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THE ILIAD - by Homer
Transcript of THE ILIAD - by Homer
The poem is written in
. The Iliad comprises roughly
of verse. Later Greeks divided it into
books, and this convention has lasted to the present day with little change
The Iliad is an epic poem. It is among the oldest extant works of Western literature. It is written in Homeric Greek, a literary amalgam of Ionic Greek and other dialects.
THE ILIAD - by Homer
c. 800 B.C.
c. 750 B.C.
Best Known as:
Author of the Iliad and Odyssey
King of Mycenae, leader of the Greeks.
Leader of the Myrmidons, half-divine war hero.
King of Ithaca, the wiliest Greek commander and hero of the Odyssey
Aias (Ajax the Greater)
son of Telamon, with Diomedes, he is second to Achilles in martial prowess.
Aias (Ajax the Lesser)
son of Oileus, often partner of Ajax the Greater
The Achaeans (Ἀχαιοί) — aka the Hellenes (Greeks), Danaans (Δαναοί), and Argives (Ἀργεĩοι).
son of Tydeus, King of Argos
King of Sparta, husband of Helen and brother of Agamemnon
Achilles’ closest companion
King of Pylos
son of King Priam and the foremost Trojan warrior.
brother of Hector and Paris.
a prudent commander whose advice is ignored; he is Hector’s foil.
Polydorus — son of Priam and Laothoe.
Pandarus — famous archer and son of Lycaon.
Agenor — a Trojan warrior who attempts to fight Achilles (Book XXI).
Sarpedon, son of Zeus — killed by Patroclus. Was friend of Glaucus and co-leader of the Lycians (fought for the Trojans).
Glaucus, son of Hippolochus — friend of Sarpedon and co-leader of the Lycians (fought for the Trojans).
Euphorbus — first Trojan warrior to wound Patroclus.
Dolon — a spy upon the Greek camp (Book X).
son of Anchises and Aphrodite
the aged King of Troy
King Priam’s advisor, who argues for returning Helen to end the war. Paris refuses.
Menelaus’s wife; espoused first to Paris, then to Deiphobus; her abduction by Paris precipitated the war
Priam’s wife, mother of Hector, Cassandra, Paris, and others
Hector’s wife, mother of Astyanax
a Trojan woman captured by the Greeks; she was Achilles' prize of the Trojan war.
Priam’s daughter; courted by Apollo, who bestows the gift of prophecy to her; upon her rejection, he curses her, and her warnings of Trojan doom go unheeded.
Book 15: Zeus stops Poseidon from interfering
Book 16: Patroclus borrows Achilles' armor, enters battle, kills Sarpedon and then is killed by Hector, who thinks he is Achilles.
Book 17: The armies fight over the body and armor of Patroclus
Book 18: Achilles learns of the death of Patroclus and receives a new suit of armor
Book 13: Poseidon motivates the Greeks
Book 14: Hera helps Poseidon assist the Greeks
Book 9: Agamemnon retreats: his overtures to Achilles are spurned
Book 10: Diomedes and Odysseus go on a spy mission
Book 11: Paris wounds Diomedes, and Achilles sends Patroclus on a mission
Book 12: The Greeks retreat to their camp and are besieged by the Trojans
Book 7: Hector battles Ajax
Book 8: The gods withdraw from the battle
Book 3: Paris challenges Menelaus to single combat
Book 4: The truce is broken and battle begins
Book 5: Diomedes has an aristea and wounds Aphrodite and Ares
Book 6: Glaucus and Diomedes greet during a truce
Ten years into the war, Achilles and Agamemnon quarrel over a slave girl, Achilles withdraws from the war in anger
Odysseus motivates the Greeks to keep fighting; Catalogue of Ships, Catalogue of Trojans and Allies
THE SUMMARY OF THE BOOKS
Book 21: Achilles fights with the river Scamander and encounters Hector in front of the Trojan gates
Book 22: Achilles kills Hector and drags his body back to the Greek camp
Book 23: Funeral games for Patroclus
Book 24: Achilles lets Priam have Hector's body back, and he is burned on a pyre
Book 19: Achilles reconciles with Agamemnon and enters battle
Book 20: The gods join the battle; Achilles tries to kill Aeneas
YOU MUST KNOW:
Odysseus finally devised a plan to take the city. He had his men build a large, hollow wooden horse, then he and twenty others hid inside. The Greek ships withdrew out of sight of Troy, admitting defeat, and left behind them only the horse, purportedly as an offering to Poseidon for good winds on the return trip. The Trojans took this inside the city, and then feasted and celebrated in the belief the war was over.