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Music History

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Alexa McCleaster

on 2 September 2014

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Transcript of Music History

Music History
Musical Texture
-Monophonic - single voice texture
(Gregorian Chant)
-Polyphonic - When 2 or more melodic lines
are combined.
-Counterpoint - the art of combining in a
single texture 2 or more
simultaneous melodic lines,
each with a rhythmic life of
its own.
-Homophonic - single line melody with chord
Music of the Renaissance
Statement and imitation - additional voices restate
parts of the original melody
echoes exactly or in
Canon - when one voice imitates another
consistently for a relatively long span (call
and response)
Counterpoint - use of 2 or more simultaneous,
independent lines or voices.
Contrapuntal Devices
Imitation - self explanatory

Canon and round - repeating consistently

Inversion - turns the melody upside down. Follows the same intervals but the opposite direction.

Retrograde - plays the melody backwards, starting with the last note and ending with the first.

Retrograde inversion - melody upside down and backwards.

Diminution - melody is presented in short time values, thus diminishing the time it takes to be played.
Church Music
- Catholic authorities in Italy and Spain viewed music as seductive and profane. Therefore, not wanting it in church.
- Protestant reformation (Martin Luther) was breaking tradition and using songs that congregation could sing together.
Latin Mass
Kyrie Elaison ("Lord Have Mercy")
Gloria in Excelsis Deo ("Glory be to God on High")
Credo ("I Believe")
Sanctus ("Holy, Holy")
Agnus Dei ("O Lamb of God")
Romantic Period
Composers used their music to express emotions and imagination
Unlike Classical period, there were no restrictions on length of piece, number of movements, or the types of instruments used.
Because of no restrictions, there is no set Romantic style. Everything is different.
How to determine Romantic period music:

- Wider dynamic range - softer softs and louder louds

- Wider range of sound - greater variety of instruments and different combinations of instruments.

- Melodies are longer, more lyrical, more dramatic, and more emotional.

- Extreme tempos - from very fast to extremely slow

- Harmonies are fuller with more dissonances.

- Chromatic tones more common.

- In longer pieces, formal structure is expanded.

- Greater technical virtousity.

- Greater use of native or folk melodies.
Franz Schubert
Hector Berlioz
- 1803 - 1869
- French
- Best known for symphonies
- Took expansion of the orchestra to extreme. (1 piece called 1,000 performers)

