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Priyanka Gunjikar

on 26 August 2013

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Transcript of ecology

Flora and fauna
Cross section showing
Aversa and Lakkundi
Lakkundi is located in the Gadag district of Karnataka. It is 11km from Gadag in East, and 14 kms from Dambal to the West. It is on the way towards Hampi.
It is known for 50 temples, 101 step wells and 29 inscriptions spread over Hoysala, Chalukyas, Kalachuris, and Seuna dynasties.
It has major Kannada speaking population.
The town derives its name from two words namely Lokki -Gundi where Lokki is a name of a white flowering tree abundantly found in this area and Gundi means a pit i.e. a low ground.
Lakkundi is geographically located in the south Deccan plateau dry deciduous region; which can be observed form its vegetation pattern.
climate, topography and soil
social hierarchy
•Lingayats(The big house with oil pressing, The kumbhars):
•Mohmedian- the Nadafs and the Pinjars
•Brahmans( agricultural labourers)
•Kurubaru(cattle rearers and blanket(ghongdi) makers)
•Waddar(pig catchers)
•Hindu Vishwakarma
•Purohit (Brahmans who preach)
Aversa is a coastal village located in the Uttar Kannada region in karnataka.
It is a region of heavy rain fall.
5.6 km distance from main town ankola
33.4 km from the city karwar
Sakalbend,hattikeri,belikeri,harwada,bedigeri form a panchyat.
climate topography and soil
Coastal aversa
3000-4700mm annual rainfall
Monthly temperature of 25-30deg C
January: 22-25deg c
May-june:33-38deg C
flora and fauna
GEOMORPHOLOGY: granite, kaddappa, schist(grey, brown and green) and sandstone, red loamy soil, black cotton soil.
(Peethkanti, Vedaraghu)
Is near water.
Insect feeding
Communal nesting
Close to water bodies
Feeds on small reptiles and fish
Indian Roller/
Blue Jay
Disinfects field by feeding on insects.
Rids grazing cattles of flies, ticks, lice, leeches.
Cattle Egret
Large Grey Babbler
(Gosavi, Satbhai)
White breasted kingfisher (khandya)
Blue tailed bee eater
Asian Palm Swift
The flora and fauna of an area indicate factors such as the water availability, food chain, availibility of construction materials and their interdependence
Prominent fauna include goats, sheep, cattle, pigs etc.
Soil characteristics - : Shallow, well drained, calcareous, cracking, clayey soil.
Used for extensive agriculture, range of horticultural crops, grazing of native pastures
•Agriculture/ agricultural products -
•Kumbhars make pots either manually or on wheel
•Lohar A metal which uses scrap metal to make agricultural equipment
•Borewell also made in the area
•Handloom for workshopmaking goats hair shawls for the dhangars
•Powerlooms which make sarees
•lime kilns
•basket weaving
•sheep rearing
•general stores
•Hotels including lunch homes, pan shops, general stores and tapirs are present along the highway to cater to the needs of the travellers.
Food and clothing
The food is relatively spicy in this region.
•bhakri(bajri and jwari) is the main diet
•Brinjal, gram, legumes, potato,beans etc.
•Kadak Bhakri(lasts for 2 months, thus used by farmers)
•Jawas/Karalachi Chutney
•Bhaaji generally has coconut, onions and jawas
•Girmit(puffed rice delicacy)
•Brinjal and mirchi Bhaji
•Gawthi kombdi, dukkar, bail
•Keti chai
Festivals -
•Shravan mela
•Ganesh chaturthi
•Lakkundi utsav
•200 kg grains running race.

Yakshagana performances form part of the entertainment
Women engage in making gajras at home, since horticulture is practiced on a large scale. This activity increases during festival time.

Bands of red oxide are painted on a house with a newly married couple.
TRADITIONAL COTTAGE INDUSTRIES- now extinct due to introduction of new technology –girni, handlooms, cold pressed oil, wood carving, mud houses.

•Working out of village in city (gadag) as labourers, shop workers
•Make their own sewaya
•The village now depends on oil coming from the city, thus oil is no longer produced in this village itself as processing isn’t done here even if oilseeds are grown.

