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Gowth & Expansion (1790-1825)
Transcript of Gowth & Expansion (1790-1825)
Industrial Revolution (I.R.)- New England
1st- Farming was difficult so people were willing to do different kinds of work.
2nd- there were rivers and streams to provide waterpower.
3rd- Close to Nat. Resources i.e. coal/iron deposits in Pennsylvania.
4th- Many ports where raw materials and finished goods were shipped.
Settlers poured into Illinois & other frontier areas west of the Appalachian Mountains during the 1800's.
1st Census- official count of a population- occurred in 1790.
U.S. - 4 million people.
Unity and Sectionalism
The Era of Good Feelings
Following the War of 1812 there was a lack of political division within the United Sates that helped to forge a sense of National Unity.
The Federalists were greatly weakened following their plan to secede from the Union was uncovered.
In 1816 James Monroe faced almost no opposition due to Americans questioning Federalist loyalty.
Unity & Sectionalism
Invention of new machines led to the I.R.
Spinning Jenny/ Water Frame/ Power Loom.
Saved time and Money.
1793- Eli Whitney of Massachusetts invented the:
Patents & Factories
Patent- gives an inventor the sole legal right to the invention and its profits for a certain period of time.
Samuel Slater brought British technology to the U.S.
Francis Cabot Lowell began the Factory System where all manufacturing steps are brought together in one place to increase efficiency.
Capitalism- Economic System of the United States
Individuals put their capital (money) into a business hoping that their business be successful and make a profit.
Free Enterprise- People are free to buy, sell, and produce whatever they want. (May work wherever they wish)
Major Elements of Free Enterprise:
Competition/ profit/ private property/ and economic freedom.
(South)- Cotton production rose dramatically thanks to the cotton gin and the growing textile industry in New England.
1790-1820 Cotton Production-
1790= 3,000 Bales/Per Year
1820= 300,000 Bales/ Per Year
Large business called corporations began to develop rapidly in the 1830's.
Corporations sold stock- shares of ownership in a company- to finance (pay for) improvement and development.
Cities come of Age
Growth of factories and trade led to the growth of towns and cities.
Many cities developed along rivers because factories could take advantage of water power and use the waterway as a trade route.
Older cities like Boston, New York, and Baltimore also grew as centers of commerce and trade.
Cities looked quite different than they do today-
Lacked sewers, paved roads/sidewalks.
Animals were the main mode of transportation.
Buildings were made of wood and brick.
Diseases and fire posed huge problems.
Cities & Towns offered many opportunities for employment as well as enjoyment.
1820 Census- 10 million people.
More than 2 million lived west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Roads & Turnpikes
Needed for travel & trade.
Private Companies built Turnpikes or toll roads.
Fees travelers paid in order to use the roads helped pay for their construction.
Ohio became a state in 1803.
1806 Congress approved funds to build a road to connect Ohio back to the east.
Construction on the road began in 1811.
River Travel- (2 Advantages)
Far more comfortable than traveling by roads.
Boats/ River Barges could carry far larger loads of farm products than wagons.
2 Problems w/ River Travel
Geography- most major rivers in the east flow in a north to south not east to west-
Direction that most people & goods were headed.
Second, traveling upstream by barge was extremely difficult.
In the 1780's & 1790's small weak steam engines were powering vessels on small weak rivers.
These engines could not withstand the strong currents and winds of major rivers nor open bodies of water.
1802 Robert Livingston hired Robert Fulton to develop a steamboat w/ a powerful engine.
Livingston wanted a steamboat to carry cargo and passengers up the Hudson River from New York City to Albany.
In 1807 Fulton had his steamboat, the Clermont, ready for a trial run on the Hudson.
The Clermont made the trip in under 32 hours.
(By sail it would have taken 4 days.)
The Clermont ushered in a new age of river travel.
The shipment of goods and people became cheaper and easier.
Cities like Cincinatti and St. Louis became huge.