- Symphonie Fantastique
- Romeo and Juliette
-Born January 31, 1797 in Himmelpfortgrund and died November 19, 1828. He died of typhoid fever.-Austrian composer who bridged the worlds of Classical and Romantic music, noted for the melody and harmony in his songs and chamber music.-He composed his First Symphony (1813) for the school orchestra.-His output in 1815 alone included 144 songs, a symphony, two Masses, and many other works.-His first full-length opera, Des Teufels Lustschloss (The Devil’s Palace of Desire), was finished while he was at the training college.-Franz Schubert is best known for his lieder (German art songs for voice and piano) during the nineteenth century.
Schubert's early instrumental works, which follow the patterns used by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Joseph Haydn, are marked as romantic by a new sonority and a harmonic and melodic richness. In his early piano sonatas, Schubert worked to free himself from the influence of Ludwig van Beethoven. Although he cast his symphonies and sonatas in classical outlines, in their development sections these works rarely achieve the dramatic tension that is the core of the classical sonata form; instead they tend to emphasize expansive melody and evocative harmonies. Schubert's instrumental works show development over a long period of time, but some of his greatest songs were composed before he was 20 years old. In Schubert's songs the literary and musical elements are perfectly balanced, composed on the same intellectual and emotional level. Although Schubert composed strophic songs throughout his career, he did not follow set patterns but exploited bold and free forms when the text demanded it. His reputation as the father of German lieder ("art songs") rests on a body of more than 600 songs.
Pyotr llyich Tchaikovsky! And why he was importante...(important)!
-His mother died when he was only 14 and he went to a military boarding schoolit wasn’t fun.
-He was gay but he did marry a lady! But it didn't work out, for obvious reasons.
-He was very insecure and hated himself a lot. His music reflected that.-He wrote a wide range of symphonies, operas, and ballets.
-He wrote some of the most popular and cool sounding music like The Nutcracker and Swan Lake.
-The intensity of personal emotion now flowing through Tchaikovsky's works was entirely new to Russian music.-He pursued a musical career against the wishes of his family.
-Tchaikovsky's music was often dismissed by American critics in the early and mid-20th century as being vulgar and lacking in elevated thought, but it was recognized by the end of the 20th century.
Clara Schumann
-Born September 13, 1819 in Leipzig, Germany
-Died May 20, 1896 in Frankfurt, Germany
-Was famous for writing: Four Polonaises (for piano); Piano Concertino in F minor; Piano Trio in G minor, Op. 17; Piano Concerto in A minor, Op. 7
-Romantic 1820-1910
-Her dad was a music teacher, and her mom was a pianist and soprano.
-Her first musical appearance was when she was 9.
-Studied voice, violin, score reading, and composition, among other musical things.
-Married Robert Schumann in 1830, who was also a composer and musician.
-Wrote a total of 66 musical pieces, mostly piano.
Bedrich Smetana
-Known for bohemia nationalism.
-Born in 1824
-Son of a master brewer
-His career was interrupted by a self-imposed exile in Sweden.
-Best known opera was "The Bartered Bride." -His operas have enjoyed international success -Also wrote two string quartets
-G minor piano trio
-Two short pieces for violin and piano
-Died in 1884
The best known of Smetana’s works is the cycle of symphonic poems Má vlast (‘My Country’). It comprises six movements, of which ‘Vltava’ (‘River Moldau’), which follows the historic course of the river as it flows towards Prague, is the most frequently heard.
Frederic Chopin
Born in Zelazowa Wola 1810, the son of French émigré and polish mother, Chopin won early fame in the relatively limited circles.He grew up in Warsaw and his musical education there,He was a child- prodigy. He supported himself as a composer and a piano teacher giving few publish performances. The great majority of Chopin's compositions were written for the piano as solo instrument; all of his extant works feature the piano in one way or another. Chopin's music for the piano combined a unique rhythmic sense (particularly his use of rubato), frequent use of chromaticism, and counterpoint This mixture produces a particularly fragile sound in the melody and the harmony which are nonetheless underpinned by solid and interesting harmonic techniques. Three of Chopin's twenty-one Nocturnes were published only after his death in 1849, contrary to his wishes.
Several melodies of Chopin's have become well known; because of their unique melodic shape they are instantly memorable and easily recognized. Among these are the revolutionary etude, The Minute Waltz and the third movement of Funeral March sonata, which is used as an iconic representation of grief. Interestingly, the Revolutionary Etude was not written with the failed Polish uprising against Russia in mind, it merely appeared at that time. The Funeral March was written for funerals, but it was not inspired by any recent personal loss of Fredrick’s
Although he lived in the 19th century, he was educated in tradition of Beethoven, Haydn, Mozart and cement’s: he used cement’s piano method with his own students. Three of Chopin's twenty-one Nocturnes were published only after his death in 1849, contrary to his wishes. He also endowed popular dance forms, such as the Polish Mazurek and the Viennese Waltz with a greater range of melody and expression. Chopin regarded most of his contemporaries with indifference, though he had many acquaintances who were associated with romanticism in music, literature, and the fine arts—many of them via his liaison with George Sand.
Chopin's music is, however, considered by many to epitomize the Romantic style. The relative classical purity and discretion in his music, with little extravagant exhibitionism, partly reflects his reverence for Bach and Mozart’s opus numberast opus number that Chopin himself used was 65, allocated to the Cello Sonata in G minor.
Chopin expressed a deathbed wish that all his unpublished manuscripts be destroyed. However, at the request of the composer's mother and sisters, his pianist friend and musical executor Julian Fontana selected 23 unpublished piano pieces and grouped them into eight opus numbers (Opp. 66–73). These works were published in 1855.Over 230 Chopin works survive; some compositions from early childhood have been lost. All his known works involved the piano. Only a few ranged beyond solo-piano music, as either piano concertos or chamber music
Chopin composed:•59 mazurkas•27 etudes (twelve in the Op. 10 cycle, twelve in the Op. 25 cycle, and three in a collection without an opus number)•27 preludes•21 nocturnes•20 waltzes•18 polonaises, including one with orchestral accompaniment and one for cello and piano accompaniment•5 rondos•4 ballades•4 impromptus•4 scherzi•4 sets of variations, including Souvenir de Paganini•3 ecossaises•3 piano sonatas•2 concerti for piano and orchestra
Richard Wagner
- 1813 - 1883
- wrote 13 operas and numerous other compositions.
-Besides his activity as a composer and a librettist, Wagner wrote an astonishing number of books and articles in fact about 230 titles.
-literary spectrum ranges from theories of opera to political programs.
-Undoubtedly one of the leading figures of the 19th century.
-Source of debate ond controversy.
-Over 10,000 books and articles were written about him when he died.
-German opera composer and key figure in the development of late romantic music.
-Streched the tonal system and used chromaticism for dramatic effect.
-Introduced the concept of leitmotif in his operatic plot development (reoccuring theme associated with a particular character, place or idea in the story.
-Famous for starting trend of dramatic music.
Robert Schumann
- 1810-1856
- Got a late start to playing piano
- Physical right hand difficulties forced
him to quit and turn to composing.
- Married Clara - the couple pursued
their musical careers together.
- Famous for Piano concertos.
The Renaissance (1450 - 1600)
- Mainly Italian influence
- paintings and scultures have nudes.
- Famous artists
- Donatello (1386-1466)
- Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
- Michelangelo (1475-1564)
- Raphael (1483-1520)
- Other important people
- Martin Luther (1483-1546) - reformed Lutheran Church
- Galileo (1564-1642) - Astronomer
- William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
Renaissance Music
- Mostly vocal like middle ages
- Gregorian Chant - single line melody
- A Cappella - vocal music with no instrumental
Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)
- Italian composer
- helped develop Madrigal
and opera.
Baroque Period
4 main composers

