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Transcript of French Revolution
The French Revolution began in 1789. During this time period many French citizens demolished their country's political landscape and pushed for a change within the government. Comparable to the American Revolution, the French Revolution was also influenced by the enlightenment and their ideas and concepts. French was ruled by King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. Both rulers were too young when they first got the reign and did not ruler accurately. They faced many problems and were soon beheaded.
Louis XVI became king after the death of his grandfather. After his grandfather's death he did not know what to do. He wasn't interested in ruling a country nor interested in his wife, Marie Antoinette. He inherited a government that was deeply in dept. Louis spent most of his time studying, reading, and most of all hunting. He did many things that affected France and the people. Louis agreed to summon the Estates-General, in order to try and raise taxes. France was in deep dept and raising the taxes on the lower Estates help a little but the dept was still very exorbitant. Louis was trying to do what was best for France but did not think about the people.
3.John L. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke-political/
5. Voltaire. http://voices.yahoo.com/rousseau-voltaire-montesquieu-their-influences-on-3187419.html
6. Montesquieu. http://alphahistory.com/frenchrevolution/french-revolution-timeline/
7. B https://www.edmodo.com/file?id=ee1aee5e532a7e580a37ef1517275978
8. C.Marie Antoinette and the decline of French Monarchy By: Nancy Lotz & Carlene Phillips
9. Louis http://www.monticello.org/site/research-and-collections/french-revolution
12. Marie Antoinette http://www.pbs.org/marieantoinette/faces/antoinette.html
13. Robespierre- Mr.Fields
15. Napoleon- http://www.historytoday.com/maurice-cranston/french-revolution-ideas-and-ideologies
24. France by; Sookram
32. France by; Sookram
Role of the Enlightenment
Role of the American Revolution
The American Revolution is one of the major roles that triggered the French Revolution. Some of the ways that triggered the French Revolution was that the food prices were too exorbitant and workers were having their wages cut. Also there were also many raids and riots happening during this time. The main influence that the American Revolution triggered the French Revolution was, rebelling against the French government.
Estates General System
I feel that the third estate was the biggest trigger on the French Revolution. They were unfairly taxed heavily to support a luxurious lifestyle for the upper Estates and was filled with hard labor working to pay the taxes. They were often starved and homeless. The French government was also highly in dept, which lead them to borrow money and raised taxes on the Third Estate to pay off their dept. The other two Estates barely did anything and made the Third Estates suffer to help them. They wanted to be treated equally and have rights. Therefore they revolted and the Revolution began.
Marie Antoinette was originally from Austria, but had to learn French ways since she was marrying Louis XVI from France. She had an insufficient education and could barely read or write properly. Marie and her husband, Louis XVI were both too young to rule a powerful kingdom. Not many people trusted her at first at first since she was from another country. She spent her time gambling and spending so much money on dresses. Marie was an entertainment or the court but unfortunately she failed to do her responsibilities. There many rumors about her and she was soon executed for her crimes against the French Republic. She did care about what people thought of her but didn't put much effort in helping the people. Marie Antoinette tried to do the best for France like her husband but failed to.
Robespierre & The Committee of Public Safety
GOOD or BAD?
I think Robespierre was a good ruler for his country, but not for the people. He was a good politician and well educated man. He has been elected into man groups like the National Assembly Third Estate General, and was part of the Committee of Public Safety. Robespierre did inspired the people to fight back when taxes were raised highly on them, but he killed thousands of people.
His justification for what he did
His justification for his actions was for France. He did make France a stronger country and was a successful ruler, but never really pleased the people. He killed many of them and that was not fair. Robespierre said that the King must die so that the country could live. He said that the only way to have a Revolution was to have the King dead. Robespierre would kill anyone who was against Revolution. An abundant amount of people died, but he did it for a Revolution and France.
Was his actions right or wrong?
His actions were wrong. He killed many people and thought it was the right thing to do. He would execute anyone who was against Revolution. Robespierre did it for the Revolution and what he thought was best for France. It was selfish of him to kill those who were against the Revolution, but no one stopped him. He was called as an "outlaw" of France and was soon killed by the guillotine for his actions, along with his followers.
How he used the Plebiscites
Napoleon used the Plebiscites to trick the people to voting him to become Emperor of France. The people had no choice because it was either him or no one. During this time France was weak and was desperately in need of a strong ruler after the "Rein of Terror." The people also wanted the right to vote and with Napoleon on the throne they did get to vote and that made them happy.
Adoration of Napoleon
Many people and soldiers adored Napoleon because he did it to the will of the people. He was the answer to France's monarchical and Republican woes. He was also the man who defeated Austria during the time they were attacking France. Napoleon was also well known as a great tactician and a friendly figure among his troops. He did not let his country down when he was Emperor. Napoleon created the "Napoleon code" which insured the everyone, even the peasants to have equal rights and opportunities for jobs. This made the people happy and also made France stronger.