•Tuesday local market: sell locally grown vegetables.
•Sell affordable items
•Most of the sellers are from the village. Only a few come from outside.
•Potato and clothes comes from outside.
Due to the location of Aversa, we can find rich biodiversity here.
Hoysala dynasty was a prominent South Indian Kannadiga empire that ruled most of Karnataka from 10th-14th century. Hoysalas were originally hill people of Malanad, Karnataka; an elevated region in the Western Ghats of Karnataka.
In 12th century, taking advantage of the warfare between the western Chalukyas and the Kalachuris kingdoms, they also took over present day Karnataka.
Since Hoysala dynasty had its basic industries flourished all over Karnataka, Lakkundi could’ve been on the way in the trade route between Belleri and Goa; as Belleri was the capital of the Hoysala dynasty. Hoysala had trade and contacts with Chola, Shera, Magada, Malaya, Nepal, Arabia and Persia.
During the time of Hoysala dynasty, Lakkundi was a township under the king Veer Ballala, at this time people were not allowed to use the basic resources like drawing water from the step well without the permission of the ruler.
At this time Lakkundi was established as a ‘tanakashala’ meaning a (gold) mint.

150 yrs before the independence, after the fall of the Hoysalas, 5 villages namely, Somankatti, Jowalbenchi, Yekundi, Budhiyaal and Pura, came together an inherited the rich land of Lakkundi. The town then had around 100 step wells that were open to public use.
2 harvests per year.
Kharif: wheat, jowar
Rabi: moong, chana, green,red, and black gram, oilseeds and groundnut
Horticulture: Chrysanthemum, Aboli, Zendu, every house has a people working in garland making.
Plucking flowers is also a skillful task.
Export to Pune, Mumbai,
Jedhar lakshmi cotton variety.
Farming is organic using cowdung as manure in some places.
Green leafy vegetables, corn, toor, toori, cucumber and sugarcane were also grown in this region.
Water for irrigation was through borewells.
The government is providing subsidies for machinery for sowing seeds and harvesting and also the labour available in the village is less, thus most farmers are now using machineries rather than the traditional methods.
Lime kilns
Wind farms
Sonar / goldsmith
Used to traditionally make ‘lungis’ dhadi panje, responsible for polycotton sarees.
The lungi is worn on auspicious occasions (red border) Demand in Maharashtra, Karnataka and tamil nadu.
Woven on the throw shuttle pit loom during ‘61 and before.
Used pure cotton (No BT cotton).
300-400 handloom units.
15 -30 Rs/- labour charges in its glory.
After electricity came to the village (15 years back) the handlooms became obsolete.
Powerlooms came into existence-
- Import yarn from Bangalore.
Mochi / shoe maker
Shilpi/ stone carvers
Cattle rearing
Blanket handlooms (ghongdi)
lohar / blacksmith
Potters / kumbhar
1. These soils have been derived from rocks like granite, gneiss, sand stone, basalt and shale.
2. They have a characteristic movement of clay from surface to sub surface, transforming into a well developed, compact alluvial or a diagnostic argillic horizon which hampers downward movement of water.
3. They have richer moisture content in sub-surface than in surface but higher moisture capacity of lower horizons is of limited use as it is compact and hard to be penetrated by plant roots to exploit sub soil moisture and nutrients
Red soils
The coastal areas laterites soil are formed either from the rocks like Dharwad schist or peninsular gneiss under high rainfall and high temperature conditions.
This region has a horizon or sandy clay loam in texture and B horizon gravelly clay loam to clay loam.
They are high in organic matter and respond well to liming, manuring and other management practices.
This soil suffers from problems like excessive gravelly texture, crust formation and susceptibility to erosion due to natural higher slopes.
Laterite Soil
These are situated between the Western Ghats and the Arabian sea. Coastal alluvial soils are found in the coastal region and have the following characteristics.
1. These soils are coarse textured sands and are often modified by the tidal action of sea and by wind blown sand.
2. They are generally low in organic matter.
4. They are moderately well drained to poorly drained which is often influenced by relief and inundation.
Coastal alluvial
Gaud Saraswat Brahmins: initially traders of spices like pepper ,nutmeg, .rice , beetal nut ,coconut and other forest produce. Currently they are the land lords. Currently they own businesses such as quarrying.
Daivadnya Brahmins are the gold smiths. Currently only 2 families are there.they are out of work at present.
Kharvis are the fisher folks.
Aagers are the Harijans, now involved in paid labour.
Kumar panths are lingayats who work under gsbs who are landlords.
Gowdas are the hallakki vakkaligas gather timber and other forest produce .

