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intro to dosage calculation

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by

Jennifer Thankachan

on 15 January 2016

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Transcript of intro to dosage calculation

intro to dosage calculation
Converting within the Metric System...
the "dancing decimal"
Converting within the Metric System...
when going from a smaller unit (mL) to a larger one (L), move the decimal to the
left
going to a larger unit, the number gets smaller

when going from a larger unit (L) to a smaller one (mL), move the decimal to the
right
going to a smaller unit, the number gets larger
Practice Conversions
Rules of Expression
Conclusion
Metric System
most accurate
Apothecary System
no longer relevant
Household System
convert to metric
Unit System
heparin, insulin
Milliequivalent System
potassium
Keep calm and use the metric system...
Household System
teach patients for liquid home medications
not as accurate as Metric
convert volumes to Metric for I&O documentation
need-to-know conversion:
1 kg = 2.2 pound
1 cup = 8 oz
1 oz = 30 mL
1 tsp = 5 mL
1 tbsp = 15 mL

Unit System
independent system- cannot convert among other systems
heparin
insulin
some antibiotics
some hormones
for example...
500 mL (smaller) = 0.5 L (larger)
so as we convert to a larger unit, the number gets smaller
Metric Units of Measure
LENGTH
centimeter (cm)
-convert inches to cm
VOLUME
milliliter (mL or ml)
liter (L)
WEIGHT
microgram (mcg)
milligram (mg)
gram (g)
kilogram (kg)
-convert pounds to kg
Abbreviations: the do's
and the do-not's
Systems of
Measurement
Professor Jennifer Thankachan, RN, MSN
(related to medication administration)
1 L = 1,000 mL

1 g = 1,000 mg

1 mg = 1,000 mcg
its a matter of 3 decimal places
an inverse relationship
0.25 mg (larger) = 250 mcg (smaller)
as we convert to a smaller unit, the number gets larger
500 mL = ____ L
250 mcg = ____ mg
1.5 L = ____ mL
25 mg = ____ mcg
1,000 mg = ____ g
1 g = ____ mcg

use correct abbreviation & label every value with a unit
use decimals, not fractions
always include leading zero
(
0
.25,
0
.1,
0
.625)
drop trailing zeroes
(convert 500 mL to 0.5
00
; becomes 0.5)
Milliequivalent System
independent system- cannot convert among other systems
potassium
Frequently Used Conversions
1 kg = 2.2 lb
5 mL = 1 t, tsp
15 mL = T, tbs
30 mL = 1 oz
240 mL = 1 cup
2.54 cm = 1 inch
Drug Orders
date & time
name of drug
dosage form
(sometimes)
route
administration frequency
restrictions/specifications
(if applicable)
HCP signature; reg. # for controlled drugs
What's missing here?
40 mEq IV daily

Digoxin 0.25 mg daily

Nifedipine 10 mg PO
Rounding Rules
if your answer is less
than 1, round to the
hundredth place
(two decimal spaces)


if your answer is greater
than 1, round to the tenth
place (one decimal space)
p. 781
Full transcript