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Plants

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Kevin D

on 12 May 2015

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Transcript of Plants

Over 250 native species
Have non-woody stems
Stems die at the end of the growing season, but parts of the plant survive under or close to the ground from season to season
Swamp pink
Native to NJ
Threatened species
Introduction of invasive species, and subtle changes in groundwater and surface water hydrology
Low genetic diversity
Habitat: wetlands, on hummocks and fringes of swamps
Has largest population in NJ
Plants
Do Now
What types of plants do you think you'll see in the Pine Barrens? Why?
What are plants?
A living organism that is part of the multicellular eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
It grows in a permanent site, absorbs water and inorganic substances through its roots, and synthesizes nutrients in its leaves by photosynthesis using chlorophyll.

A Quick Review
Photosynthesis
Cycles
Services
Food - everything we eat comes from plants
Air - oxygen from plants
Water - regulate water cycle, transpiration
Medicine - one quarter of prescription drugs from plants
Climate - stores carbon
Fire & Plants

Many plant species in naturally fire-affected environments require fire to germinate, establish, or to reproduce
Pyriscence, where seeds are released by a trigger of fire or smoke
Occurs in chaparral and grassland biomes
What is the Pine Barrens?
What is its importance?
The main purposes of the Pine Barrens is to increase people's knowledge and appreciation of New Jersey Pine Barrens plants by showing that pineland plants can be attractive landscape plants.

Despite its proximity to Philadelphia and New York City, and that the Garden State Parkway and Atlantic City Expressway run through it, the Pine Barrens remains largely rural and undisturbed.
What is in the Pine Barrens?
850 species of plants,
39 species of mammals
over 300 species of birds
59 reptile and amphibian species
91 fish species

The Pinelands Comprehensive Management Plan requires that, in certain areas, 80% of the plants used for landscaping be native pinelands species.
What is the Pine Barrens used for?
Industries in the Pine Barrens are primarily related to agriculture and tourism.