Steamboats were great but they depended upon the existing river system and b/c rivers in North America flow mostly North to South they could not effectively link the East to the West.
How do Americans solve this problem?
Business & Government officials led by De Witt Clinton in New York developed a plan to link New York City w/ the Great Lakes region.
They would build a canal- (Definition) across NY State.
The Canal would connect Albany on the Hudson River to Buffalo on Lake Erie.
Thousands of Laborers, many of them Irish, worked on the 363 mile long Erie Canal.
Along the canal workers built a series of LOCKS-
Separate compartments in which water levels were raised or lowered.
Work on the canals was dangerous.
Death occurred from-
Canal Bed Collapse
Diseases from the Swamps
2 years after Construction began the Canal was completed on October 26, 1825.
B/c of the earthen embankments steamboats were not allowed to travel along the Erie Canal.
Instead wooden barges had to be pulled by a team of mules.
By the 1840's the embankments were reinforced to allow for steamboats to pull the wooden barges.
Early on the Er
Despite the fact that the Federalist Party barely existed as a national Party, many of its programs had gained popularity.
Support grew for tariffs to protect industries and a national bank.
Political differences between citizens even seemed to fade and a Boston Newspaper called these years the "Era of Good Feelings".
Monroe symbolized this time:
He had been involved in politics since the American Revolution and wore breeches (short pants) and powdered whigs- styles no longer in style at that time.
He represented a united American, free from political strife or conflict.
Following his election and Inauguration Monroe began to tour the Nation something that no President since Washington had done.
He received tremendous support even from Boston, the former Federalist stronghold.
In 1820 Monroe won reelection obtaining all but 1 electoral vote.
Sectionalism and the American System
Regional differences soon brought about an end to Era of Good Feelings.
Most Americans felt a strong allegiance to the region where they lived. (Loyalty to their region)
This Sectionalism grew more intense over national policies.
White Southerners for example supported slavery.
They argued that States were given the right in the Constitution to govern themselves.
Southerners believed that the federal government and people n the North were interfering with a state's right to maintain the institution of slavery.
The different regions also disagreed strongly on the need for tariffs, a national bank, and internal improvements.
Internal Improvements: were federal, state, and privately funded projects such as canals and roads.
3 Regional Spokepersons emerged in Congress.
John C. Calhoun
A planter from South Carolina and had called for war in 1812 as a member of the War Hawks.
He remained a nationalist for some time following the war supporting a tariff, a national bank, and internal improvements.
In 1820 however, Calhoun began to change his tune...
He emerged as a chief supported of STATE SOVEREIGNTY-
The idea that states have autonomous power, or the right to govern themselves.
As a result Calhoun became a strong opponent of national programs.
Calhoun and other Southerners opposed high tariffs.
They argued that tariffs raised the prices of manufactured goods that they could not make for themselves and that tariffs protected inefficient manufacturers.
1st elected in 1812 to represent his home state of New Hampshire he later represented Massachusetts in both the House and the Senate.
He supported free trade at first but later came to support the Tariff of 1816.
He also supported other policies that the thought would strengthen the nation and the north.
Webster gained fame as one of the greatest public speakers of his day.
"Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!"
Native of Kentucky was another member of the War Hawks in 1812.
He became Speaker of the House in 1811 and a leader who represented the interests of the Western states.
Also served as a member of the delegation that negotiated the Treaty of Ghent.
He became known as a leader who tried to resolve sectional disputes.
Sectional tension reached new heights in 1820.
Whether or not to allow slavery in states when they join the union.
The South wanted Missouri to be admitted as a slave state while Northerners wanted it to be free of slavery.
The issue was further complicated when Maine, still a part of Massachusetts, also applied for statehood.
Henry Clay helped work out a compromise that preserved the balance between the North and South.
The Missouri Compromise was reached in March of 1820 and allowed:
Missouri to enter as a slave state and Maine to enter as a free state.
