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Copy of THE NCO SUPPORT FORM
Transcript of Copy of THE NCO SUPPORT FORM
DA FORM 2166-9-1A NONCOMMISIONED OFFICER EVALUATION REPORT SUPPORT FORM
Describe the process for initiating and conducting counseling on DA Form 2166–9–1A, NCO Evaluation Report Support Form
Navigating the Evaluation Entry System
Creating an electronic Support Form
Part I - Administrative Data
Part II - Authentication
Part III - Duty Description
Part IV - Army Values / Attributes / Skills / Actions or Performance Evaluation, Professionalism, Attributes, and Competencies.
Enter the rated NCO’s full name in capital letters.
On the new 2166-9 series the Soldier’s DOD ID number will be required, the SSN will only be used if DOD ID number is NOT available
Enter the rated NCO’s three-letter rank abbreviation
Enter the date of rank (YYYYMMDD) for the rated NCO’s rank as of the “THRU” date on the report.
Enter up to nine digits of the PMOS (for example, 19E30, 42A5MA3, and 18Z5PW9LA). If an NCO does not possess an ASI
or language identifier, only a five-digit military occupational specialty (MOS) is entered.
Enter the rated NCO’s unit, organization, station, zip code or APO, and Major Command in the order listed on the NCOER.
Enter the rated NCO’s unit identification code (UIC).
Enter the rated NCO’s official .gov or .mil email address. If the official .mil email address exceeds the allowable character
space, enter the address prior to the @ symbol, (for example, marry.longemailthatexceedstextspace@).
SSD and NCOES completed for next higher grade?If the answer is no, it should be addressed in counseling.
Enter highest level completed: WLC, ALC, SLC, SMC
Within the first 30 days of the rating period, effective date of lateral appointment to CPL, or promotion to sergeant (SGT), the rater will conduct the first counseling session with the rated NCO. Additionally, the rater will
discuss and establish goals for the NCO to:
promote/support a healthy workplace environment conducive to the growth and development of personnel
supporting the EO and EEO programs
fostering a climate of dignity and respect
adhering to the SHARP Program’s initiatives
reducing and eliminating sexual harassment and sexual assault in their unit
None Rated Codes:
A - Absent without leave
C - Confinement
I - In transit between duty stations
P - Patient
Q - Lack of rater qualification
S - Student (Military or Civilian
T - On TDY
DA Form 2166–9–1A contributes to Armywide improved performance and professional development through increased emphasis on performance counseling and assures verified communication process throughout the rating period. It promotes a top-down emphasis on leadership communication, integrating rated NCOs participation in
objective setting, performance counseling, and the evaluation process.
At the beginning of the rating period, it enhances planning and relates performance to mission through rater and rated NCO Joint discussion of the duty description and major performance objectives.
During the rating period, it requires performance counseling and encourages the best use of individual talent through continuous communication to update and revise the performance objectives, recording results of performance with the rated NCO.
At the end of the rating period, it enables the rating chain in completing the NCOER, because the DA Form 2166–9–1A is forwarded through the rating chain as evaluations are rendered.
Beginning of the rating period.
(a) Shortly after the rated NCO assumes his or her duties, the rater provides the rated NCO with:
a copy of their and the senior rater’s support form (DA Form 2166–9–1A or DA Form 67–10–1A, or equivalent and as applicable)
the unit’s mission (Mission/Vision Statement)
valid rating chain (from approved unit rating scheme)
specified goals and objectives
The rated NCO then drafts his or her DA Form 2166–9–1A:
duty description (part III)
performance goals and expectations (part IV)
major performance objectives (part V)).