The Pine Barrens territory helps recharge the 17 trillion gallon Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer containing some of the purest water in the United States.
Intro to the Pine Barrens
Categories of Plants
Trees
Typically tall perennial woody plants with a single stem (trunk)
Supporting branches and leaves in most species
Only about 20 native tree species
Shrubs
Any multi-stemmed perennial woody plant
Smaller than a tree, usually having multiple stems branching from or near the ground.
About 68 native shrub species
Ferns
Not many species of ferns
Vascular plants that reproduce by means of spores
Sucrose and other organic nutrients and xylem to transport water and minerals
Can have stems and leaves
Aquatic and Land Herbaceous
Orchids
Diverse family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colorful and often fragrant,
All in Pine Barrens are terrestrial herbaceous
Cosmopolitan, occurring in almost every habitat apart from glaciers
Grasses
Vegetation consisting of typically short plants with long narrow leaves, growing wild or cultivated
Jointed stems, slender sheathing leaves, and flowers
Over fifty native species of grasses
Vines
A plant with long, trailing or climbing stems
About 16 native vines
Fruits
Carnivorous
Plants that derive nutrients from trapping and consuming animals or insects
3 native carnivorous plants: pitcher plants, sundews, flytraps
Adaptations: can survive in wet, nutrient poor acid soils
Pitch Pine
Native to NJ
Coniferous Tree
Habitat: can inhabit a large number of difference habitats, uplands, wetlands
Adaptations: can withstand drought (have water storage tissues in roots, stems, and leaves), fires (depend on it to reproduce), and repeated cutting
Uses: not a major timber tree because of crooked trunks, mainly used for construction, pulp, and fuel
Food: Pine seeds eaten by many organisms, seedlings are used for browse
Atlantic White Cedar
Native to East Coast
Coniferous Tree
Habitat: wetlands, damp to wet soils, in swamps or along watercourses
Adaptations: adapted to acid (pH 5.5 or lower), wet, lowland sites within 200 feet elevation of sea levels
Uses: telephone poles, boat railing, ice cream tubs
Buffer: can be used in coastal buffer sites in wetlands to restore cedar swamps
Food: preferred food of deer
Swamp Azalea
Native to NJ
Deciduous
Habitat: Swamps and swamp edges
Uses: Highly toxic, may be fatal if eaten
Has a very pleasant clove-like fragrance that accompanies the bloom and can saturate the air
Mountain Laurel
Native to East Coast
State flower of Pennsylvania and Connecticut
Naturally found on rocky slopes and in mountainous forest areas.
Habitat: dry to moist areas
Uses: toxic to several animals, including humans, used in some medicines
Whiskey is antidote
Wood of the mountain laurel is heavy and strong
Suitable for wreaths, furniture, bowls and other household items
Royal Fern
Cinnamon Fern
Native to Missouri
Habitat: wetlands, wet woods, swamps, open marshes, and bogs
Uses: used to treat rheumatism, headache, chills, colds and snakebites
Food: eaten by hungry deer
Do not actually produce cinnamon; they are named for the color of the fertile fronds
Pickerel weed
Native
Habitat: shallow fresh waters, muddy shores, margins of streams
Uses: submerged portions are used as habitat for microorganisms
Food: food for geese, muskrats, deers, humans can eat the seeds
Adaptations: tolerant of low soil oxygen, suvive unfavorable events as seeds underground
Plants of the Pine Barrens
The Pine Barrens, also known as the Pinelands or simply the Pines, is a heavily forested area of coastal plain stretching across more than seven counties of southern New Jersey.
"Pine barrens" refers to the area's sandy, acidic, nutrient-poor soil.
White Fringed Orchid
Native
Rare and threatened species in North America
Conversion of native prairie to croplands, fire suppression, overgrazing, and habitat fragmentation
Habitat: wetlands, bogs, moist banks of lakes and rivers
Adaptations: persists in areas that have been lightly grazed, periodically burned, or regularly mowed
Yellow Crested Orchid
Native
Habitat: wetlands, damp open boggy areas, woods, cedar swamps
Rare orchid to find in the Pine Barrens
It is considered a smaller version of the common yellow fringed orchid
Pitch Pine
Swamp azalea
Mountain Laurel
Royal Fern
Native to Europe, Africa and Asia
Deciduous Fern
Only vascular plant found on all 7 continents
Habitat: swampy woods, marshes, banks of streams and bogs
Uses: roots used to soothe mucous membranes, medicines
Food: young shoots of the fern (fiddleheads), can be eaten as food, thought to have an asparagus-like taste.
Pickerel weed
Pitcher Plant
Sundews
One of the largest genera of carnivorous plants; 194 species
Produces honey-like lure that holds insects
Enzymes that convert insect protein to plant food
Habitat: wetlands, sandy or acidic soil
Adaptations: acidic soils, eat insects for nutrients, long stalks to attract pollinators
Tall, slender tube that contains liquid to digest insects
Pitfall traps – a prey-trapping mechanism featuring a deep cavity filled with liquid
Adaptation: grow in locations where the soil is too poor in minerals and/or too acidic for most plants to survive