- Purcell - England
- Vivaldi - Italy
- Handel - Germany/England
- Bach - Germany
Instrumental Music
- Supported vocal music by accompanying the singers or doubling their notes using a drone.
- Used for dance music.
- Often improvised with no notation.
- Divided into soft (bas) for indoor instruments and loud (haut) for outdoor.
Slide Trumpet
Music History Timeline
| | | | |
Middle Ages | Renaissance | Baroque | Classical | Romantic | 20 Centrury and Jazz
| | | | |
1450 1600 1750 1825 1900
Middle Ages/Medieval
- Most musicians worked for the church.
- Music was needed to enhance church services and praise.
- Most musicians were in holy orders and would compose the needed chants or sing in the choir.
- Monasteries used music a lot. Mass everyday.
These services were sung.
Many chants were needed.
- Monks were music scholars.
1600 - 1750 (death of Bach)
Term derived from Portuguese Barroco meaning a pearl of irregular shape.
Strong bass line and lots of notes.
Baroque Period
Antonio Vivaldi (1680-1743) Italy
Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687) France
Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683-1764) France
Henry Purcell (1659-1695) England
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) Germany
Georg Friederich Handel (1685-1759) Germany
Composers of Baroque
Started as an artistic movement dictated by the Roman Catholic Church.
Culture of Baroque era was slowly but steadily becoming more secular.
Baroque continued
Baroque era can easily be identified by architecture.
Architects manipulated interior spaces to be more plastic and flowing than ordered Renaissance spaces.
Using stucco, created free-flowing and elaborate decorations.
This type of architecture is dominant in churches of the day.
Baroque Architecture
Baroque architecture
More realistic and more dramatic than art in the Renaissance.
Cloth and skin textures were more detailed.
Anatomy was physically precise and faces reflected individual personalities.
Gave a sense of movement and energy.
Rembrandt, Johannes Vermeer, Peter Paul Rubens, and Anthony van Dyck.
Baroque Art
Baroque Art
Development of the orchestral instruments we use today.
Wind instruments included flute, clarinet, oboe, bassoon, trumpet, and French Horn.
Strings included violin, cello, and double bass.
Keyboard family: pianoforte (predecessor to the modern piano) and harpsichord.
Piano - strings are struck when keys are played to create the sound.
Baroque Instruments
Harpsichord: strings are plucked when keys are played to create sound
white and black keys are opposite of the piano
Theme - when a musical idea is used as a building block in the construction of a composition.
Theme development - musical expansion of the theme.
Musical Form
Inventions of this time period
1608 - Telescope
1610 - Tennis
1611 - Rifle
1624 - Submarine
1625 - Public carriages (public transportation)
- Umbrella
- Table knives with round tips (sharp knives were outlawed in France to prevent murders during meals)
1642 - Adding machine
1653 - Mailbox
1656 - Pendulum clock
1657 - Watch
1666 - Billiards
1668 - Paper money
1671 - Calculator
1672 - Mirror telescope
1684 - Wallpaper, Screwdriver, corkscrew
1711 - Tuning fork
1715 - Mercury thermometer
1726 - Suspenders, rubber eraser
Composers' Life
- Composing was a job not a hobby
produced music their employers needed for specific occasions.
fired if employer was not happy.
- 3 kinds of places for employment
Aristocratic Court
Opera House (new and very few)
- Bach
Started as church organist
Became court musician
Returned to church as a composer and adminstrator
- Handel
Began as court musician
Later became important opera composer and promoter
- Church choir directors and organist were expected to compose their own music in the service.