• Karvar mahotsav
• 14th jan maker sankranti: 1008 kalash chadavtat
• Ashwin shuddha pornima: 15000 ppls come her…6 kulanna jevayas detaat.
• Diwali
• Tulsicha lagna( 2nd day ) jatra: dahi handi la.; all GSB ppl come together and set a kannada drama.
• Navratri
• Dassra
• Yaksha gan : series of stories without any language to communicate, people come from managalore for this.
• Ganesh chaturthi
Food and clothing
The river belikeri was a sea route and a trading route which form a major transport route along aversa.
GSBs were initially involved in trading.
Hallaki vakaligas resided in the forest region before GSBs came.
Around 300 years ago,after goa was occupied by portugese,to avoid conversion to Christianity ,the gsbs of this region took up the sea route and entered aversa through the river belikeri.
They settled on the banks of hattikeri.
Before gsbs jains resided in this area.(lakshmi narayan temple)
The daivadnya bramhins, goldsmiths who were dependent on gsbs also came in with them.
Bhandaris came from goa with gsb who were practicing carpentry.
Majority of the people are kshatriy kumar panths.
These were the worriers from the bijapur district. Previously lingayats.they had come to goa to fight for the kadamba rule after which they settled there. They didn’t go back to their native places thus when the gsbs moved southwards they came along with them.
The hallakki vakaligas are however the original inhabitants of this land. And depended on the forestry (wood cutting, natural produce like fruits, vegetables etc)
Initially the houses of this region were made up of thatch i.e grass n coconut leaves n the wood available in the vicinity as well as the existing mud.
Later mud sundried mud blocks and pot tiles were used.Owes its use to the local potters.Who now reside in belikeri keni and have now changed their occupation owing to the advancement in roofing system(manglore tile )and other reasons.
Before gsbs came jains use to handle the administration of the festivals. Earlier encroachers (gsb) now became the administrators of the region.
Katyayni baneshwar history: after the gsbs started shifting southwards they decided to bring their goddess deity along with them as aversa had become their permanent residence now. They were aided by the kharvis to get the idol of KATYAYNI BANESHWAR along the sea route according to a fable while the kharvis were getting the d idol along the sea route, the boat upturned upside down. Therefore the form of the temple is boat upside down.
Arabian sea
Malabar coast moist forest
Moist deciduous forests
Montane rain forests
Moist deciduous forests
Dry deciduous forests
Scrub forests / thorn forests
CLIMATE:Lakkundi has a tropical hot and dry climate. Summers are hot and dry, lasting from late February to early June. They are followed by the monsoon season, with moderate temperatures and a little amount of precipitation. Temperatures are fairly moderate from late October to early February, with virtually no rainfall.
Flat roof with mud insulation
Thick stone, mud walls
•Gaud Saraswat Brahmin (5%)
•Daivadnya brahman: sonar (5%)
•Aambi (fishermen)
•Kumar pant(labourers)(55%)
•Aager(harijans) and Bhandari (10%)
•Kunabis(Tribal folk living in forest areas)
Padti (10%)

Hallaki gowda: they are labourers but initially tribal/agricultural that too.
Kumbhar :pottery

Social heirarchy:
Sloping roof
Larger openings
Laterite, timber members with larger spans
Mud used for walls in form of cob / mud bricks
Clothing -
Men wear lungi, light coloured vests, dhotis, turbans.
Women wear light coloured sarees.
Clothes aim to keep away the heat and maintain good ventilation.
2 harvests per year.
Kharif: wheat ,jowar
Rabi: moong, chana, green,red, and black gram, oilseeds and groundnut
Horticulture: Chrysanthemum, Aboli, Zendu
every house has a people working in garland making.
Jedhar lakshmi cotton variety.
Green leafy vegetables, corn, toor, toori, cucumber and sugarcane were also grown in this region.
Lukki (Lengundi / trifolia linn)
Magpie robin
Small bee eater,
Paradise flycatcher
Brahminy kite, Tawny eagle
Red vented bulbul, Narad bulbul
Small sunbird,
Scarlet minivet
Malabar coast Hornbill,
Large grey Hornbill
Pond heron
mild almost sweet food with a lot of coconut
mostly rice, idli, sambar, and diet rich in coconut
tambdo phove
shev bhaji
fish curry
til gud
Fish types -
Clothing -
Females wear cotton saris.
Men wear cotton lungi n vest.
Apart from the birds found in Lakkundi, others are -
The trees being taller, large span timber is available for construction
Aversa is spread over 1134 acres.
The village started settling along the river Belikeri.
The houses are on the height level than the pathways and farm land
Actual topography of the village is maintained, just pathways are dug and sloped towards the main drainage and main road.
Pigmi(micro finance):An organization called Nishka goes to every ones house to collect 10 to 50 rupees every day. The money is stored by the bank to reduce their pressure in loan returns on a long term.
Current condition
Wells and tanks in this area existed which supplied water to the entire village
Ground water level was high 50 years back (25 - ft deep)
The reservoir in the village, was used for drinking water, but now used for washing only.
The river Tungabhadra, is dammed 45 km north to this village – aquifers
Its existence may have caused the decline of the groundwater. Thermal and hydropower in Tungabhadra Krishna.
Step wells dried and converted into ruins.
Ground water level declined with the increase in the no. of bore wells dug. Now people need to dig 100 ft deep for water (eg. borewells for crops like sugarcane and cotton dug in almost all fields.)
Government has made provisions to supply water, but it is saline.
Only the well to do people get water from the ESR. The socially and economically backward classes depend completely on these.