Symbiotic relationship with shrew tree: the tree shrews feed on nectar that the plant produces but the pitcher provides nitrates and other nutrients that the plant needs
Pitcher plant
Sundews
White Fringed Orchid
Yellow Crested Orchid
Switchgrass
Native
Habitat: dry to moist sandy soil of open woods and watersides
Uses: soil conservation and to control erosion, game cover, biomass crop for ethanol and butanol
Adaptations: can grow and thrive in many weather conditions, soil types, and land conditions
Bushy Beard Grass
Native
Habitat: moist or wet pine barrens
Uses: ornamental landscaping, food for wildlife, conservation practices
Adaptations: can tolerate hot climate and coastal conditions, found in inundated or saturated loamy soil, can grow in low fertility areas
Switchgrass
Bushy Beard Grass
Compact Dodder
Native
Habitat: meadows and fields, shrublands
Parasite to herbaceous, woody plant species, and most shrubs
Is a consumer rather than a producer
Endangered species
Walter's Greenbriar
Native to Bahamas, Turk Islands and southern USA
Habitat: wetlands, deep swampy areas of the Pine Barrens, along river banks
Uses: extract from the root is used in several drinks and herbal drinks, medicine
Adaptations: can grown thorns on its vine and use its tendrils to climb up other plants
Walter's Greenbriar
A plants ability to manufacture its own food
Carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil react with the sun's energy - oxygen is byproduct
Occurs in the chloroplasts
Swamp pink
Compact Dodder
Sources
http://www.bgci.org/plantconservationday/whyplantsimportant/
http://www.pineypower.com/plants.htm
http://www.pinelandsalliance.org/downloads/pinelandsalliance_102.pdf
http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/northamerica/unitedstates/newjersey/placesweprotect/pine-barrens-program-area.xml
https://books.google.com/books?id=ZQY9AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA250&lpg=PA250&dq=pine+barrens+plant+adaptations&source=bl&ots=EZ4-jAxpQL&sig=P-ZS8o3OHzngvHjMazLdWCMD_kw&hl=en&sa=X&ei=2gNMVdyAGZDisATzyYEw&ved=0CFsQ6AEwCw#v=onepage&q=drought&f=false
http://www.pinelandsalliance.org/ecology/plants/trees/
http://plants.usda.gov/factsheet/pdf/fs_chth2.pdf
http://www.nj.com/inside-jersey/index.ssf/2014/10/predator_plants_meet_the_carnivores_in_the_garden.html
http://www.ehow.com/info_12080764_sundew-adaptations.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panicum_virgatum
http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_angl2.pdf
http://www.ncsu.edu/project/dendrology/index/plantae/vascular/seedplants/gymnosperms/conifers/pine/pinus/australes/pitch/rigida.html
http://www.theflowerexpert.com/content/aboutflowers/stateflowers/pennsylvania-state-flowers
https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/osmunda/regalis/
http://www.fws.gov/northeast/njfieldoffice/endangered/swamppink.html
http://aquaplant.tamu.edu/plant-identification/alphabetical-index/pickerelweed/
http://www.pinelandsalliance.org/ecology/plants/orchids/crestedyelloworchid/
https://forums.njpinebarrens.com/threads/to-find-a-yellow-crested-orchid.5748/
https://books.google.com/books?id=nuSwZt4W2TIC&pg=PA135&lpg=PA135&dq=yellow+crested+orchid&source=bl&ots=AZy5t4dhBv&sig=4YTKR8itzUXQDOLSc20hDKS3zmI&hl=en&sa=X&ei=oftPVfj2GLWIsQSRjoD4Dg&ved=0CFoQ6AEwDQ#v=onepage&q=yellow%20crested%20orchid&f=false
http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_angl2.pdf
https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/cuscuta/compacta/
http://www.main.nc.us/naturenotebook/plants/dodder.html
http://marbleheadconservancy.org/trails-and-forestry-projects/invasive-plants/roundleaf-greenbriar/
http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_vaco.pdf
http://umaine.edu/publications/2253e/
http://www.pineypower.com/cranberries.htm
Highbush Blueberries
Native
Major blueberry of commerce
80% of NJ's 52 million pound harvest is from the Pine Barrens
Habitat: wetlands, drier upland slopes
Vigorous sprouting after fire or disturbance
Cranberries

Cranberries
Cinnamon Fern
Water Cycle
Transpiration: when plants return water in their leaves to the sun
Occurs by evaporation of water from plant
Carbon Cycle
Plants take in carbon during photosynthesis
Combines carbon with water and the sun's energy to create sugars and oxygen molecules
Plants are directly related to all cycles of Earth: Water, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon.
Yellow Fringed Orchid

Native to the Pinelands
Found growing wild along stream and river banks and other open and semi-open damp habitats (wetlands)
Majority of harvest in October
NJ is third largest producer
Harvested commonly in a wet or water harvest
A part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower, one or more ovaries
A way for plants to disperse seeds
Nitrogen Cycle
Phosphorous Cycle
Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plants
Plants take up inorganic phosphate from the soil.
When the plant dies, it decays, and the organic phosphate is returned to the soil.
Plants use the nitrate ions made in nitrification to produce amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids, and vitamins
Full transcript