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Memory

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Ropchan 123

on 11 March 2015

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Transcript of Memory

Emotions
The Psychology of Memory
Short-Term
Memory
Challenge
Here are the Rules!
- You have 30 seconds to QUIETLY memorize as many figures as you can.

- You may not write down what you see.

- No cheating!
How did you do?
- Research shows that the average
young adult (18-24) cannot memorize
more than 9 items in the time frame
given.

- Did you memorize more than 9?

- How did you do it?
What is Memory?
In psychology,
memory
is an organism's ability to store, retain, and subsequently recall information.
Processes:
Transduced or Translated:
Sensory inputs from the environment are turned into neural energy by the sensory receptors.
Encoding or registration:
Categorizing and comparing of received information with information in long-term memory
Storage:
If the input is important, you are likely to rehearse it and transfer it to Long-Term Memory (LTM)
Classification:
A basic and generally accepted classification of memory is based on the duration of memory retention and identifies three

distinct types of memory:
sensory memory
,
short term memory
, and
long term memory
.
Short Term Memory (STM)
:
aka working memory
some of the information in sensory memory is then transferred to short term memory
STM lasts up to 30 seconds without rehearsal
Long Term Memory (LTM):
LTM has almost unlimited capacity for potentially unlimited duration (sometimes a whole lifespan)
Sensory Memory:
A very brief memory for sensory information.
approximately 200-500 ms after presentation
Allows us a very short period of time to review the overwhelming amount of sensory information. Most information is discarded, but some is selected for more extensive rehearsal.
Example-George Sperling experiment:
You will be shown a 3x3 grid of letters for less than a second
Most people can only remember
3-4
letters even though they saw
all of them
You
forget
most of them by the time you report them
Sensory Information Storage (SIS):
ex. when you wave your finger in front of your face, its shadow lasts for 0.25 s
SIS Visual:
Maintains an
image
of what we have seen for a few tenths of a second after the stimulus has appeared. This kind of memory is called
iconic.
In class experiment:
You will have 5 seconds to look at a set of letters, and then I will turn off the projector. 20 seconds later, you will write down the letters in the order that you remember them.
Memories from long ago are hazy and incomplete at first as you don't typically remember complex events. Rather, you recall a few high points and then reconstruct the experience piece by little piece.
Dual-coding view:
Verbal code
stores concepts/abstract information (ex. truth, justice)
Concrete material
, that can be represented by images, are stored in the
imagery system
(as well as in the verbal system)
Concrete is
better
remembered than abstract
LTM is practically limitless. You have billions of bits of information and thousands more per day and never seem to run out of space. So how do you retrieve information?
You know what memories you have, could have, or don't have
ex. How many windows in your house? vs. Justin Bieber's cell phone #
You catalogue or categorize your experiences
Forgetting
Neural Decay:
a breakdown in the
physical
process (sensory receptors) that is
maintaining
an item in memory
input decays rapidly
the next input
erases
the first input
Interference:
Items in long-term memory
interfere
with each other, thus are continually forgotten
Memory Distortions:
Every time we recall an event we must reconstruct the memory, and so each time it can be
changed
by
new inputs
. This is called the
misinformation
effect.
Apply what you learned!
Now we will repeat the Short-Memory Test from the beginning of these notes using a different set of objects.
This time, try using one of the strategies for improving your memory.
You can use strategies such as chunking, acronyms, visual imagery, rhythm & rhyme, or the Memory Palace.
After completing the test and recording your results, compare your improved test results with your old test results.
(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
How did you do?
(cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr
What role does memory play in the classroom and studying?
Memory
Synaptic
Changes
Stress
Trigger stress hormones, affecting memory formation
The stronger the emotion, the stronger
the memory
Factors That Affect Memory Processing
Sleep

Memory
in the Classroom
Studies show that there are ways to improve class performance in the classroom.
Students who actively participate in class and take notes, do significantly better in the class than their peers who do not do the same.

We cannot retain
information unless
we put priority on it!

Example:
taking notes and rehearsing
the information
These notes will cover:
#1. What memory is

#2. Stages of memory formation
(Transduced, Encoding, Storage)

#3. Types of memory
(sensory, short-term, long-term)

#4. How can you improve your memory?

#5. What causes people to forget?
There are several ways to classify memories based on duration, nature, and retrieval of information. From an information-processing perspective, there are three main stages in the formation and retrieval of memory.
C F X

P

L A

M T S
SIS Auditory:
Maintains the
sounds
we have heard for about
3 - 4 seconds
after the stimulus. This kind of memory is called
echoic.
Trial 1:
YCFMS
Trial 2:
TPGNL
Trial 3:
BMCRF
For Trial 2,

you will still have 5 seconds to look at the letters, and then I will turn off the projector and 20 seconds later you will write down the letters in the order that you remember them. However, during the 20 seconds, you will count down from 100 by 5's.
(ex. 100, 95, 90, etc.)
For Trial 3,

you will still have 5 seconds to look at the letters, and then I will turn off the projector and 20 seconds later you will write down the letters in the order that you remember them. However, during the 20 seconds, you will count down from 100 by 3's.
(ex. 100, 97, 94, etc.)
What was the difference between trial 1 and trials 2 and 3?