Non-French feelings towards Napoleon
Napoleon was in control of all Europe excluding Russia and England. France's two biggest enemies were Spain and Britain at this time. The British nor did the Spanish liked Napoleon. He attacked an invade both the Britain Spain. They despised him for that.
Liberals & Conservatives
Tennis Court Oath
Storming the Bastille
The Great Fear/ Emigres
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Constitution of 1791
The Revolutions of 1830 & 1848
The 1st Estate is the highest ranking and was the most privileged. The members of this Estate includes the Clergy, Monks, Bishops, and other church officials. They provided some services as education and paid few taxes. All of the 1st Estate lands and incomes were tax-free. There was also a great deal of tension between the church leaders and clergy and most of the parish priests, who came from the 3rd Estate.
The 2nd Estate was mainly made up of the Nobel class. They occupied the highest positions in the government, military, and often the church.these people controlled 30% of the land and paid virtually no taxes. They could made more charges and raise rates. This hurt the peasants.
The 3rd Estate was made up of the middle class and anyone who wasn't in the 1st or 2nd Estates. 90% were peasants and the poorest were urban workers. They relied on the other two Estates, and the slightest changes they made could have a huge impact on the 3rd Estate. The 3rd Estate was also highly taxed to support the foreign wars and a luxurious lifestyle for the nobility and aristocrats at home.
"Men being, as has been said, by nature, all free, equal, and independent, no one can be put out of this estate, and subjected to the political power of another, without his own consent."
Locke, John. The Second Treatise of Civil Government. 1690.
Plebiscites- A vote by the electorate determining public opinion.
The government spent more money than producing it.
The King and Queen spent the selfishly and unwisely. They both inherited a deeply in dept reign and were struggling to pay if off.
The Government weren't able to pay off their dept so they would have to borrow many. Taxes were also raised
The French had poor leadership. There were constant rumors about one another and no one could be loyal to each other. Leading to a poor government.
John Locke has impacted on the French Revolution in many ways. He is the most influential political philosopher. His philosophy was that people should have the Natural Rights of life, liberty, and property. Locke also defended the right of revolution. He was the man who influenced the idea of Liberalism, in his Second Treatise of Government in 1690. This also influenced the
Declaration of the Rights of Man.
The Liberal during this time were the Republic and middle class. Liberals believe in government action to achieve equal opportunity and equality for all. They wanted things for the people. They used John Locke's idea of Natural Rights.
The Conservatives during this time were the Kings and Queens. Conservatives believe in personal responsibility, limited government, free markets, individual liberty, and a strong national defense. There idea of a good government was Absolutism and the old way of ruling.
" Terror is nought but prompt, severe, inflexible justice; it is therefore an emanation of virtue; it is less a particular principle than a consequence of the general of Democracy applied to the most pressing needs of the fatherland."
- Maximilien Robespierre
Rousseau wrote the "Social Contract." The Social Contract was between the people and their rulers. The purpose for this was for if conflict is broken then the people should rebel. His ideas has influenced Robespierre during the French Revolution. Rousseau's political and religious ideas helped Robespierre gain his emphasis on person and civic virtue. Rousseau's idea of citizens having the right to rebel against their civilization was used by Robespierre in his way to fit the purposes of the "Rein of Terror."
The Tennis Court Oath was a political covenant signed by members from the Third Estate on June 20, 1789. Signing this meant that they agreed not separate until a Constitution had been written and approved. The Third Estates met on the Tennis Court and called themselves the "National Assembly." They formed this group when King Louis XVI close the doors on them. Some of the Clergy and Nobles joined and forced the King to change. This was the spark of the French Revolution.
Voltaire's philosophy was that men had the right to Freedom of Speech. This influenced the French Revolution by inspiring the people to speak their mind. By speaking their mind they rebelled against what the King said. In 1791 the National Assembly, saw him as one of the forerunners of the French revolution, had his body transported to the Panthéon in Paris, in a procession that attracted an about one million people. His writings emphasized in the cultural history, the arts, the sciences, and the customs. Voltaire was a free minded man and has inspired our world.
Biggest trigger of the French Revolution
Can Dictators bring FREEDOM?
A Dictator is a person with absolute power like a Monarchy. I think Dictators could bring freedom if they were determined to but overall they probably wouldn't. It depends on who the Dictator is and what their intentions are for both the people and the country. There are many Dictators who are selfish and only think about themselves and not what the people want. Many of them killed thousands of people and were cruel. They could do some good deed like giving people jobs or food, but truly they wanted all for themselves.
Their goal was to have Natural Rights (through Constitution) and to change the government. They wanted fast changes and a new order. The Liberals did not like the old way of ruling and wanted to change things up to be in the people's perspectives.
The Conservative's goals were to keep the government the way it was (Absolutism). They wanted slow changes in the old order. Nobels also teamed up in this group and they made loads of money, but also worried about losing money.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man was developed by the National Assembly on August 26, 1789. This Declaration has 17 articles. This was the first step in making the Constitution. The basic principles of this Declaration was Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity. These ideas were based off on John Locke's ideas. The King did not approve of this but these ideas had been adopted by many political groups. This Declaration is still being used to justify Revolution and to suppress it.