Part I is for administrative data, including identification and contact information of the rated NCO, unit data,Military Education and Structured Self-Development Levels
When the initial discussion is completed, the rated NCO and rater provide initials in part II of the DA Form 2166–9–1A, the date entered represents the date initial counseling occurred. The rater will then forward the form to the senior rater. The senior rater should have a face-to-face counseling session (or an alternative type of discussion) with the rated NCO. The intent is for the senior rater to counsel the NCO initially within the first 30 days followed by counseling at the midpoint for the evaluation period. The senior rater reviews as needed, comments in part VI, initials DA Form 2166–9–1A in part II and returns it to the rater. The rater will return the original DA Form 2166–9–1A to the rated NCO and will retain a copy for record.
Note: These counseling sessions differ from the first counseling session in that the primary focus is on open
communication, focusing on how well the rated NCO is performing. The rater will update the duty description and,
based on significant contributions and accomplishments, discuss what was done well and what could be done better.
The rater will also address how well the NCO is promoting/supporting a healthy workplace environment conducive to
the growth and development of personnel; discuss and update how well the rated NCO supports the EO and EEO
programs, fostering a climate of dignity and respect and supporting the SHARP Program’s initiative, reducing and
eliminating sexual harassment and sexual assault in their unit within Part V “CHARACTER”. The guide for this
discussion is standards met, exceeded, or not met established from the previous counseling session. Prior to the
conclusion of the counseling session, the rater will record key points discussed and obtain the rated NCO’s initials on
DA Form 2166–9–1A.
ADRP 6-22 establishes and describes the leader attributes and core leader competencies that facilitate focused
feedback, education, training, and development across all leadership levels.
An ideal Army leader has strong intellect, physical presence, professional competence, moral character and
serves as a role model. An Army leader is able and willing to act decisively, within the intent and purpose of
superior leaders and in the best interest of the organization. Army leaders recognize that organizations, built on
mutual trust and confidence, successfully accomplish missions.
be double-spaced between bullets
be preceded by a small letter ‘o’ to designate the start of the comment—each
bullet comment must start with a small letter unless it’s a proper noun that is
be a specific example that can be used only once; therefore, the rater must
decide under which responsibility the bullet fits best (or is most applicable).
Bullet Points continued...
. Exceeds standards; demonstrated by specific examples and measurable results; special and unusual;achieved by only a few; clearly better than most others. Examples:
• received physical fitness badge
• qualified entire squad as expert with M–16 and M–60
• awarded the Expert Infantryman Badge
Success. Meets all standards. Majority of ratings are in this category; fully competitive for schooling and promotion. The goal of counseling is to bring all NCOs to this level.
• shares experiences readily, constantly teach Soldiers
• constantly seeking to improve, completed three sub-courses during rating period
• coached and played on company softball team
• established comprehensive cross-training program for his section
• their platoon had only one tank on deadline report (for 10 days) during last 11 months
PASS / FAIL / PROFILE
Personnel who meet Army minimum standards for APFT, but fail to meet unit standards, will not be given a rating of “needs improvement“
for physical fitness and military bearing if such rating is based solely on the failure to meet unit standards.
Enter the rated NCO’s verified height and weight (in inches and pounds) as of the unit’s last record weigh-in and an entry of “YES “ or “NO” to indicate compliance or noncompliance with the provisions of AR 600–9.
Yes / No
Inspiring and Mentoring Soldiers
less than the best
AMONG THE BEST
cream of the crop
a solid soldier; strong recommendation for promotion
a good performer; promote if allocations allow
weak performer; do not promote
consider for QMP
(Qualitative Management Program)
Ensure that this
The whole document concept:
Consistency - board looks for consistency in performance and rating throughout the entire file with particular focus on the last five years/current grade; level of performance; trends in efficiency; military & civilian education; professional values; range and variety of assignments
Best reports are those with three ‘clearly justified’ excellence ratings and two success ratings with strong bullet comments as opposed to five excellence check marks
NCO-ER is most significant document in file when considering NCO for promotions/advanced schools
— If the rated NCO has been selected for promotion and is serving in a position authorized for the next higher rank, a “P” will be placed after
his or her current rank (for example, “SGTP”).
