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Human Body Systems

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Laura Lynne Frazier

on 24 May 2016

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Transcript of Human Body Systems

Human Body Systems
Human Body Systems
Skeletal System
Protects
Internal
Organs
Critically Think:
Describe how this system works with one other
system to perform a
specific function.


Bone Marrow

Soft connective tissue
found in spaces in bone
Parts
of the
Skeletal
System
Functions
Muscular System
Some functions

Muscle
Action
3 Types of
Muscle Tissue
Critically Think:
How does the skeletal system work with the muscular system?
How do
muscles work?
Involuntary
muscles
- Muscles not under your conscious control
• Ex: muscles used for
breathing & digesting food
Voluntary
muscles
– Muscles that are under your
conscious control
• Ex: Smiling, turning the
pages in a book,
walking to class
Red marrow
produces the body’s
blood cells
Yellow marrow
stores fat
(energy reserve)
Bones

Cartilage

Connective tissue that is
more flexible than bone
– Ex: nose, tops of ears,
ends of bones
Ligaments


Hold bones
together to form joints
1. Provides shape & support
2. Helps you move
3. Protects organs
4. Produces blood cells
5. Stores certain fat
Skull … protects the brain
Ribs … protect the heart & lungs
Vertebrae … protects the spinal cord
Femur … produces blood cells in the leg
Humerus … produces blood cells in the arm
Helps the
body move
Moves food
through the
digestive system
Keeps the
heart beating
Attached to
bones & move
bones using tendons
Connective tissue
attaching muscles to bones
Skeletal
Smooth
Striated,
or banded
Voluntary
Cardiac
Involuntary
Ex: Stomach
Inside many
internal organs
Found only
in the heart
Never gets tired
(unlike skeletal muscles)
Involuntary
Muscles move by
contracting, or
becoming shorter
Must work in pairs
One contracts,
the other returns to
its original length
Digestive
System

Critically Think:
Why is the digestive system so important for the human body?
Parts & Roles of
Organs
Functions
Breaks down food
into molecules the
body can use.
Molecules are absorbed
into the blood & carried
throughout the body
(by the circulatory system).
Wastes are eliminated
from the body
(by the excretory system)
Mouth
Esophagus
Stomach
Small
Intestine
Large
Intestine
Rectum
Eliminated
from body
Mechanical –
Physically breaking
down food

(teeth)
Chemical –
Breakdown of
molecules of food
(saliva)
Mechanical
and chemical
digestion starts here
Muscular tube connecting
the mouth to the stomach
Peristalsis -
moves the food
(muscle contraction)
Most mechanical
digestion takes place
Some chemical
with the help
of digestive juices
(enzymes & acids)
Most of the
chemical
digestion
takes place over 5-6 hours
Absorption of
nutrients from
digested food into
the bloodstream
Water is
absorbed into
the bloodstream
Remaining material
is readied for
elimination
from the body
Waste material
is compressed
into solid form
Respiratory
System

Why does
the body
need oxygen?
Functions
Path of Air
into the Body

Critically Think:
Describe how this system works with one
other system to perform a specific function.
Moves oxygen
from the outside
environment
into the body.
Removes
carbon dioxide and water from
the body.
Nose
Pharynx
Trachea
Bronchi
Alveoli
The diaphragm, a large dome-shaped muscle used
in breathing, moves downward on the inhalation and upward during exhalation.
Nervous
System

Functions
Parts
of the
Nervous
System
Types of
Nervous Systems
Path of
nerve impulse
Critically Think:
Explain how your nervous system might work
with your muscular system when you touch a
hot pan on the stove.
Receives
information
about what is
happening
inside & outside
of the body.
Directs the way your body
responds to
information.
Helps maintain
homeostasis.
Brain-
Major Organ

Nerves
(neurons -
nerve cells)
Spinal Cord
Central
Nervous
System
Cerebrum
• Interprets input from the senses
• Controls movement of skeletal muscles
• Complex mental processes (learning)
Cerebellum
• Coordinates muscle
actions & balance

Brain
Controls most
functions in
the body
Brainstem (medulla)
• Controls involuntary actions (ex: breathing)
Spinal Cord

Link between
brain & the rest
of the body
Peripheral
Nervous
System
Neurons
– Nerve cell that is specialized to transfer messages
in the form of fast-moving electrical energy
– electrical messages are called impulses
Stimulus
and Response
Circulatory
System
Function
Parts
of the Circulatory System
The Cardiovascular System
cardio=heart
vascular=blood vessels
Carries needed
substances to cells and carries
wastes away
from cells
Heart -
Major Organ
Hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout
the body
Blood Vessels
• Arteries
– Blood vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood away
from the heart and to the body parts.



