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Transcript of SUSTAINABLE AIRLINES
Rising fuel cost
Machine cannot replace people
Airports and manufacturers are making money but not the airline industry
Thursday, March 20, 2014
Vol XCIII, No. 311
HISTORY OF AIRLINES
Aviation contributes a small but growing proportion to climate change (less than 4% of man-made atmospheric emissions)
More severe weather patterns such as winds, storms and visibility affecting capacity or efficiency
Sea level rises affecting low lying airports
Changing wind directions affecting runway configuration
Economic burden caused by climate change may reduce potential disposable income and prosperity to travel.
BIRTH - 1903
New way of traveling
a way of making a living
first scheduled airline was in Florida in Jan 1, 1914
St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line
$5.00, 2 flights per day
flying was risky until 1925
Air Commerce Act certifies aircraft, license pilot
United and American Airlines emerged
Civil Aeronautics Board (1938) determines route of travel and price
Federal Aviation Agency (1958) manage safety operation
Gulf War and recession impacted the airline industry in early 1990s.
economic downturn in 2001
business level decreased but fuel and labor cost increased
9/11 sharp decline in customer
return profitably in 2006 until now
1. Water Vapor
- Resides in the Troposphere for 9 days, but aircraft water emissions in the Stratosphere can be months to years. Radiative effect influence climate and perturbation of stratospheric ozone.
2. Carbon Dioxide
- Unavoidable end product of the combustion process. the rate of growth of aviation CO2 emission is faster than economic growth.
3. Nitrogen Oxides
- Increase ozone and its greenhouse effects. NOx emission at the altitude 18 km or above tend to deplete ozone
- Sulfate, Aerosols, and Soot have a huge impact on the ozone layer
- Lines of ice crystals formed by the aircraft. Contrails warm the earth's surface. Projected to grow 0.5% by 2050, faster than the rate of growth in aviation fuel consumption.
6. Cirrus Clouds
- 30% of the earth is covered with Cirrus clouds. An increase of Cirrus clouds tend to warm the earth's surface.
Cardiovascular and Psycho-physiological effects
Interference with communication
Local Air Quality
a mixture of wet and dry deposition from the atmosphere containing higher than normal of nitric and sulfuric acids, primarily Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide from fossil fuel combustion.
Air quality related emissions come from airport building and ground transportation such as cars, buses and trains.
THIRD PARTY RISK
The closer air routes are to an airport, the greater the concentration of over-flight and hence of risk. The number of people in risk areas is increasing as the number of over-flights increase.
Visible growth in Asia, Africa and the Middle East but growth in Europe and North America was stagnant
OTHER POLLUTION CAUSED BY AIRLINES
1. Waste water
2. Food Waste
Average airline passenger generated about 1/2 kg of waste per flight. 300 passengers = 150 kg = 331 lbs
While 75% of on board waste was recyclable, only about 20% was being recycled
Challenges to airline recycling are quarantine regulations (fears of contamination from overseas) and the logistics of providing recycling collection facilities at airports
Credits for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions made at another locations, such as wind farms.
Wind farms create renewable energy and reduce the use of fossil fuel
Based on consensus, we need to reduce 80% of our emission by 2050 to prevent unwanted impacts on the economy and climate.
Airlines offset because they are an integral part of climate change.
Carbon offsetting does not provide an answer to climate change but play in the overall approach to carbon management.
A tool to help individuals and organizations track carbon emissions.
Carbon calculators determines carbon footprints, through fuel bills and annual travel patterns.
Also known as emission trading, is a tool to limit Greenhouse Gas emissions.
schemes are the most popular way t0 regulate CO2 and other type of emissions.
It begins by setting a cap on allowable emissions then distributes/ auctions off emissions allowances that total the cap.
Members who do not have enough allowances to cover their emissions must either make reductions/ buy another firm's spare credits
Members who have extra allowances can sell/ bank them for future use.
IETA (International Emissions Trading Associations) is the world's carbon market
Carbon Trade Exchange allow people to purchase and sell carbon credits.
Foreign airlines that failed to comply with the Cap-and-Trade program must be forced to pay for their pollution.
Must ensure airlines from China and India to meet their requirements.
CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION
develop international Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) used to develop U.S civil aviation regulation.
improve environmental performance.
supports aviation infrastructure management, statistics, forecasting and economic analysis.
target: carbon neutral by 2020
this is the fourth consecutive year Virgin America topped the U.S. ratings
It is the greenest overall U.S airline
Leader in its in-flight food offerings, recycling and biofuel research
Offers some of the best carbon offsets for passenger interested in mitigated their carbon footprints from traveling
Ambitious target of reducing carbon emissions by 30% between 2007 and 2020.
Virgin Atlantic Foundation work with charity partner.
Ranked n0. 1 Fuel-Efficient Carrier in the U.S
Eco-friendly serviceware for in-flight food and beverages
installed the first airport wind-turbine solar panel in Nome, Alaska
Nominated as the Environmental Airline of the year
Modern Fuel-Efficient Fleet and Eco-Friendly Seating Configuration
Bring less, pay less program
Electric-Powered Baggage Tractors
allow Spirit to re-power
assets, reducing fuel
Industry leader in fuel efficiency and greenhouse gas reductions.
One of the most efficient fleets, equipped with winglets.
Winglets save on fuel consumption by 2.5%
Environmentally friendly cabin material
Ground Idle Speeds control the amount of fuel consumed during take off and landing.
Eco-friendly Engine wash
- Eco Skies
- Environmental Strategy
- Sustainable Operations
- Improving the Environment
- One Destination
- Environmental Policy
Air New Zealand
- Environmental Trust
- Sustainable Development
differentiate product/ services to be environmentally sound
Eco-labelling is important to market a product to green consumer.
educate consumers and builders about green design and building practices.
rank the accomplishments achieved by different projects
used for marketing purposes in a specific market
promote sustainable practice as the standard practice.
founded in Havana, Cuba, in April 1945.
The prime vehicle for inter-airline cooperation in promoting safe, reliable, secure and economical air service.
IATA has 240 members from 118 nations in every part of the globe.
to be the force for value creation and innovation driving a safe, secure and profitable air transport industry that sustainably connects and enriches our world.
represent, lead and serve the airline industry
Cargo (dangerous goods, live animals, perishables), Environment (alternative fuels, Carbon Offset, Environmental Assessment), Operation and Infrastructure, People, Safety and security.
OTHER MAIN SOLUTION
Improving efficiency (70% more efficient in last 40 years)
Winglets (reduce drag, 3% more efficient)
Use of Carbon Composites in build (lighter aircraft)
Traditional fuel mixed with bio fuel (Algae-based fuel, Hydro fuel and Solar energy)
Airbus A380 and Boeing B787 currently the most efficient.
OTHER MAIN SOLUTION
Reduce weight on board
use of alternative power units
New landing procedures
INFRASTRUCTURE IMPROVEMENTS :
Reduce fuel wasted through inefficient routing
more direct routing
Provide incentives for the industry to reduce emissions through buying more efficient aircrafts
Funding research development