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The Last Loveparade

On 24 July 2010, a crowd disaster at the Loveparade Dance Music Festival in Duisburg, NRW, Germany, caused the death of 21 people. Many were injured and traumatized. Until today, no-one took responsibility.

Lopa Doku

on 15 April 2014

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Transcript of The Last Loveparade

The Last Loveparade, Duisburg, july 24, 2010
Input 1
Input 2
Input 3
The (approved!) "Event Plan": walled ramp and tunnels serve as both ingress and egress system.
If math would have been done
, it would have been clear that it would have lead to situations,
excessive queuing
, with
8-10 persons per square meter
, as was the case.
how did the disaster unfold
21 fatalities. They were 18-38 years old, and from Germany, Spain, Italy, China, Bosnia, The Netherlands, Australia.
Only 774 members
of the 1302 Security staff members showed up, although the number of 1302 would not have prevented the accident
No loudspeaker system
at the Terrain
Estimation: 245.000-470.000 would be at the Terrain together. Arrivals:
56.700-90.000 ppl per hr.
Expected: a combined in
and out flow of 145,000 ppl during peak hour
.(From Event Organizers own data)
(*Numbers: Keith Still Report)
entrance/exit-system could only process
43,788 ppl. p. hr
An hour later,
around 16h50
, they have only just exited the West-Tunnel.
They are now trapped in the massive crowd
at the bottom of the ramp, near the infamous Staircase, close to the Traffic Shield (source: Daphne, Loveparade2010doku.wordpress.com):
Meanwhile, in the streets of Duisburg, visitors are walking towards the Festival-terrain. A group of Friends from Osnabrück travel to Duisburg. They pass pass the crossing Düsseldorfer/Mercatorstrasse at 15h13
About 42 minutes later, at 15h55, they are patiently (!) waiting in the West-Tunnel, waiting to enter the Festival:
16h35, shockwaves
in the crowd are visible
: Video by Dirkbvb74; 16h35m32; duration: 00h00m41s

Video by Coolwojtek; 16h54m16s; duration: 00h02m41
These shockwaves, "Wellen-bewegungen" in German, match the theory of J.J. Fruin, Ph.D, crowd-management
"When crowd density equals the plan area of the human body,
individual control is lost
, as one becomes an
involuntary part of the mass.
At occupancies of
about 7 persons per square meter the crowd becomes almost a fluid mass.
Shock waves can be propagated through the mass sufficient
to lift people off of their feet and propel them distances of 3 m
(10 ft) or more. People may be literally
lifted out of their shoes, and have clothing torn off
. Intense crowd pressures, exacerbated by anxiety, make it
difficult to breathe
. The heat and
thermal insulation of surrounding bodies
cause some to be weakened and
Access to those who fall is impossible
. Removal of those in distress can only be accomplished by
lifting them up and passing them overhead
to the exterior of the crowd." (
Source: www.crowdsafe.com, J.J. Fruin, Ph.D, “Causes and Preventions of Disasters” published in “Engineering for Crowd Safety” 1993
In diagram, this is what happens:
While crowd density exceeds all safety capacity (2-3 ppl per m2: we see here 8-10 ppl per m2) , a Police-vehicle passes through the crowd between 16h50 - 17hours, intensifying the shockwaves:
Video by Real02 16:58:29 – 17:03:38 duration: 00:05:09
In this Video we can also see Officer S. making the recorded Notruf - call to the alarmnumber:
"Hello S. here. We have one dead person. One person is gone. Directly at the exit. At the exit, at the entrance to the Love Parade. One dead person, possibly two. Possibly two. Please, emergency doctor. We need an emergency medic."
At that moment, 17h02, two
future victims can be seen alive
in the video's made by eyewitnesses. In the screenshot of the multiperspective video, we see their backs only, for reasons af respect and privacy, but they are both identified as Dennis and Svenja.
(17u04m49) Two minutes after the emergency-call the first paramedics arrive:

(17h05) It takes precious minutes (till about 17h20) to clear the chaos:

17:09 Radio recording Jupiter 01 an 12/07
Dringend Sanitäter runter in den Tunnel. Dringend Sanitäter runter in den Tunnel.
Ja, ist verstanden.

17:09 Radio recording Jupiter 01 an Egon 10
Wir brauchen im Bereich der Rampe und Karl-Lehr-Tunnel dringend mehrfach Sanitäter. Uns kollabieren da reihenweise die Leute (...unverständlich ).

17:09 Telefonkonferenz
Ist die Meldung verifiziert, oder nicht?

Polizei: Bezüglich der Toten?


Nicht verifiziert.
Man spricht von 1 oder 2 Toten. Ich habe auch gehört, dass wohl Personen überrannt worden sein sollen.
Aber auch das muss erst noch geprüft werden.