• Capillaries
– Small blood vessels where materials are
exchanged between the blood and the
body’s cells (oxygen & carbon dioxide)
• Veins
– Carries oxygen-poor blood (w/carbon dioxide)
back to the heart (to be pumped out to the lungs)
Blood
• Blood is made of 4 components
(parts):
1. Plasma
– liquid part of blood




2. Red blood cells
– take up oxygen in the lungs and deliver it to cells
3.White Blood Cells
– the body’s disease fighters(part of immune system)
4. Platelets
– cell fragments used in forming blood clots (that make scabs)
Critically Think:
How does the circulatory system help with the digestive system?
By: Raechelle Berna
A concept map by: Raechelle Berna
Adapted by: Laura Lynne Frazier

1. alveoli: The tiny air sacs at the end of the bronchi in the lungs.
2. aorta: The main transporter of blood and the largest artery.
3. arteries: The blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away
from the heart.
4. atrium: The two upper chambers of the heart.
5. axon: The single, long strand that comes out of the other side of
the cell body.
6. bones: Give the basic shape to the body. An adult has 206 of
them.
7. brain: The main control center of the nervous system.
8. brain stem: The part of the brain responsible for controlling
vital functions such as heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure.
9. capillaries: The smallest vessels that connect the arteries and
the veins.
10. cell body: The main part of a neuron.
11. cerebellum: The part of the brain responsible for smooth,
coordinated movement.
12. cerebrum: The part of the brain responsible for learning,
reasoning, memory, and the senses.
13. circulatory system: The human body system that transports
oxygen and nutrients to the body, takes carbon dioxide back to
the lungs, and fights infections with white blood cells.
14. dendrites: The short strands branching out from the cell body
of a neuron.
15. diaphragm: The dome-shaped muscle found under the rib cage
which is important for breathing.
16. digestive system: The human body system that breaks down
food to be used throughout the body.
17. epiglottis: The flap of tissue that prevents food from entering the
windpipe.
18. esophagus: The muscular tube food passes through to get to the
stomach.
19. fracture: A break in a bone.
20. gallbladder: A storage sac that holds the bile produced by the
liver.
21. heart: The organ that pumps blood throughout the body.
22. involuntary muscles: Muscles that automatically do their jobs
without you needing to think about it.
23. joint: The place where two or more bones meet.
24. large intestine: A tube-like organ that absorbs water from food.
.

25. ligaments: Strong bands of connective tissue that holds the
bones in a joint together.
26. liver: Produces bile.
27. marrow: The soft tissue in the middle of a bone which produces
new blood cells.
28. muscular system: The human body system that causes
movement of the body parts and also helps with digestion and
circulation.
29. nervous system: The human body system that controls the
body's reactions to the outside world. It is the system that
controls the actions, emotions, thoughts, memories, sensations,
and senses.
30. neurons: Another word for nerve cells which carry messages
throughout the body.
31. nose: Where air is inhaled, filtered, warmed and moistened.
32. pancreas: Produces pancreatic juices used in digestion.
33. peristalsis: The muscular action which helps move food
through the esophagus and through the rest of the digestive
system.
34. plasma: One part of the blood which is mostly water and makes
up half the blood.
35. rectum: The place where solid waste is stored.
36. respiratory system: The human body system that provides
oxygen through breathing.
37. saliva: The secretion from the salivary glands.
38. salivary glands: The place where saliva is stored and then
secreted into the mouth.
39. skeletal system: The human body system that supports the body
and gives it shape, protects internal organs, and makes new
blood.
40. small intestines: A very long, coiled, tube-like organ that
absorbs the nutrients from food.
41. stimuli: Events or conditions that cause a living thing to react.
42. stomach: A j-shaped sac that stores and further digests food.
43. synapse: The gap between two neurons.
44. tendons: Tough bands of connective tissue that connects the
muscles to the bones.
45. tongue: The muscle that helps push food to the back of the
mouth where it is swallowed.
46. trachea: The windpipe.
47. veins: The blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart.
48. ventricle: The two lower chambers of the heart.
49. villi: Tiny finger-like structures that line the inner wall of the
small intestine.
50. voluntary muscles: Muscles that you can control consciously
Vocabulary
Learn More on this Interactive Site:
http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?lic=1&article_set=29673&ps=110
Joints

Four types of joints are: ball and socket, hinge, pivot, gliding.
3 Major
Parts of the
Respiratory
System
The Airways
The Lungs-
Major Organ
The Muscles
of Respiration
adapted by:
Laura Lynne Frazier

Human Body 101
http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/101-videos/human-body-sci
http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/jams/science/human-body/nervous-system.htm
http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/jams/science/human-body/skeletal-system.htm
http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/jams/science/human-body/muscular-system.htm
http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/jams/science/human-body/digestive-system.htm
http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/jams/science/human-body/circulatory-system.htm
http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/jams/science/human-body/respiratory-system.htm
which includes
https://www.superteachertools.net/jeopardyx/jeopardy-review-game-from-com.php?gamefile=http://www.superteachertools.com/jeopardy/usergames/Jun201024/jeopardy1276608704.txt#.VU0Nu_lVikq
http://kidshealth.org/en/kids/nsmovie.html
Full transcript