industries and resources. This is necessary in promoting equality of opportunity and people’s welfare in society

The
communists
on the other hand suggests that all factors of production be owned and controlled by the government. Equality in society can be achieved if social classes are destroyed and dictatorship of the proletariat (masses) is established

The
Catholic Church
calls for humane treatment of workers, respect for worker’s rights, and social justice for the poor

In the Philippines, it caused the displacement of the farmers from their lands

To solve the evils created by the industrial system, different measures were proposed by concerned sectors of the world society (Doreen, 1991)

For the
liberals,

laissez-faire policy

or government’s non-interference in the conduct of trade and business has to be sustained for the continuous expansion of the economy

-Beginnings of individual capitalism
-Fostering of liberalism and nationalism
-Encouragement of people’s mobility

There were also
negative effects
which are as follows:

-Widening of the gap between the rich and the poor
-Unending economic warfare between labor and capital
-Pollution and other environmental problems
-Beginning of child and women labor
-Intensification of imperialistic rivalry between and among industrialized countries


The invention of machines and their use in manufacturing brought about significant changes in people’s lives

Some of the
positive effects
brought about by this development include the following:

-The rise of the factory system
-Mass production of essential and non-essential goods
-Improvement of people’s standard of living
-Greater urbanization of society
-Beginnings of specialization or division of labor
-Invention of labor-saving devices

Marquis de Condorcet

One of the most crucial developments in the 19th century
was the
Industrial Revolution
(Stearns et al, 1991)

The Industrial Revolution refers to the transformation of manufacturing brought about by the invention and use of machines

This development started in England and later into Belgium, France, Germany, and even the United States

Many advancements happened during the 19th century and from this chapter, we should learn that there is always the positive and negative side of developments.

Conclusion
Full transcript