— If the rated NCO is not assigned to a position authorized for the higher rank, no “P” will be entered after the rank.
— If the rated NCO was reduced to specialist or below, enter the reduced rank. Reduction to another NCO grade does not require an
Note: For ARNG NCOs, promotions and/or promotable status’ dates are determined by state adjutant generals; these dates are not based
on release dates of promotion selection lists (see AR 623-3 para 2-11).
This initial counseling session is somewhat different from later counseling
sessions in that the primary focus is on communicating performance standards to the rated NCO. It should specifically
let the rated NCO know what is expected of them during the rating period. The rater shows the rated NCO the rating
chain and a complete duty description, discusses the meaning of character and responsibilities identified on the
NCOER, and explains the requirements for meeting Army and organizational standards. Before the rated NCO departs
the counseling session, the rater will record key points that were discussed and obtain the rated NCO’s initials on DA Form 2166–9–1A.
During the rating period. The rated NCO uses the DA Form 2166–9–1A as a performance guide. The rater conducts periodic follow-up performance counseling with the rated NCO to make needed adjustments to performance objectives.
(a) The rater and rated NCO discuss and document significant contributions and accomplishments. Additionally, the rater and rated NCO discuss and document performance accomplishments as they relate to adherence to leadership attributes and demonstration of competencies in part V, blocks a. through f.
(b) The rater will discuss how well the NCO is promoting/supporting EO and EEO programs, fostering a climate of
dignity and respect, adhering to the SHARP Program’s initatives, reducing and eliminating sexual harassment and sexual assault within their unit in Part V, “CHARACTER.”
(c) Upon completion of each periodic counseling session, the rated NCO and the rater initial and date DA Form
2166–9–1A in part II. The senior rater reviews, as needed, comments in part VI, initials DA Form 2166–9–1A in part
II and returns it to the rater. The rater will return the original DA Form 2166–9–1A to the rated NCO and will retain a copy for record.
End of the rating period. At the end of the rating period, the rater completes a final DA Form 2166–9–1A by
documenting how well the rated NCO accomplished major performance objectives during the rating period, focusing
on the most significant objectives and documenting performance accomplishments as they relate to adherence to
leadership attributes and demonstration of competencies made.
Enter the highest level of Structured Self-Development completed:
SSDI, SSDII, SSDIII, SSDIV, SSDIV
Part II is for authentication by the rated NCO and rating officials.
Enter the rater’s information - name (last, first, MI, suffix) in capital letters/SSN (for example, 123–45–6789)/signature/
validation date /rank/ PMOSC (warrant officer or NCO) or branch (commissioned officer)/organization/duty assignment/official .gov or .mil
As an alternative to providing an SSN, individuals possessing a DOD issued CAC may provide their unique 10-digit DOD identification
number (located on the reverse side of the CAC).
The rank entry will be current as of the “THRU” date of the NCOER. A “P” is added to the rank only if the rater is promotable and serving in
a position authorized for the next higher rank. Rating officials who have been frocked to a higher rank and are serving in the authorized
position for the frocked rank will enter the frocked rank.
For Branch, officers enter the two-character basic branch abbreviation or Voluntary Transfer Incentive Program (VTIP)/Career Field
Designation (CFD. For general officers, enter "GO." The two-character branch entry will not be “GS.”
For raters of other Services, in addition to their rank, enter their branch of Service (for example, U.S. Navy “USN,” U.S. Air Force “USAF,” U.S. Marine Corps “USMC,” U.S. Coast Guard “USCG” in the PMOSC/Branch block in part II, block a5. For example, a U.S. Navy captain would be entered as “CAPT” in the rank block and “USN”
in the PMOSC/branch block. Civil service raters will enter the pay grade (GM/GG/GS/UA-#) in the rank block; for members of the senior
executive service, “SES” will be entered in lieu of a rank or pay grade. For members authorized by an exception to policy or who are not in
any category above, enter appropriate grade level.