Governence :
Restoration undergoing under ASI 7 temples are declared as heritage sites.
This region has a gram panchayat.
A museum has been made called the ‘Lakkundi Heritage Centre’ to provide information about the heritage temples and wells present in this region by the government. The excavation work for the same is done using the masons from the village. For excavations more than 2 ft, a police officer must be called as this region was earlier filled with gold which are dug during these excavations.
Current situation
This region has a gram panchayat. The panchayat has 11 members, two of which include the President and Vice-President. It also includes 1 Development Officer.
The current ruling party in this region is Bhartiya Janata party.
Each backward class family gets rice of 30 kgs per month for 2 rs/kg.
Mass Housing: SEABIRD port has erupted on the coast of Belekeri, the people living in this area have been relocated to the ourskirts of the city (Sakalben). Here they have been given RCC houses. Although the houses have a framed structure the traditional roofing system is still maintained.
Infrastructure:There are 4 schools in Aversa including 1 Balewadi/Aanganwadi. Students are offered afternoon meals by the government here. It also has 1 degree college.
Aversa does not have any government hospital. The nearest hospital is in Hattikeri (2 kms from Aversa). Although, 3 private hospitals are present in Aversa.
The nearest veterinary hospital is in Sakalbend.
Although each household has a well , Government has provided water supply, with its tank placed in Sakalbend.
Government has also introduced electricity in Aversa since the last ten years. This comes from Balegudi hydro electric power plant.
Provisions for good sanitation like toilet facilities have also been provided. The sewage from the same is treated individually in every household either by using the septic tank system or gobar gas plant.
There are two quarries near Aversa which is quarrying aggregates for houses.
Government has started housing schemes to convert the Kaccha houses to Pukka houses. Indira Awaas is one such government scheme which provides the people below poverty line with Rs 75000/-, a bank loan of Rs 20000/- with an interest of 4% over 40 years and takes Rs. 5000 from the household to construct a RCC house. Gudi Sarwasi was another such scheme.

