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Chemistry 20 Bonding Project

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Jodie Katherine

on 11 October 2012

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Transcript of Chemistry 20 Bonding Project

A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms. Chemical Bonding An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond that is formed through the electrostatic bond between two oppositely charged ions. Ionic bonds are formed between a cation [which is usually a metal] and an anion [which is usually a nonmetal.] Ionic Bonding A covalent bond is a form of chemical bonding that occurs by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms from non-metals. Covalent bonds can be categorized as either polar or non-polar. Covalent/Molecular Bonding A Metallic bond is the reaction between molecules within metals called alkali reactive force. It involves the sharing of free electrons among a lattice of metal atoms.
It is the simultaneous attraction between positive nuclei and active valence electrons in a metal. Metallic Bonding Molecular Shapes Ionic Substances REFERENCES Chemical Properties A polar molecule has quite different electronegativities between the two electrons, where as a non-polar molecule has similar electronegativities. In this diagram, H2O is shown in its covalent bond.The oxygen electrons are shown to be shared and paired up with a hydrogen electron in order to have a covalent bond. Here we have the NaCl (Sodium Chloride) Lewis Diagram and Crystal Lattice. In the crystal lattice, it shows one Sodium being bonded to one Chlorine. NaCl is also commonly referred to as Table Salt. Pictured above is the Ammonia [NH3] in it's crystal lattice and Lewis Diagram. The Lattice shows three Hydrogens bonded to one Nitrogen to create this bond. Ammonia is used as a household cleaning product and is fairly common. Tetrahedral Pyramidal Trigonal Planar Angular/Bent Linear A Tetrahedral Shape has a central atom that is located at the center with four atoms that are located at the corners of a tetrahedron. CH4 (methane) is an example of a tetrahedral molecular shape. The bond angle for a this shape is 109.5°. An Angular molecular shape, also referred to as v-shaped or bent, is a molecular shape that has a central atom with two others coming off it to form a v-shape. The bond angle for the atoms is 104.45°. Common examples of the angular shape is H2O [as shown above], OF2, NO2, SCl2 and CH2. In a trigonal planar there is one atom at the center and three atoms at the corners of a triangle. The bond angle is 120°. Common examples are BF3, H2CO and SO3. BH3 OF2 The Linear Molecular Shape has the arrangement of three or more atoms placed at a bond angle of 180°. CO2, HCN, NO2, BeF2 and N3 are common examples. BeF2 A trigonal pyramidal shape has one atom at the apex and three atoms at the corners of a trigonal base. The bond angle is 107°. Common examples are NH3, PCl3, PH3 and XeO3. PH3 NaCl Properties
Molecular formula - NaCl
Molar mass - 58.44 g mol1
Appearance - Colorless crystals
Odor - Odorless
Density - 2.165 g cm3
Melting point - 801 C, 1074 K, 1474 F
Boiling point - 1413 C, 1686 K, 2575 F
Solubility in water - 359 g L1
Solubility in ammonia - 21.5 g L1
Solubility in methanol - 14.9 g L1
Refractive index (nD) - 1.5442 (at 589 nm) Sodium Chloride is commonly referred to as Table Salt. It's used everyday in many different things such as food and sometimes in medications. Properties
Molecular formula - NaOH
Molar mass - 39.9971 g mol-1
Appearance - White, waxy, opaque crystals
Odor - odorless
Density - 2.13 g/cm3
Melting point - 318 °C, 591 K, 604 °F
Boiling point - 1388 °C, 1661 K, 2530 °F
Solubility in water - 111 g/100 mL (at 20 °C)
Solubility in methanol - 23.8 g/100 mL
Solubility in ethanol - <<13.9 g/100 mL
Vapor pressure - <2.4 kPa (at 20 °C)
Acidity (pKa) - 13
Refractive index (nD) - 1.3576 NaOH is typically known as sodium hydroxide, which is used as drain cleaner for sinks and tubs. NaOH Properties
Molecular formula - NaHCO3
Molar mass - 84.007 g mol−1
Appearance - White crystals
Odor - odorless
Density - 2.20 g cm−3[1]
Melting point - 50 °C, 323 K, 122 °F (decomposes)
Boiling point - 851 °C, 1124 K, 1564 °F
Solubility in water - 9 g/100 mL
69 g/L (0 °C)[2]
96 g/l (20 °C)[3]
165 g/l (60 °C)[3]
236 g/L (100 °C)[2]
Solubility - insoluble in ethanol
log P-0.82
Acidity (pKa) - 10.329[4]
6.351 (carbonic acid) - [4]
Refractive index (nD) - 1.3344 Sodium bicarbonate, which has the chemical formula NaHCO3 is a cleaning agent in some households, as well as an acid neutralizer. Properties
Molecular formula - CaCO3
Molar mass - 100.0869 g/mol
Appearance - Fine white powder
Odor - odorless
Density - 2.711 g/cm3 (calcite)
2.83 g/cm3 (aragonite)
Melting point
825 °C (aragonite)
1339 °C (calcite)[2]
Boiling point - decomposes