Aug. 26, 1789
July 14, 1789
July 19 - August 3rd
Overall these philosophers have influenced the French Revolution greatly in many ways. Not just these three philosophers but also other Enlighten philosophers too. They all did have different and similar ideas that changed the our world and France's perception of freedom and government.
Storming the Bastille was the event that involved the people of France storming the the military prison. The Bastille was a symbol of Monarchy and was originally built to protect the palace of King Charles V during the Hundred Years War in England. The storming was cause because the people wanted to take back the prisoners and gun powder that was taken from the unpopular King. At the end of the storming, they killed the Governor.
The Great Fear was the revolt against the peasants and Nobles. The main conflict to the Great Fear was the royal finances in dept. It all began when rumors were spread that the Aristocracy would send military to invade peasant lands. Almost all or France was unsatisfied with the situation and caused more tension and the people to lose faith in their country. The peasants rebelled against the system of France to gain equality.
The people viewed a Constitution as a cure to all political systems that had been corrupted. The Constitution of 1791 was created by the National Assembly during the French Revolution. After the Constitution passed the new name of the National Assembly was the "Legislative Assembly." This Constitution limited the King's power, Assembly could make laws, and elected by taxpaying males. The Constitution lasted less than a year.
After the death of King Louis XVIII died his brother, Charles X took the throne. The Revolution of 1830 occurred in France, Belgium, and Poland. The French rebels won the Revolution of 1830. The French rebelled and took control of Paris. This event substituted the Constitutional. The rebellion frightened Charles so he abdicated the throne and fled to England. With the King gone, the moderate Liberals chose Louis Philippe as King to set up a Constitutional Monarchy. The French rebels inspired other countries to also rebel too.
The people were unhappy once again and this began the Revolution of 1848. The Revolution of 1848 occurred in Austria, Prussia, France, and Italy. Radicals began to reform secret societies to work for the French Republic. During February 1848, the government took movements to stop critics and prevent angry crowds and public meetings. By June the upper and middle class won governmental control. The Revolutionary leaders proclaimed a second Republic. The main reasons for these Revolutions were because the middle class wanted more political power, workers wanted relief, and Nationalist wanted to over throw foreign rule.
July 27-29, 1830
February 1848 - June 1848
Man is born free and everywhere is in chains.” Rousseau
The image shows Lady Liberty leading the people.
The details of Lady Liberty holding the flag, representing France. Also in the back of the shadows you can see the 2 towers of the Notre Dame. The details of the dead men on the ground makes you see how violent was. One man on the left is in his night shirt. This shows that one of the practices of the repressive government was used to go after the apposing side and to go beat them in their homes and then drag them into the streets as a reminder; "Do not do this."
"Lady Liberty leading the people." The subject of the image is Liberty leading the people through the war in 1830. There is no text int the picture, but the image clearly shows that a Revolution is happening. Something that the rebels wanted and is coming to life.
Lady Liberty Leading The People
The Directory was a group of 5 elite members and 2 houses of legislature. They had all the executive power. It was a Liberal Constitutional Monarchy. They supported the Revolution of France and went against counterrevolutionaries. The Directories did not want the Royals in the office so they did anything they could to kick them out. Both Sides were filled with tension and weren't compatible together, so this led to war. They payed too much attention into getting rid of the Royalists and forgot about the economic problems. They had too many conflicts and this led to the many people relying on Napoleon.
opinion based on research
8, 9, 10, 11
“I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.” -Voltaire
The Burial of the Sardine
20, 21, 22
15, 16, 17, 18
The parts come together to represent Liberty. A Revolution is happening and Lady Liberty is leading the people. People are dying and there are bloody scenes. The France flag representing the French people and the clothing of how there style was back in past. Delacroix uses a female to express anticipation in the Revolution of France on the streets of Paris. (Barricade) A brutal scene and rebellion.
Overall the picture is showing a Revolution created by the rebels of France. They wanted this for a long time and it is happening in the picture of "Lady Liberty leading the people"
Catholic believers through out Spain flocked to church on Ash Wednesday.
The details of everyone's masks are very interesting. They all dressed up, danced, and drink as the Carnival reached its climax. Children and adults come together to celebrate.
"The Burial of the Sardine." The title suggests a dancing scene, including the figures in white, the "bull", the man with the lance and a "bear" padding about in the foreground, forms part of a bizzare ceremony which took place in Madrid each year on Ash Wednesday, called "The Burial of the Sardine".
They would wear masks and dress up. The relationsips of the people shows that there is some kind of festival going on to celebrate something important."For dust thou art, and unto dust shallt thou return" - uttering the sacred text the priest drew an ashen cross on the forehead of each member of the congregation, admonishing them to repent their sins."
Overall the painting is about Catholics of Spain coming together to church on Ash Wednesday. The Priest would draw a cross on people's forehead with ashes, admonishing them to repent their sins. It was popular Spanish festival marking the end of Carnival and beginning of Lent.
By: Francisco De Goya
By: Eugène Delacroix