- Music was to be different each Sunday.

- All copies made by hand.
- Women played active role in Baroque era.
music promoters
studied music
performed for enjoyment
career singing in operas
a few women composers
Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741)
- Born in Venice, Italy
- Father was a violinist
- Started training for priesthood at age 15
- Ordained at 25
- Appointed Master of Violins in 1703 of the Pieta.
Pieta is a school for orphaned or abandoned girls.
Appointed Music Director in 1716.
Vivaldi was very arrogant.
- Famous and made lots of money.
Did not spend money wisely.
Died very poor
- Last visit to Vienna, he died mysteriously.
- Was given a Pauper's burial.
A modest burial given by community to people who were too poor to pay for anything better.
Vivaldi wrote so much that there are many of his pieces that have never been heard.
- Many have not been heard again after their first performance.
- His music was influencial in Italy and all over Europe.
- Bach studied his concertos in great detail.
- Important contributor to the development of the concerto and Classical symphony.
George Frideric Handel (1685 - 1758)
- Born in Halle, Germany.
- Family was not musical at all.
- Father wanted him to be a lawyer and would not allow instruments in the house.
- He smuggled a small clavichord into the attic and practised secretly.
- Later studied organ with organist of nearby church.
- Learned organ, harpsichord, violin, harmony counterpoint, and composition.
- Handel's first job was organist.
- Moved to Hamburg to be violinist for an opera company and later harpsichordist.
- Produced his first opera when he was 20.
- Moved to Italy in 1706 to study Italian Opera.
- 3 years in Italy, wrote 2 operas, 2 oratorios, and 150 cantatas.
- First London opera, Rinaldo, was well received.
- Moved to London in 1712.
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
- Born: March 21, 1685, Eisenach, Germany
- Died: July 28, 1750, Leipzig, Germany
- Combination of first and second marriage: had 20 children. Only 10 survived.
- 4 sons became famous musicians/composers.
- Best known for skillful organ/harpsichord playing and masterful compositions.
- His father taught him violin and harpsichord.
- Came from a very musical family.
Pre-Historic Music consists of things such as:
- mimicking sounds of nature
- percussive sounds using sticks and rocks
- flutes made of wood and bones
Pre-History literally means before history.
We start to see proof of music existence in 4000 BC because this is when humans developed written language.
Some of the earliest known instruments were developed in Egypt:
- Harps
- Lutes
- Lyres
- Doubles Clarinets
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