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Indus and Ganges river valley civilization

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genesis bahena

on 29 May 2015

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Transcript of Indus and Ganges river valley civilization

Indus and Ganges river valley civilizations
Started about 2500 B.C.E. along the south-western part of the Indus river.The largest city was Mohenjo-Daro,in present day Pakistan,and settlements stretched all along the river.The Indus and Ganges river valley is one of three early civilizations of the Old World and the most widespread among them covering an area of 1.25 million km.
Innovations
The Indus and Ganges river valley civilization
Tools
Constructed from bronze,copper, and iron.Clay was utilized for both art and tool manufacturing.
Weapons
Constructed from bronze,weaponry was not as advanced as it was in Mesopotamia society. Arrows were crafted,swords were not developed as isolated geography negated the need for advanced weaponry
Technology
Large irrigation systems and first civilization in the world to develop precise measurement of the weighing equipment.Most technology was used to aid in agriculture other trade technologies such as boats and carts were employed to facilitate trade
Inventions
Developed a measuring system and tools for measurement first and most precise of the time.
Writing/Literature
Vedas(oldest scriptures of Hinduism),writings on prayers,hymns,religious rituals,and philosophies.
Buildings/structures
Individual buildings for bathing and using the restroom,had an early sanitation system.Citadels were used for defense granaries.All houses had access to water,were about the same size,were made of dry bricks,and had either one or two stories.No large monuments or structures.
Physical Geography leading to development of civilization
Stretches across present day Pakistan,India,Bangladesh,Nepal,Sri Lanka,and Bhutan.
large area
Surroundings
Natural boarders consisted of mountains and the Arabian Sea,sheltering the civilization from attack and disease.Water fertilized and irrigated crops,proximity to the river allowed boats to become a viable transportation option.
Development of cities
from around 2500 to 1500 B.C.,well planned cities flourished in the Indus valley two such cities were Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.Mohenjo-Daro was the largest or two cities,the ruins how carefully it was planned.On one side of the city were the homes and workshops on the other side stood the public buildings.The city's highest point served as a citadel or fortress,this wall would have protected the most important buildings.
Social systems
Caste system with four main classes,people were born into social classes that could not be changed;Brahmis(priests and kings),Kshatriyas(warriors and rulers),Vaishyas(cultivators,artisans,and merchants),Shudras(peasants and serfs).Men worked within their designated caste social class.Woman were valued because of their ability to reproduce offspring and nurse.When children were old enough they adopted their parents role.
Religion
Hinduism,Polytheistic Buddhism,and Monotheistic Buddhism.
Economics
Agriculture
The development of widespread irrigation systems allowed the indigenous population to provide for themselves.Wheat and barley were primary crops however rye,peas,cotton,and rice were also grow.Domestication of animals also served as an important tool for cultivation and as a source of food.
Trade
The economy depended greatly on trade,trade was conducted within the civilization as well as with Mesopotamia.Advancement in technology to carts and early boats that were used as the main method of travel and trade.
Important dates and eras
Maps
2500 B.C.E-The Indus valley civilization develops around the valley of the Indus river.
2000 B.C.E.-civilization collapses possibly due to severe floods and/or a change in the coarse of the Indus river.
1500 B.C.E.-The Aryan people spread through the Indus valley and down into the Ganges valley.
By:Genesis Bahena,Sara Sorto,and Poleth Gonzalez
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