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History Of Theater
Transcript of History Of Theater
He was the god of wine, fertility, festivities and theatre
The Festival of Dionysus happened once a year in March
The festival took place in Athens's Amphitheater
A Statue Of Dionysus is carried to the amphitheater How Have Social And Historical Factors Influenced And Informed Drama Through The Ages? The Festival Would Last For Several Days
Playwrights would compete to get their plays performed What Plays Did They Perform? PLAYS Comedy Tragedy Aristophanes was the most famous Comedy Playwright In Greek Times There were two types of comedy
Middle Comedy - didn't have a chorus and characters were public not impersonated. Public ridicule was not used personally.
New Comedy - stock characters were developedm love became the main theme. Tragedy was the first theatre genre.
It was said to be invented by Thespis in 534BC.
Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides were all tragic playwrights.
It had a basic structure with a prologue, 3 episodes (acts) and the exodus (conclusion). Where are the plays performed? Amphitheater An Amphitheater is where the Greek Plays were performed. They were large structures that were built into hill and mountainsides and usually seated 14,000-20,000 people. Who Performed In Greek Theatre? Performers In Greek Theatre only men and boys were allowed to act. They wore masks with exaggerated expressions and each mask had a wide mouth. They also wore long trailing robes with elaborate designs and if someone was playing a strong or intimidating character the shoes they wore had wooden blocks on them to make them taller. If the actor has to play a woman to portray her the female masks had wider eyes and bigger mouths. They also wore 'prosterniad' and 'prograstiad'. The greek chorus was an ensemble of singers which represented everyday citizens and their opinions. They were used in Tragedies to set the mood and their main role was to comment on the action of the play. 1000BC - 146 BC ITALY Rome Was Romans Theater Similar To The Greeks? 753BC - AD476 Roman Theater The Romans carried on the Greek Theatrical tradition with comedies and tragedies. They also took their amphitheatre designs but made it more enclosed. Theatrical performances were huge in Rome like in Greece but happened alot more frequently. Their performances included gladiators, acrobatics and dancing as well as plays. Britain FRANCE GERMANY Medieval Theatre was the next formation of theatre from ancient roman theatre. It was usually a traveling theatre performed by the church and the plays were usually made up of stories from the bible. Did Medieval Theatre Originate From Britain Or Was It Influenced by other theatre? Medieval Theatre Origins When the Roman Empire fell the church shut down all theatre from 500ad-900ad but travelling entertainers still performed. Then Medieval theater was formed in church called liturgical drama. This then developed into longer biblical plays in town squares in the 12th century. How Did Medieval Theatre Differentiate From Greek And Roman Theatre? Mystery Play Dramatised biblical events through the entire bible.
Lasted 14 hours with 48 short plays.
Played back to back to create a cycle
Comedy and Tragedy were involved Miracle Plays Dramatised the lives of the saints
Usually performed on the saints feast day.
Not all were biblical.
Played back to back to create a cycle.
Comedy and Tragedy Morality Plays Used religious characters and themes to teach a moral lesson.
Based on spiritual trials of the average man.
Action was between good and evil to possess a mans soul. Conventions Plays started being performed in churches on a Mansion (platform).
The audience moved from mansion to mansion.
This then developed into plays being performed on the street.
Pageant Wagons were used. These were rolling wagons which contained scenery, traditional costumes, a backstage area and a stage.
Each wagon would stage a different play.
Used to make a sense of journey for the audience.
Most actors were male tradesmen. Costumes Used for audience recognition as apposed to realism.
Colour was important and showed characteristics.
White - pure, untroubled, faith, mercy, liberty of spirit.
Black - evil, envy, sin, death and misfortune.
Violet/Purple - royalty/nobility
Gold/Yellow - wealth
Blue - good reputation, heaven.
Red (good) - energy, strength, power
Red (bad) - pride, ambition, blood and violence.
Carnation Pink - good health and cheerfulness What happened to medieval theatre? Interlude 900s-1500s Private Playhouses Medieval theatre was phased out due to changes in politics, religion and economics at the time.
Private playhouses were the next step in the development of drama and they started to be built around the late 1590s-1600s. Elizabethan & Jacobean Theatre (Shakespeare) 1576 - 1642 Lord Chamberlain's Men Lord Chamberlain's Men was a theatre company which William Shakespeare made plays for for most of his life. It was founded in 1594 by Henry Carey who was then Lord Chamberlain. But when he died in 1596 it was took over by his son, George Carey. In the 16th/17th century the company was the best and was favourited by peasants and aristocracy alike and was a favourite of Queen Elizabeth I and then James I. The company began performing in the first Elizabethan Theatre (Playhouse) called 'The Theatre'. But then the owner of the land it was on did not want plays to be performed there anymore. This caused them not to perform plays for a while until the Globe Theatre was built and was dedicated to them. The Globe Theatre Was built as a replacement of 'The Theatre'.