Solubility in water - 0.0013 g/100 mL (25°C)[3]
Solubility product, Ksp 4.8×10−9[1]
Solubility in dilute acids - soluble
Acidity (pKa) 9.0
Refractive index (nD) 1.59 CaCO3 CaCO3, also known as Calcium Carbonate, is a common substance. It is a commonly found in rocks in all parts of the world and is a crucial part of marine shell formation. Properties
Molecular formula - KF
Molar mass - 58.0967 g/mol (anhydrous)94.1273 g/mol (dihydrate)
Appearance - white crystals
Density - 2.48 g/cm3
Melting point858 °C (anhydrous)
41 °C (dihydrate)
19.3 °C (trihydrate)
Boiling point
Solubility in water
anhydrous:92 g/100 mL (18 °C)
102 g/100 mL (25 °C)
dihydrate: 349.3 g/100 mL (18°C)
Solubility - soluble in HF; insoluble in alcohol Potassium fluoride is used in manufacturing and chemistry. KF Molecular Substances Properties
Molecular formula - CH4
Molar mass - 16.04 g mol1
Appearance - Colorless gas
Odor - Odorless
Density - 655.6 g mL1
Melting point - -182 C, 90.7 K, -296 F
Boiling point - -164--160 C, 109-113 K, -263--256 FSolubility in water - 22.7 mg Methane is quite commonly used as a fuel, but in regular conditions, methane is a gas, therefore hard to move about. CH4 CO Properties
Molecular formula - CO
Molar mass - 28.010 g/mol
Appearance - colourless gas
Odor - odorless
Density - 789 kg/m3, liquid1.250 kg/m3 at 0 C, 1 atm
1.145 kg/m3 at 25 C, 1 atm
Melting point -205.02 C, 68 K, -337 F
Boiling point - 191.5 C, 82 K, -313 F
Solubility in water - 27.6 mg/1 L (25 C)
Solubility - soluble in chloroform, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, ethanol, ammonium hydroxide, benzene Carbon monoxide (CO) is a highly poisonous gas to humans and animals when found in high concentrations. It's a colourless, odorless gas that is slightly lighter than air. Properties
Molecular formula - NO
Molar mass - 30.01 g mol−1
Appearance - Colourless gas
Density - 1.3402 g dm−3
Melting point - −164 °C, 109 K, -263 °F
Boiling point - −152 °C, 121 K, -242 °F
Solubility in water - 74 cm3 dm−3 Nitric oxide is rather important to the chemical community. It is produced naturally as electrical discharge from lightning storms. It's a by-product of combustion of substances in the air. NO Properties
Molecular formula - N2O
Molar mass - 44.013 g/mol
Appearance - colorless gas
Density - 1.977 g/L (gas)
Melting point - −90.86 °C (182.29 K)
Boiling point - −88.48 °C (184.67 K)
Solubility in water0.15 g/100 ml (15 °C)
Solubility - soluble in alcohol, ether, sulfuric acid
Vapor pressure - 5150 kPa (20 °C) Nitrous Oxide, also known as laughing gas, is a non-flammable gas with a slightly sweet odor/taste. It's commonly used by dentists as an anesthetic. N2O Properties
Molecular formula - NH3
Molar mass - 17.031 g/mol
Appearance - Colourless gas with strong pungent odor
Density - 0.86 kg/m3 (1.013 bar at boiling point)
0.73 kg/m3 (1.013 bar at 15 °C)
681.9 kg/m3 at −33.3 °C (liquid)[1]
817 kg/m3 at −80 °C (transparent solid)[2]
Melting point
−77.73 °C, 195 K, -108 °F
Boiling point
−33.34 °C, 240 K, -28 °F
Solubility in water
47% (0 °C)
31% (25 °C)
28% (50 °C)[3]
Acidity (pKa) - 32.5 (−33 °C),[4] 10.5 (DMSO)
Basicity (pKb) - 4.75 Ammonia is used in many cleaning products for households, as well as it's use for pharmaceutical purposes. NH3 All the alloys, including Brass, are examples of Metallic bonds. Brass has many different kidns of alloys, but the most popular one consists of Copper and Zinc. This is what we call Metallic bonding. The boiling point of a chemical/substance/liquid is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor. BOILING POINT MELTING POINT The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid.
ie. Ice in it's solid form can melt into liquid with very little heat added to it. Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gas substance solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a homogeneous solution of the solute in the solvent. The solubility of a substance depends on temperature and pressure. SOLUBILITY Toxicity is the degree to which a substance can damage an organism. Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole organism, such as an animal or plant, as well as the effect on a insides of the organism, such as a cell or an organ such as the heart, liver, kidney, etc. The Skull and crossbones represent toxicity. TOXICITY The heat of combustion is the energy released as heat when a compound [ionic or molecular] undergoes combustion with oxygen under regular conditions. The chemical reaction is normally a hydrocarbon reacting with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, water and heat. HEAT OF COMBUSTION http://chemistry.about.com/
Nelson Chemistry 20-30 Textbook
In the picture shown at right, it showns a fixed cation surrounded by a sea of electrons. It is a metal surrounded by many electrons, hence the name metallic bonding.
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