This has a devastating effect on the traditional architecture of the region. Since Mud houses are identified as "kuccha", the indigenous architecture and building technology is dying rapidly.
Ration: Rs 150- complete ration including sugar, rice, wheat and one soap. This changes with the number of people in the house. Each person gets 4 kgs per month for 3 rs/kg.
Housing: People above poverty line get rs 50,000 and a loan of rs 10,000
Below poverty line including SC/ST- get 75000 rs. The government provides a concrete module which must be followed in order to make the pukka housing. The gram panchayat decides whether a family could rebuild its house.
Yojanas for pukka housing: 1. Basawa Niwas 2.Ambedkar yojana 3. Indira awaas yojana.
Below poverty line fertilizers and seeds are provided for free.
There are 3 schools( only girls, only boys and co education which are from 1st to 12th std)
The children are offered afternoon meals and are also given 4 kgs of rice per person per year.
There are 4 Balwadi/aanganwadi.
20 years ago electricity and toilet systems were introduced by the government.
A few houses have toilets with septic tank and soak pit as there no drainage system.
They had to pay rs 5000 for the toilets to be built.
Syndicate bank located on the national highway touching this village provides loans and stores investment on the villagers.
Open Sewer lines carring waste from bathrooms and morri were present and directed towards the east along the natural gentle slope.
Only one physical health centre in this village. Pregnant women get medical facility. The government gives rs 700 on delivering a baby. Girl child gets 1 lakh. Marriages are funded by government.
A veterinary centre is also present on the outskirts of the village. It caters to buffaloes, cows, sheeps, goats and pigs. The general diseases include fever and leg pain. These problems aggravate during the rainy season bringing about 40 cases to the vet centre. The vet treats these cases for free being a part of the government scheme. One must pay for the injections given. And in case of serious diseases the animals are sent to Gadag. Earlier these treatments were done using Ayurveda.
There is one NGO.
Water comes once in four days through a water tanker which fills water into the ESR. They have to pay 40-50 rs per month to get this supply.
Electricity is present for 24 hours unless repair works are happening.
There are 200-250 borewells constructed by the government.
Rigbore costs about rs 20000-50000 depending upon its depth.
Government has made open public toilets mainly for the females.
Samuhik vivah happens in a stadium in Gadag.
Context - Satellite map
Evergreen, fast growing. Sheds leaves in drought.
The neem tree is noted for its drought resistance. Normally it thrives in areas with sub-arid to sub-humid conditions, with an annual rainfall 400–1,200 millimetres (16–47 in). It can grow in regions with an annual rainfall below 400 mm, but in such cases it depends largely on ground water levels.
Medicinal properties.
Traditional use in Chaitra and Gudi Padwa
Forage and fodder for cattle, poultry
The tree grows well in full sun in clay, loam, sandy, and acidic soil types.
Medicinal properties.
Tamarind heartwood used for furniture, flooring.
Used as a traditional polish for brass and copper.
Found towards the Western Ghat region.
Fast-growing sources of wood, producing oil that can be used for cleaning and as a natural insecticide, or an ability to be used to drain swamps and thereby reduce the risk of malaria.
Are also criticised for being "invasive water-suckers".
Very tall. So, used for large spans in construction.
Primarily a sea side shrub, but found in Lakkundi perhaps due to its topography.
White flowers, used as offering to Hanuman.
The Malabar coast moist forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of southwestern India.
It lies along India's Kankan and Malabar coasts, in a narrow strip between the Arabian sea and the western Ghats range, which runs parallel to the coast.
the western Ghats intercept moisture-laden monsoon rains, especially on their westward-facing mountain slopes
This is a high forest type with dominant deciduous species, which are mostly pronounced light demanders reaching up to a height of 30-35 m
the evergreen habitat is mostly met with in this type which confines to the lower storey
given the forest as a whole a more or less evergreen appearance most of the year, but their frequency of distribution is far too less
. The chief feature of the moist deciduous forest is a leafless period in the dry season.
During this season, the upper canopy is almost entirely leafless though there is often a good sprinkling evergreen in the undergrowth and shrub cover.
Buttressed trees are rare and fluting is common. Cauliflory is rare. Evergreen species are mostly confined to the under storey.
Trees are mostly with cylindrical bole and the bark peels off in flakes. Bamboos are quite frequent in natural condition.
Fire is almost an annual phenomenon thus inhibiting this forest from reaching the climax stage.  
The Central Deccan Plateau Dry Deciduous Forests make up a large ecoregion that is neither exceptionally species-rich nor high in numbers of endemic species.
In a region characterized by a high human population density and the presence of several large vertebrate species.
the presence of large natural habitat areas is both unusual and important.
These large habitat blocks have been recognized as high-priority landscapes for a long-term tiger conservation strategy therefore, makes a contribution to a regional tiger conservation strategy.
the dry forests in this ecoregion have an upper canopy at 15-25 m and an understory at 10-15 m.
Major crops: Rice(harvested in the 1st week of jan), Pulses, Groundnut(jan-march), Plantation and Horticultural crops
Coconut and beetle nut.
Jackfruit, breadfruit
Nutmeg (Jaiphal)
(Indian rosewood)
Red silk cotton
Used in cooking
Structural roof members, furniture, musical instruments like veena, mridangam etc.
Native, climber.
Spice - black pepper, white pepper and green pepper.
medicinal properties.
Structural members
However, due to use for construction, the monoculture is harming ecological balance.
Used as Toran.
Used traditionally for Furniture, doors
Cuisine - The Seed is used as a flavour, The mace covering the seed is also used.
Cooking - Fruit and flowers
Used as plate for meals
Fibres used for cloth making
Paper production
Capability to extract heavy metals from water.
Medicinal uses.
Cooking, dry fruit.
Manufacture of Urak and Feni.
Various parts of the plant are used for medicinal purposes, as food, as a source of clothing fibre, as a building material, and as a dye.
Durable under water. Hence, used to make canoes, lighweight boats
Grows in saline soils
Crooked, so not used as beams.
Used for ship building
It is best timber, as it has strength, durability and compactness. It hardens with age.
Used as charcoal.
Vinayak Desai's house
Section AA'
Nadaf house
Section BB'
Section AA'
The Nadafs house had a cattleshed at the entrance and the verandah was used as their workspace- making garlands.
Details of Padti house at the kharvi wada
Padti house at the kharvi wada
Ager house 2
Ager house
lingayat house 1
Mohri -used for bathing
Water storage tank
lingayat house 2
This house previously had cold pressing oil technology. Now there is an extension added to the house.
choolah for cooking
Space for cattle
Space earlier used for cattle, now used as seating
Unlike the other houses, this house had timber boardings and had detailed carvings on structural members
section DD'
previously used for fodder for cattle,
now used as a storage area for onions
Roof detail
section AA'
section CC'
section BB'
Mechanism for extracting oil from oilseed
using bullocks
The lower level area was used for oil extraction, whereas the higher plinth was the living area
House with cattleshed
Section AA'
Section BB'
This house had a long entrance passage which housed the cattle and the immediate room was the living area followed by the kitchen.
This house had two verandahs, one at the entrance and the other one near the storage room was shaded
Section BB
Section AA
Mud and stone plinth to keep cool. Space for keeping footwear and storing.
add door photo and skylight pic
Farmers house
This house had three brothers , with their families, so each room was a separate house.
Each room had a separate choolah, while the room at the entrance was used for storage of water.
water supply
Roof sagging
The passage
Section AA
Section BB
Section CC
Section EE
Section FF
Section DD
Priyanka Gunjikar roll no.23
Musharaff Hebballi roll no. 24
Dhruvang Hingmire roll no. 25
Maitreyi Marlewar roll no. 35
Anushree Tendolkar roll no. 57
Namrata Toraskar roll no. 60
Resources, lifestyle and architecture.
Priyanka Gunjikar roll no.23
Musharaff Hebballi roll no. 24
Dhruvang Hingmire roll no. 25
Maitreyi Marlewar roll no. 35
Anushree Tendolkar roll no. 57
Namrata Toraskar roll no. 60
Resources, lifestyle and architecture.
Choosing villages, in different topography and ecological context, and studying the architecture
Studying the primary linkages with major cities
Resource management
Settlement pattern- village layout, natural features
Impact of the neighboring cities
Direction of development
Socio economic layers
Geo morphology
Analyze sustainability basis of a culture through sustainable architecture and lifestyle