For DA civilians only enter, “DAC” as PMOSC/Branch; for civilians of other Services within DOD, enter “CIV” as the PMOSC/Branch.
For service members of allied forces serving as a rater (under exceptional circumstances), enter the rater’s country or country
abbreviation in parentheses after his or her name (for example, (AU), (Italy), (GBR), and so forth). Allied forces raters of U.S. Army NCOs
will require an international rater identification number issued by HRC, Evaluations branch. Once issued, this identification number will be
inserted within the SSN data field. Requests for an international rater identification number will be submitted to HRC, Evaluations branch
(see appendix B for contact information and address). The request will include: justification, allied forces rater’s complete name, rank,
country, duration of report period covered, contact information to include a valid email address. See figure 2-10 for a sample request.
Additionally, the request may identify a delegate, who will provide assistance to the allied forces rating official on evaluation matters. The
delegate will be a CAC enabled U.S. Army NCO/Officer or DA civilian able to access EES. Once approved, HRC will issue the allied forces
rating official an international rater identification number.
Note: Allied forces rating officials may not have the ability to access EES or sign evaluations digitally with CAC signature. In these
instances, reports will require signature by manual methods and submission of reports through authorized alternate methods
A documented supplementary review will be performed by a uniformed Army advisor, in the rank of SGM/CSM, CW3 through CW5, or CPT and above, designated in the NCOs rating chain, senior to the senior rater:
(1) When a senior rater within the rated NCOs rating chain is an NCO in the rank of SFC through MSG/1SG.
(7) When the senior rater is not a uniformed Army designated rating official and the rater is in the rank of 2LT through 1LT.
(8) For all “Relief for Cause” evaluation reports when the senior rater is the individual directing the relief.
(9) For all “Relief for Cause” evaluation reports directed by an individual other than the rating officials.
(6) When the senior rater is not a uniformed Army designated rating official and the rater is in the rank of WO1 through CW2.
(5) When the senior rater is not a uniformed Army designated rating official and the rater is in the rank of SGT through MSG/1SG.
(4) When there are no uniformed Army designated rating officials for the rated NCO.
(3) When a senior rater within the rated NCOs rating chain is an Army Officer in the rank of 2LT through 1LT.
(2) When a senior rater within the rated NCOs rating chain is a warrant officer in the rank of WO1 through CW2.
Enter the actual dates of counseling as documented on DA Form 2166–9–1A (YYYYMMDD). When counseling dates are omitted, the senior rater will enter a statement in part V, block b of the NCOER explaining why counseling was not accomplished. The absence of counseling will not be used as the sole basis for an appeal. However, the lack of counseling may be used to help support other claims made in an appeal.
Part III provides for the duty description of the rated NCO. Rating officials are responsible to ensure the duty
description information is factually correct. The rater enters this information and the rated NCO verifies it. The duty
a. Is an outline of the normal requirements of the specific duty position.
b. Should show type of work required rather than frequently changing tasks.
c. Is essential to performance counseling and evaluation. It is used during the first counseling session to tell the rated NCO what the duties of the position are and what needs to be emphasized.
d. May be updated during the rating period.
e. Is used at the end of the rating period to record what was important about the duties.
Enter principal duty title that matches the unit force management document or that most accurately reflects actual duties performed.
Enter duty military occupational specialty code (MOSC) (at least five characters but no more than nine). If ASI and/or
language skill identifier are required, the duty MOSC will be either seven or nine characters; if the position does not require ASI or language skill identifier only five characters will be used. In cases where the rated NCO is filling an officer position, enter the enlisted MOSC that best matches the officer position.