Feuerwehr: Das Problem ist folgendes, ne,
wenn jetzt wirklich Leute tot getrampelt werden, im Tunnel, wir müssen jetzt massiv Entlastungsöffnungen schaffen
und da sehe ich eben nur die Chance da frei zu machen, nach oben hin, wir müssen die Leute irgendwie wegkriegen. (...)Der Süden geht kaputt. Das ist Druck ohne Ende und im Norden ist Platz.(...) Alle Rettungswege öffnen. Massiv die Leute nach oben bewegen.(...)
Radio-contact of the Policemen/Security of these min.s:
(17u12m30sec) Meanwhile, rescueworkers, Officer S. and many volunteers, members of the audience, work feverishly to rescue victims from the 'pile of persons'
Through the radio, Policemen/Security staff keep asking for help:
17:13 Radio recording
Jupiter 01 an Jupiter 25/07
Wir brauchen vermehrt immer noch Sanitäter auf der östlichen Rampe im unteren Teil. Das ist auch ein (...unverständlich ) Fraktur.
Ja, Jupiter 25/07, ist schon mehrfach über den Stab weitergegeben worden.

(17u14m09sec) The guy in the pink T-Shirt, taking the pulse of a victim, is one of the 'Osnabrücker' kids we've seen before. They were in the West-tunnel at 15h55, and ended up at the Traffic Shield. Their friend Eike (21) got injured so badly, that he died later in hospital.
(17u14m30sec) A group of at least 6 policemen arrive:
(17u18m58sec) About all victims can be reached, some are rescued, rushed to the hospital, for many it is too late:
Nine Minutes later, the Police Command Center is still not fully informed,
and believes the dead got killed by climbing and falling:

17:27 Telefonkonferenz
Vorab vielleicht, wir haben einen bestätigten Toten.
Einen, ich hatte gerade zwei gehört.
(...) Ok, wir haben jetzt
eine Meldung über 100 Verletzte im Karl-Lehr-Tunnel,

aber noch nicht bestätigt
und über Stabos von
zwei Getöteten durch Absturz, das ist unsere Meldung
. (... )
Ich darf noch mal eins sagen, weil mir gerade der Kollege F. STST Düsseldorf reingeangen ist, das kann natürlich ne total falsche Information sein. Es sei reingekommen 15-20 Tote.
Ich wiederhole das einfach nur, deswegen, Feuerwehr hat zwei Klettertote
, richtig?
Ja im Moment und jetzt aktuell 4 Reanimationen, wie es hier steht.
Feuerwehr: Also egal was, wir müssen
massiv vermeiden, dass diese Drucksituation noch mal irgendwo auftritt.
(17h29m42s) At this point the situation around the Staircase, at the bottom of the ramp looks like this:
meanwhile at the ramp:
many traumatized and injured
21 young persons lost their lives
Keith Still Report (PDF, English) : http://www.derwesten-recherche.org/2013/07/loveparade-die-geplante-katastrophe-das-still-gutachten-zum-download/
Criminologist prof. dr. Henning Müller: http://blog.beck.de/2013/05/26/loveparade-2010-gutachten-aus-england-katastrophale-enge-im-eingangsbereich-vorhersehbar
Will there be a courtcase yes or no? http://www.welt.de/regionales/duesseldorf/article117987606/Es-gibt-blinde-Flecken.html
2 multiperspective video's: http://www.youtube.com/user/jolievdk
My bookmarks: https://delicious.com/jolievdk/loveparade
LoPaDu: Not a tragic accident, but a crime: http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2010/07/love-j29.html
Lothar Evers DocuNews: http://docunews.org/loveparade/aktuell/
Petra Grünendahl: http://duisburgamrhein.wordpress.com/author/petragruenendahl/
Thanks and Credits
Based upon (though not strictly following) the painstaking synchronization work, done by the punctilious Lopadokuteam at loveparade2010doku.wordpress.com, the Report of Keith Still, the texts of Prof. Dr. Henning Müller, Lothar Evers, Questions provided by Herr Horst Engel and many, many anonymous others like: Bergomil, Bös, Caro, Conrad, Daphne, Felix, Franbu, Freddy, Gast123, Helge, Jenny, Jessie, Julius, Kai, LadyK, Loelli, Lopachron, Lothar, Marek, Martina, Micha, Moonsun, Nick, NN, Outsider, Pilsbierchen, Preif, Profiler1960, Rockangel, Rstockm, Shredder72, Suzon, TheCircle , Tobias, Twitgeridoo
The German authorities are still working on "official inquiries and investigations." German Criminologists (z.B. Strafrechtsprofessor Thomas Feltes) fear that the German law is too complex prove guilt. German law needs "individuelle Vorwerfbarkeit", and that will be very hard to prove.
See http://www.welt.de/regionales/duesseldorf/article117987606/Es-gibt-blinde-Flecken.html
Why is German Law so slow?
Discussion on the legal aspects of the Loveparade Duisburg case:
Warnings from Police Staff and Citizens were ignored:
At this moment,
Policeradio reports: "
Jupiter 12/07 an Jupiter 1
: 31 Kräfte melden Karl-Lehr-Straße im Tunnel zur Rampe kommt es zu
lebensbedrohllichen Situationen
auf Grund des Drucks, der von hinten kommt. Die Menschen werden da an die Mauer gepresst
." There was (obviously) no adequate response.
Full transcript