In addition slavery was banned in the Louisiana Territory north of the 36 Degree 30'
The American System
Henry Clay created a program that consisted of his own political beliefs or policies.
He called that program the "American System" in 1824.
The program consisted of 3 parts.
1. A Protective Tariff
2. Program for Internal Improvements
3. A National Bank
Clay believed that his American System would benefit all sections of the nation.
Not everyone saw Clay's program in such positive terms.
Many Southerners did not see the benefits of the tariff or internal improvements.
In the end little of Clay's American System went into effect.
Congress did eventually adopt some internal improvements, but not to the scale that Clay had hoped for.
Congress did create a Second National Bank in 1816 but it remained controversial.
McCulloch v. Maryland
The State of Maryland imposed a tax on the Baltimore branch of the 2nd National Bank of the United States, a Federal institution.
The Bank refused to pay the tax.
Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Maryland had no right to tax the Bank and argued that the Constitution gave certain powers to the federal government, such as collecting taxes, borrowing money, and regulating commerce.
Marshall claimed that the Bank was necessary to carrying out these powers.
Marshall then stated that the Federal Government could use any method that was necessary to carry out its powers, as long as it was not forbidden by the Constitution.
Marshall also claimed that a state government could not interfere with a federal agency that was using its constitutional powers.
Gibbons v. Ogden
States could not enact legislation that would interfere with congressional power over interstate commerce.
Believers in states rights believed that these Supreme Court cases increased federal power at the expense of state power while nationalists welcomed the rulings.
The War of 1812 heightened Americans' pride in their country.
Also forced Americans to realize that the United States needed to establish a new relationship with the "Old World"- aka Europe.
Relations With Britain
1817 Rush-Bagot Treaty- The U.S. and Britain agreed to limit the number of naval vessels on the Great Lakes and remove weapons located along the border of the U.S. and British Canada.
The Convention of 1818 set the boundary of the Louisiana Territory between the United States and Canada at the 49th Parallel.
This created a demilitarized border meaning that both sides agreed to maintain their side of the border w/out armed forces.
Through John Quincy Adams’s (Sec. of State) efforts the U.S. also gained the right to settle in the Oregon Country.
Relations with Spain
Spain owned East Florida and also claimed West Florida.
The U.S. argued that West Florida was a part of the Louisiana Purchase.
In 1810 and 1812 the U.S. simply added parts of Wests Florida to Louisiana and Mississippi.
Spain objected but took no action.
General Andrew Jackson was ordered to stop Seminole raids on America from Florida.
In April 1818, Jackson invaded East Florida and seized two Spanish Forts.
Sec. of State Adams nor Sec. of War Armstrong had authorized Jackson's actions but neither attempted to stop him.
In 1819 the United States gained East Florida.
Spain abandoned all claims to West Florida.
In return the U.S. gave up its claims to Spanish Texas.
Spain was losing power in its vast empire, especially in Mexico.
In the fall of 1810 a priest, Miguel Hidalgo led a rebellion in Mexico.
He called for racial equality and redistribution of land.
The Spanish defeated the revolutionary forces and executed Hidalgo but in 1821 Mexico gained its independence.
Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin
Simon Bolivar, aka the Liberator, led the independence movement that won freedom for the present day countries of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Bolivia, and Ecuador.
Jose de San Martin successfully achieved independence for Chile and Peru.
By 1824 Spain lost control of most of South America.
The Monroe Doctrine
In 1822 the Quadruple Alliance- France, Austria, Russia, and Prussia- discussed a plan to help Spain regain its American holdings.
The possibility of increased European involvement in North America led President Monroe to take action.
He issued a statement, later known as the Monroe Doctrine on Dec. 2, 1923.
The U.S. would not interfere with any existing European colonies in the Americas.
However, North and South America "Are henceforth not to be considered subjects for future colonization by any European powers."
Important element to U.S. foreign policy.