Enter the most important routine duties and responsibilities in a series of phrases, starting with action words, separated by semicolons, and ending in a period. Use the present tense to identify what the rated NCO is supposed to do in his or her duty position. Unless changes occurred during the rating period, the duty description on the NCOER should be the same as the one on the DA Form 2166–9–1A. Scope should include the number of people supervised, equipment, facilities, dollars involved, and any other routine duties and responsibilities critical to mission accomplishment.
Note. For ARNG AGR Soldiers assigned as readiness NCO or training NCO, enter both the NCO’s table of organization and equipment
(TOE) or table of distribution and allowances (TDA) assignment and the full-time support title, such as chief of a division, branch, or section,or firing battery or readiness NCO. Include comments about both the position duties and the full-time support duties in blocks c through e.
Enter areas of special emphasis and/or appointed duties as a list of tasks and/or duties, separated by semicolons, and ending with a period. This portion is most likely to change during the rating period. It should include the most important items that applied at any time during the rating period.
Note. For ARNG AGR Soldiers assigned as readiness NCO or training NCO, enter both the NCO’s TOE or TDA assignment and the full-time support title, such as chief of a division, branch, or section, or firing battery or readiness NCO. Include comments about both the position duties and the full-time support duties in blocks c through e.
Enter duties appointed to the NCO not normally included in the duty description.
Note. For ARNG AGR Soldiers assigned as readiness NCO or training NCO, enter both the NCO’s TOE or TDA assignment and the full-time
support title, such as chief of a division, branch, or section, or firing battery or readiness NCO. Include comments about both the position duties and the full-time support duties in blocks c through e.
Discuss how the new evaluation model contributes to Armywide improved performance and professional development through increased emphasis on performance counseling and assures verified communication process throughout the rating period.
Encompasses elements internal and central to the leader’s core consisting of Army Values, empathy, Warrior Ethos/Service Ethos, and discipline. Character is comprised of a person’s moral and ethical qualities, helps determine what is right, and gives a leader motivation to do what is appropriate, regardless of the circumstances or consequences. It determines who people are, how they act,helps determine right from wrong, and choose what is right.
Rating officials will comment on how well the rated NCO promoted a climate of dignity and respect and adherence to the requirements of the
SHARP Program. This assessment should identify, as appropriate, any significant actions or contributions the rated NCO made toward—
1. Promoting the personal and professional development of subordinates.
2. Ensuring the fair, respectful treatment of unit personnel.
3. Establishing a workplace and overall command climate that fosters dignity and respect for all members of the unit.
4. This assessment should also identify any failures by the rated NCO to foster a climate of dignity and respect and adherence to the SHARP
Raters will comment on any substantiated finding, in an Army or DOD investigation or inquiry, that the rated NCO—
1. Committed an act of sexual harassment or sexual assault;
2. Failed to report a sexual harassment or sexual assault;
3. Failed to respond to a complaint or report of sexual harassment or sexual assault; or
4. Retaliated against a person making a complaint or report of sexual harassment or sexual assault.
For NCOs who are found with substantiated SHARP, EO, and/or EEO complaints resulting from an AR 15-6 investigation or other official
investigation by military or civil authorities, a “DID NOT MEET STANDARD” entry will be annotated in Part IV, block c. and a bullet
comment “does not support SHARP, EO, and EEO” will be annotated by the rater in Part IV block c comments section. Additionally, the
senior rater will annotate a bullet comment in Part V, block b.
Consist of the principles, standards, and qualities considered essential for successful Army leaders. They are fundamental to helping Soldiers and make the right decision in any situation. Army Values are an important leader responsibility and an expected standard. Bullet comments provided will refer to a specific value and be included in the narrative (for example, “o solid, trustworthy NCO whose integrity is beyond reproach”). A list of Army Values and their definitions follow (a more detailed explanation can be found in ADRP 6-22).