Paddy bird
Indicator of water logged area.
Controller of insects.
Standing immobile as if in meditation, that is why it is know as bakdhyan.
Habit of flicking the tail like a horse therefore known as ashwak.
Known as Dayal because it signifies a black bird splashed with curd.
Visit flowering erythrina, salmalia, butea, trees for nectar
Cross pollination follows
Insects are also eaten.
Winter visitor keeps to well wooded country.
Found near forest water holes.
Also Called as makhamali kotwal because it fearlessly attacks birds of pray, when nesting, thus offering protection to while mannered bird.
Rarely found in kokan and malbar
Pollinating bird, pest controller
Captures apparently invisible bees from the air.
Flight is an aerobatic sally on outstretched wings.
In spite of disturbance the bird returns to the same perch and hence it is called deaf parrot(Bahira popat).
Self excavated holes in the earth-cuttings on the hillocks, uneven ground, sand banks.
Winter migrant
Its also called surangi and swargiy nartak
Nest side in the crotch in a bamboo clump or thorny tree.
Catch winged insects, partial to bamboo clumps ,shady well watered palm, mango groves, forest streams.
Found in entire region near water body
Nesting period depends on rains.
Scavenger of waterside refuse.
Predates lizards, crabs, birds , fish.
Scavenger and predator
Sanskrit name ragpakshi means the one who becomes jealous of others having a booty.
Frugivorous and nectar seeking forest bird found above altitude 700m.
Keeps to ever green and humid forests.
Causes seed dispersal of berries and cross pollination.
It is also called paryantika means wanderer bird descriptive of restless activity of bulbul.