Was inspired by the Colosseum
Was built for William Shakespeare and Lord Chamberlain's Men
A cannon above the stage was fired before a show began
Could hold 3000
Was open air
Stage sloped towards the audience William Shakespeare Shakespeare is known as the greatest playwright Britain has ever produced and has effected English Literature dramatically.
Born in 1563
Wrote 37 plays (shortest play 1770 lines long)
Wrote 154 sonnets
Plays were loved by Queen Elizabeth and King James
Created over 1,700 words for the english language Costumes And Props The costumes in Elizabethan theatre were basically the same as Medieval with the colour schemes but they suited the fashion at the time more. And again men dressed up as women as only men were allowed to act. Props were a huge part of Elizabethan theatre more so than the previous. The props were usually small and portable. Commedia Dell'Arte 1500-1700 Origins & History Commedia Dell'arte was born in Italy in the 16th Century.
16th century Italy was divided into different states which spoke different languages.
Plays were believed to be about the political and economical crisis in Italy at the time.
Was said to be the first profressional type of theatre.
Skilled comic actors and performers improvised stories about human failings.
It was the beginning of improvisation.
Performed on outdoor staging areas
Companies Companies were troupes of performers who had a specific function or role.
They would travel around Europe in the 16th century performing their plays.
The most popular companies at the time were Soldati, Ganossa, Gelosi, Confidenti and Accesi.
Each troupe would have its on coat of arms.
The companies also included women.
This was the first time women were actresses in theatre.
Characters Commedia Dell'arte introduced Stock Characters which are still used in our theatre today.
Each character embodies a mood.
Characters were originally intended to have the characteristics of an Italian state or town. e.g Peppe Nappa (Sicily), Stenterello (Tuscany), Rugantino (Rome).
Each character had one costume and/or mask which represented their characteristics.
Arlencchino - witty and an acrobat
Brighella - would do anything for money, and was arlencchino's crony.
Il Capitano - (the captain) a soldier, bold and cowardly
Il Dottore - (the doctor) character of learning
Pantalone - a venetian merchant who was retired with a young wife or adventurous daughter, mean spirited.
Pedrolino - the dreamer
Pulcinella - dwarfish hunchback with a crooked nose who chases pretty girls.
Scarramuccia - Hero
Inamorato - male lover
Inamorata - female lover
La Ruffiana - old woman or mother who despised the lovers.
Cantarina and Ballerina - Dancers
Restoration Comedy 1660 - 1710 What was Restoration Comedy? Resoration Comedy was the renaissance of British theatre after the 18 year ban of drama performances. It is famous for it's comedic take on sexual explicitness which was requested by King Charles II personally. It was the first time women performed in theatre and emerged the first ever famous actors and actresses. Proscenium Arch Stage Parisian Melodrama 18th/19th Century Parisian melodrama was the first form of melodrama formed in the late 1700's in Paris.
It contained very little spokord as most of what was said was sung through song - Operetta.
It was very overdramatic to draw in the audience and was based on romance and murder themes.
Music was played in the background to add to the dramatic scenes like in theatre and TV today. What Is It? Victorian Melodrama 1802-1900 Is Victorian Melodrama Different To Parisian Melodrama? Differences Contains six stock characters, a hero, a villain, an aged parent, a servant, a heroine and a side kick.
Usually the hero was dumb but handsome and the villian had kidnapped the heroine for love and the hero had to save her.
Sometimes contained supernatural aspects
Sometimes very gothic Similarities Contained backing music to set the mood and scene
Contained some singing but most was scriptured speaking Nautical Melodrama Nautical Melodrama emerged in the early to mid 1800s.
These melodramas were about the sea and wars at sea.
This is also where the idea of Pirates came from as pirates were used a lot in Nautical Melodrama.
Urban Melodramas Urban Melodramas emerged in the mid 1800s when the industrial revolution was at it's peak. A lot of the urban melodramas were based on this and were also based on everday urban life on the city streets of London. This attracted many of the middle class to come and watch these urban melodramas as they were relatable as they were based on their lives. This has impacted on our modern day TV soaps. How Has The Victorian Era Made An Impact On Modern Day Theatre? The invention of the grammar phone
The invention of electricity and electric lighting
The invention of the typewriting to type out scripts
Melodramas are still used today in lots of different types of theatre.
The stock characters used are like a guideline for modern day playwrights in some aspects.
The themes involved have evolved into our theatre. Modern Day Theatre 1900 - Now Summary Modern day theatre still contains all aspects of theatre over the history but most have been renewed to suit modern audiences. Many thought that theatre would die out when the inventions of television and radio came about my theatre played a huge imapct on television with naturalism which makes tv programmes seem real. Also theatre got better with the inventions of speakers and lighting, this makes your theatre experience much more engaging with lighting that sets the mood and sometimes virtual backdrops and surround sound.
The most popular modern day theatre is the musical which wouldn't be here if it wasnt for parisian melodrama.
Overall theatre has changed drastically over the past a hundred years due to new technologies being made and in the future it will only get better and I doubt it will die out as it has been going on for millenia's. Thankyou For Watching