1. Loyalty: Bears true faith and allegiance to the U.S. Constitution, the Army, the unit, and other Soldiers.
2. Duty: Fulfills obligations (professional, legal, and moral).
3. Respect: Treats people as they should be treated.
4. Selfless service: Puts the welfare of the Nation, the Army, and subordinates’ priorities before self.
5. Honor: Adheres to the Army’s publicly declared code of values.
7. Personal courage: Faces fear, danger, or adversity (physical and moral).
6. Integrity: Does what is right, legally and morally.
The ability to see something from another person’s point of view, to identify with, and enter into another person’s feelings and emotions. Empathy allows the leader to anticipate what others are experiencing and to try to envision how decisions or actions affect them. Army leaders display empathy when they genuinely relate to another person’s situation, motives, and feelings. Empathy does not necessarily mean sympathy for another, but identification that leads to a deeper understanding.
Warrior Ethos and Service Ethos:
The professional attitudes and beliefs that characterize the American Soldier. They reflect a Soldier’s selfless commitment to the Nation, mission, unit, and fellow Soldiers. These ethos are developed and sustained through discipline, commitment to the Army Values, and pride in the Army’s heritage. The key to the Warrior and Service Ethos are not only physical, tactical,
and technical training, but also a mindset developed through purposeful mental preparation.
At the individual level this is primarily self-discipline, the ability to control one’s own behavior. Discipline expresses what the Army Values require—willingly doing what is right. Discipline involves attending to the details of organization and administration, which are less urgent than an organization’s key tasks, but necessary for efficiency and long-term effectiveness. Examples include an effective Command Supply Discipline Program, Organizational Inspection Programs, and training management.
Soldiers and Army Civilians are shaped by their background, beliefs, education, and experience. An
Army leader’s job would be simpler if merely checking the team member’s personal values against the
Army Values and developing a simple plan to align them sufficed. Reality is much different. Becoming a
person and leader of character is a process involving day-to-day experience, education, self-development,
developmental counseling, coaching, and mentoring. While individuals are responsible for their own
character development, leaders are responsible for encouraging, supporting and assessing the efforts of
their people. Leaders of character develop through continual study, reflection, experience, and feedback.
Leaders hold themselves and subordinates to the highest standards.
Doing the right thing is good. Doing the right thing for the right reason and with the right goal is
better. People of character must possess the desire to act ethically in all situations. One of the Army
leader’s primary responsibilities is to maintain an ethical climate that supports development of such
character. When an organization’s ethical climate nurtures ethical behavior, people will think, feel, and act
ethically. They will internalize the aspects of sound character. Leaders who are excessively negative, do not
value people’s worth, and berate followers are not setting a good example.
Effective leadership begins with developing and maintaining a leader identity. Identity refers to one’s
self-concept. People possess many self-definitions, such as female, strong, smart, or Soldier. Leader
identity refers to an individual’s awareness of self as a leader. Leader identity forms because one—
Self-identifies as a leader.
Is perceived as a leader by others.
Is a leader in relation to another person.
Is collectively endorsed by the organization as a leader.
Character development affects an individual’s leader identity. Leaders lacking self-awareness will have difficulty influencing others or attaining goals related to leader growth and development. Leaders lacking a clear sense of leader identity will not want to develop or improve their leadership skills. An incomplete or inaccurate sense of identity hinders the growth of leaders. The ability to lead and inspire others begins with an understanding of oneself, which ultimately determines a leader’s character.
CHARACTER AND BELIEFS
Beliefs derive from upbringing, culture, religious backgrounds, and traditions. Therefore, diverse
religious and philosophical traditions have, and will, continue to shape different moral beliefs. Army
leaders serve a nation that protects the fundamental principle that people are free to choose their own
beliefs. America’s strength derives, and benefits, from that diversity. Effective leaders are careful not to
require their people to violate their beliefs by ordering or encouraging unlawful or unethical actions.
Beliefs derive from upbringing, culture, religious backgrounds, and traditions. Therefore, diverse
religious and philosophical traditions have, and will, continue to shape different moral beliefs. Army leaders serve a nation that protects the fundamental principle that people are free to choose their own beliefs. America’s strength derives, and benefits, from that diversity. Effective leaders are careful not to require their people to violate their beliefs by ordering or encouraging unlawful or unethical actions.