Because of the shimmering colour its called surya pakshi
Keeps to moist deciduous area.
Old nests are reused if available.
Helps cross pollination
Forest canopy bird
Also called fiery red bird.
Males are scarlet, females are bright yellow
Priyanka Gunjikar roll no.23
Musharaff Hebballi roll no. 24
Dhruvang Hingmire roll no. 25
Maitreyi Marlewar roll no. 35
Anushree Tendolkar roll no. 57
Namrata Toraskar roll no. 60


On the basis of social hierarchy & hence the utilities, the following changes were observed in the architectural planning & materials :
Upper-class Lingayat houses had timber members from teak, neem, bamboo while the lower class houses usually had locally available timber like neem, bamboo etc. which were unprocessed. Also the capitols were intricately carved in well-off houses as opposed to just a tree bark in the lower class houses
The houses comprised of composite edge walls of stone & infilled with long stretches of sand to prevent the thieves from escaping.
The front-yard usage differed according to the occupation of the dwellers; well off houses comprised of huge katta facing the access road with storage underneath while the economically weaker sections had houses with occupational arrangements like potter’s wheel, cattle rearing, storage, handlooms etc. Also in some houses provisions were made for oil extraction with the help of cattle & hence the huge column/pole-free area inside the house.
Harijans were given a completely separate area for their dwellings which was around a kilometer away from Lakkundi.
Also the lower caste houses were placed on the north-eastern end of Lakkundi wherein the land sloped and also the wind blew towards north-east.
Initially the houses of this region were made up of thatch i.e. grass & coconut leaves, locally available wood as well as the existing mud.
Later mud, sundried mud blocks and pot tiles were used due to its use to the local potters who now reside in Bellikeri, Keni and have now changed their occupation owing to the advancement in roofing system(Mangalore tile) and other reasons.
The well-off GSB’s have houses with entire laterite load bearing walls while the economically low people have Laterite framed with mud-cob walls & timber poles.
In GSB housings, the verandah outside the Pradhan Darwaza comprised of kattas to enable interaction with the lower-caste people. The social discrimination against Agris’ was seen by their denial to enter the GSB front-yard; incase an Agri accidentally enters the front-yard there was a ritual of splatterring cow-dung of the Agri’s footstep.
Since the Brahmins refrained from non-vegetarian diet & the proximity of the sea, which resulted in fishing as the major occupation, the GSBs’ who settled in Aversa had an exclusive otta in their backyard to enable them to cook fish.
Traditionally “kudal” was used by the ladies which resulted in the spaces around the house.
The locals in Aversa are stubborn when it comes to caste related occupations; for example: inspite of the economic needs, the Devete Brahmins refrain from changing their occupation of jewellery making.
The village is opting for borewells as a source of water in the summers and is now gradually dependent on bore wells for most of the year. This has a severe effect on the ground water table, thus magnifying the severity of droughts in summers.

Due to the ration and water supply system, the people of the village are gradually starting to be completely dependent and are deferring from the traditional lifestyle. This endangers their future self - sustainability.

The yojanas like the Indira Awas Yojana may have been started with the noble intention of providing affordable housing to the rural poor, but its effects on the traditional architecture are disastrous., because -
As in terms of income, a majority of the rural population can be called 'poor', they are eligible for applying for the benefits of the Yojana.
The Yojana recognises only the RCC and brick structures as "pukka", while the traditional mud / bamboo houses are termed as "kuccha" and ineligible for the scheme.
As a result, the traditional architecture and building technology is being wiped off completely throughout India.
Consequently, there has been a large scale conversion of the building materials to concrete. Thus, the common man is by default forced to depend on processes that require a factory setup and cannot be self - reliant. At the same time, the profits of the cement, aggregate mining and processing industries curiously increase manifold.
The question thus is simple - who should the government cater to?

Education given in the village is urban - centric. No vocational training with respect to agriculture or related occupations is offered, thus indirectly resulting in migration.

The Government's efforts to 'develop' the villages, by building toilets, are also causing more harm than good. The collected waste is not treated well and dumped in unhygienic conditions around the village, many times near the lower caste residences of the village. This can pose as a serious health hazard. As opposed to this, the traditional system of defecating in the fields is not only more 'eco-friendly', but also provides for fresh organic manure for the crops.

The current Government policy is aiming to acquire as much land in and around the village for the sake of tourism. The excavated temples have been assigned heritage status and festivals such as the Lakkundi festival have been promoted for tourism development. This will wipe off the traditional architecture completely and also the ecology of the area. So, it needs to be questioned that, is the architecture of the temples and step wells, built as a result of a feudal and exploitative system, for the greed of a single ruler only be classified as heritage? Or is the traditional dwelling of the common man, his lifestyle also an ecological and architectural heritage we should strive to preserve?
Fishing near the coastal region of Konkan is turning increasingly commercial. As a result, mechanisation and large scale processing is used. This not only endangers all aspects of traditional fisherman's life, but also threatens extinction of certain species of fish. As a result, the balance of the ecosystem is disturbed, which can be indicated by the dwindling numbers of fishing birds at the apex of the marine food pyramid.

In the village, there is still a feeling of rigidity of the caste system.

The Gaud Saraswat Brahmins, who are primarily non - native to the region, are at the apex of a near - feudal exploitative system, where the majority of the village consists of landless labourers. And at the same time, they consider the locals, who are in reality experts in farming and gathering "backward" and still engage in caste discrimination. Certain aspects in the architecture, such as the "Pradhaan darwaja" are testimony to this fact.

The Indira Awas Yojana has been wiping off traditional architecture in this region, too.

The villages nearby are also affected by the Government policy of concretising all houses. For example, in the village of Ghule, a few kilometres away from Aversa and situated in a thick moist deciduos forest, there is not even a single traditional dwelling left.

Quarrying for making aggregates for concrete, for housing and roads, is on the rise. Kamat, an enterpreneur, is carrying out quarrying in Aversa. This has a devastating impact on the ecology of the area.
Analysis -
Analysis -
Krishna kunj is the biggest wada in Aversa. About 22 people resided here in its 17 rooms. As this house was built in 1948, after independence, the structural system used processed timber and conventional construction methods making this house from the other houses in this region.
This house is about 150 years old. It is a framed structure with laterite columns and mud walls. It had a unique structural system to support the roof which show the advancement in timber technology because of the abundance of wood in this region. This house also had its traditional storage system of storing items in a matka embedded into the wall intact.
This was a very old house of an agricultural labourer belonging to the Padti caste. It was made with material available in the same compound as that of the house with the available material around. The house was partially made in mud and the remaining in sliced bamboo. The roofing system of this house was done using the traditional thatch.
The Ager wada was on the eastern side of Aversa, right next to highway. This house was comparatively small compared to the houses of the GSB, evidently showing caste differentiation. It was made with mud. Agers are considered to the people from the lowest caste which was reflected in their house.
This house was big compared to the other Ager houses seen in this region . Also, it had a tulsi plant in its front yard and a toilet which were not seen in other Ager houses. The house was made in mud with a conventional roofing system.
Bedroom /
store room
Lakkundi is a low lying area with respect to the city hubli.
Settlement planning
The village is divided into small sectors
which are on the higher level than the main highway.
A sector is divided with a ridge for drainage slope down
towards north east
Lakkundi - Lukki + Gundi (Owing to bowl shaped topography)
Section aa'
The Fisherman's house was a small structure made using timber posts as columns, woven dried coconut leaves as walls and the conventional roofing system. The plinth was made using laterite stone at the periphery and filled with mud. The temporary nature of this house was as the fishermen would use it only at night for sleeping being out for fishing the entire day.
Kharvi house
We thus studied the architecture of two regions with contrasting ecological context, helping us understand the close connection between ecology and the built form.
Also, during travel, the gentle changes in the landscape observed also helped in the study of topography with respect to the various forest types.
Architecture, as a direct response to climate, topography, social context and the lifestyle of the villagers was documented and analysed. The process helped us to understand the complex links between humans, environment - all through the lens of architecture.
The development of a village from a "khedi" to a "gram" and the potential future development into towns and cities was also mapped through studying the settlement patterns of the villages, and also the surrounding villages, towns and cities.
This helped us realise that even while designing a small dwelling, an architect needs to be one with the immediate context and intervene in a way that will be the most efficient for the environment, in terms of resource base, energy use, maintenence, integration with the user's lifestyle; and most importantly rejuvenating an individual's bond with his environment - his "soil"...
Also, in a planning perspective, it will help us in defining "development" with a wholesome outlook.

Hornbill has a casque, bony structure on top of its bill, which is light and hollow and enables it to resonate through dense jungle habitat.
Its habitat is open woodland and cultivation, often close to habitation. It generally builds its nest on tall trees. (Calophyllum tree which is hundreds of feet high)
 Fig forms an important part of its diet.
Indian Grey Hornbills usually nest in tree hollows on tall trees. 
The common grey hornbill is fairly abundant in localities where there are plenty of papal and other species of wild-fig trees, upon the fruit of which it feeds.
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