Beliefs matter because they help people understand their experiences. Those experiences provide a
start point for what to do in everyday situations. Beliefs are convictions people hold as true. Values are
deep-seated personal beliefs that shape a person’s behavior. Values and beliefs are central to character.
The Constitution reflects national principles, such as the guarantee of freedom of religion. The Army
places a high value on the rights of its Soldiers and Army Civilians to observe their respective faiths while
respecting individual differences in moral background and personal conviction. While religious beliefs and
practices remain a decision of individual conscience, leaders are responsible for ensuring Soldiers and
Army Civilians have the opportunity to practice their faith. Commanders, according to regulatory guidance,
approve requests for accommodation of religious practices unless they have an adverse impact on unit
readiness, individual readiness, unit cohesion, morale, discipline, safety, and/or health. However, no leader
may apply undue influence, coerce, or harass subordinates with reference to matters of religion. Chaplains are personal staff officers with specialized training and responsibilities for ensuring the free exercise of religion and are available to advise and help leaders at every level.
CHARACTER AND ETHICS
Adhering to the principles the Army Values embody is essential to upholding high ethical standards
of behavior. Unethical behavior quickly destroys organizational morale and cohesion—it undermines the
trust and confidence essential to teamwork and mission accomplishment. Consistently doing the right thing
forges strong character in individuals and expands to create a culture of trust throughout the organization.
Ethics indicate how a person should behave. Values represent the beliefs that a person has. The seven
Army Values represent a set of common beliefs that leaders are expected to uphold and reinforce by their actions. The translation from desirable ethics to internal values to actual behavior involves choices.
Ethical conduct must reflect genuine values and beliefs. Soldiers and Army Civilians adhere to the
Army Values because they want to live ethically and profess the values because they know what is right.
Adopting good values and making ethical choices are essential to produce leaders of character. Leaders
seen as abusive or toxic (such as intimidating and insulting subordinates) have higher rates of noncombatant
mistreatment and misconduct in their units.
The Soldier’s Rules codify the law of war and outline ethical and lawful conduct in operations (see
AR 350-1). They distill the essence of the law of war, Army Values, and ethical behavior: Army leaders
must consistently focus on shaping ethics-based organizational climates in which subordinates and
organizations can achieve their full potential. Leaders who adhere to applicable laws, regulations, and unit
standards build credibility with their subordinates and enhance trust with the American people they serve.
Making the right choice and acting on it when faced with an ethical question can be difficult. Sometimes it means standing firm and disagreeing with the boss on ethical grounds. These occasions test character. Situations in which a leader thinks an unlawful order is issued can be the most difficult.
Under normal circumstances, a leader executes a superior leader’s decision with enthusiasm. Unlawful orders are the exception: a leader has a duty to question such orders and refuse to obey them if clarification of the order’s intent fails to resolve his objections. If a Soldier perceives an order is unlawful, the Soldier should fully understand the details of the order and its original intent. The Soldier should seek immediate clarification from the person who gave it before proceeding.
If the question is more complex, seek legal counsel. If it requires an immediate decision, as may happen in the heat of combat, make the best judgment possible based on the Army Values, personal experience, critical thinking, previous study, and reflection. There is a risk when a leader disobeys what
may be an unlawful order, and it may be the most difficult decision that Soldier ever makes. Nonetheless, it is what competent, confident, and ethical leaders should do.
While a leader may not be completely prepared for complex situations, spending time to reflect on the Army Values, studying, and honing personal leadership competencies will help. Talk to superiors, particularly those who have done the same. It is up to Army leaders to make values-based, ethical choices
for the good of the Army and the nation. Army leaders should have the strength of character to make the
Is the impression a leader makes on others contributing to his or her success in leading them. This impression is the sum of a leader’s outward appearance, demeanor, actions, and words. Presence incorporates a leader’s effectiveness when demonstrating military and profession bearing, fitness, confidence, and resilience.
Leaders illustrate through their presence that they care. There is no greater inspiration than leaders who routinely share in team hardships and dangers. Being where subordinates perform duties allows the leader to have firsthand knowledge of the real conditions Soldiers and Army Civilians face. Presence is a critical attribute leaders need to understand. It is not just a matter of showing up; actions, words, and the manner in which leaders carry themselves convey presence. A leader’s effectiveness is dramatically enhanced by understanding and developing the following areas—
Military and professional bearing:
projecting a commanding presence, a professional image of authority.
having sound health, strength, and endurance, which sustain emotional health and conceptual abilities under prolonged stress.
projecting self-confidence and certainty in the unit’s ability to succeed in whatever it does; able to demonstrate composure and outward calm through steady control over emotion.
the psychological and physical capacity to bounce back from life’s stressors repeatedly to thrive in an era of high operational tempo.
The Army recognizes a holistic emphasis on fitness prevents unnecessary harm whether from
dangerous missions, routine operations, or a family outing. Holistic fitness recognizes that individual wellbeing
depends on multiple areas including physical fitness, medical health, resilience, preparation for
adverse environments, nutrition, psychological, spiritual (self identity, beliefs, and life purpose beyond
self), behavioral (healthy practices related to substance abuse, eating, rest, and hygiene), and social
(positive connection with others). Leaders follow policies and adopt practices to maintain total fitness.
Leaders pay special attention to fitness when preparing for demanding deployments and for the restoration,
sustainment, and enhancement of total health during redeployments.
MILITARY AND PROFESSIONAL BEARING
Army leaders are expected to look and act as professionals. Soldiers and Army Civilians displaying an unprofessional appearance do not send a message of professionalism. Skillful use of professional bearing—fitness, courtesy, and proper military appearance—can help overcome difficult situations. A professional appearance and competence command respect.
Unit readiness begins with physically fit Soldiers and leaders; operations drain physically, mentally,and emotionally. Physical fitness, while crucial for success in battle, is important for all members of the Army team, not just Soldiers. Physically fit people feel more competent and confident, handle stress better, work longer and harder, and recover faster. These attributes provide valuable payoffs in any environment.
The physical demands of leadership, deployments, and continuous operations can erode more than
physical attributes. Physical fitness and adequate rest support cognitive functioning and emotional stability, both essential for sound leadership. If not physically fit before deployment, the effects of additional stress compromise mental and emotional fitness as well. Operations in difficult terrain, extreme climates, and high altitude require extensive physical conditioning; once in the area of operations there must be continued
efforts to sustain physical readiness.
Preparedness for operational missions must be a primary focus of the unit’s physical fitness program. The forward-looking leader develops a balanced physical fitness program that enables Soldiers to execute the unit’s mission-essential task list. The Army revised the Army Physical Readiness Training program to prepare Soldiers and units for the physical challenges of fulfilling decisive action missions facing a wide
range of threats in complex operational environments and with emerging technologies.
Since leaders’ decisions affect their organizations’ effectiveness, health, and safety, it is an ethical and practical imperative for leaders to remain healthy and fit. Staying healthy and physically fit protects Soldiers from disease and strengthens them to cope with the psychological effects of extended operations.
Leaders and Soldiers need exercise, sufficient sleep, nutritional food, and water to enable peak
Health fitness maintains good health. It includes routine physical exams; practicing good dental
hygiene, personal grooming, and cleanliness; keeping immunizations current; as well as considering
psychological stresses. Healthy Soldiers perform better in extreme operational environments. Health fitness
includes avoiding things that can degrade personal health, such as substance abuse, obesity, and tobacco
use, as well as overuse of caffeine and other stimulants.