Rehearsal - repeat number to self until you have to report it
You keep putting it back into temporary storage again and again
You can keep it available for several minutes
Short term memory's capacity is also

very limited to a maximum of
7 items

Interference
occurs that causes erasing of earlier items
Can be increased by
chunking info
. into meaningful
groups
Ideal chunk size is
3-4


(ex.
phone #s
,
SIN cards
, etc.)
In class experiment:
You will have 10 seconds to look at the letters, and then I will turn off the projector. 20 seconds later, you will write down the letters in the order that you remember them.
Trial 1:

RBCTYDWXAUPL
Trial 2:

FBI PHD TWA IBM
so chunking helps!
ex. 7785498828
versus 778-549-8828

When certain visual inputs are encoded they are translated into acoustical codes
ex. F and X may be mixed up but not E (because F and X sound similar)
Memory Categories:
For example, if you are trying to think of the word
chair
1. Identity:
Try to remember the word itself

(ex. chair)
2. Class:
What group does it belong to?
(ex. type of furniture)
3. Attributes:
characteristics

(ex. burgundy, hard, plastic, broken)
4. Context:
Where would you see this?
(ex. in a classroom)
5. Function:
Verbs associated with function
(ex. sit, slouch)
6. Sensory Associations:
smells, sounds, touch, etc.
(ex. squeak)
7. Clangs & Visual Patterns:
rhymes, # of letters, syllables.
(ex. 1 syllable, 5 letters, rhymes with bear)
8. Reproductive information:
muscle memory to say word, draw it, etc..
(ex. picture of chair)
ex.
Tip of the tongue phenomenon:
You know some of the word's attributes (first letter, syllables, shape of word) but can't find the right 'file card' in your long term memory.
Don't you hate that?!?
Retrieval:

Each category the word fits provides another possible
way
of retrieving the word at a
later time
. The more
thoroughly
you process new information or
relate
it to previous experience, the more
likely
you are to recall it later.
Level of processing is much
more
responsible for moving information from STM to LTM than rehearsal
Old items interfere with new items through
proactive interference

(ex. you always park in the same spot in the parking lot but today it was taken so you had to park elsewhere. At the end of the day, you walked to your old spot, forgetting that you had to park somewhere new.)
New items interfere with old items through
retroactive interference
(ex. you try to remember the name of your grade 1 and 2 teachers, but you keep thinking of your grade 6 and 7 teachers instead.)
Serial Positioning Effect:
We remember words better from the
beginning
or
end
of a list than the ones in the middle
Primacy effect
- the enhanced ability to recall items from the beginning of a list
Recency effect
- the enhanced ability to recall items from the end of a list
Serial Positioning Effect Example:

You will have 20 seconds to look at a grocery list and then 30 seconds to write down the items that you remember. Are you ready?
butter
milk
cereal
bananas
ketchup
yogurt
chicken
lettuce
salad dressing
mustard
bread
grapes
Rejection vs. Repression:
REJECTION -
the brain must screen out or reject
meaningless
or unimportant inputs
ex. what did the skin on your back feel like 20 minutes ago? (you don't remember this because it isn't important!)
REPRESSION -
motivated forgetting occurs if the stimulus is
threatening
or disturbing so the emotional centres in your brain may
repress
the stimulus and make it
hard
to remember later on
ex. dental appointments, term paper deadlines
Retrieval Errors:
Cataloguing errors
occur when you have to learn
too many
things at
once
ex. remembering everyone's
name
at a party full of strangers
massed
vs
distributed
practice
you will learn information more effectively if you spread study sessions out instead of cramming
Mis-files:
won't be able to
locate
it in your memory banks
if two items are very
similar
, you may place one in the
space
reserved for the other
ex. similar looking people, twins
Retrieval errors:
can't recall item at the
moment
but i
t comes to you
at a later time
caused because the
search information
does not match the information that was
emphasized
when you
stored
the item
study for tests by practicing the same
types of tasks
that will be given on a test
Other ways to improve memory (NOT IN YOUR NOTES BUT WORTH DISCUSSING:)
Sense Association
Space and Movement
Visual Imagery
Rhythm & Rhyme
The Memory Palace
A mansion or building inside one's mind where clues to memories can be "placed"
The more vivid and detailed the pictures in your memory are, the more likely you will be to remember them
In 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue!
Parentheses Exponents Multiplication Division Addition Subtraction
Acronyms
Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge
Meaningless
Meaningful
Meaningless
Meaningful
Either add meaning or lessen the amount required to remember
North
East
South
West
Meaningless
Meaningful
Injury that results in memory failures
Amnesia
Anterograde Amnesia
Retrograde Amnesia
inability to recall memories that occurred, or information that was learned, before an injury
Inability to create new memories after an injury, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past
Parts of the brain involved in memory (that we know of)
Adds emotional component to memory (allowing recall of an emotional event to also be emotional)
converts information from short to long term memory
Amygdala
Hippocampus
On the other end of the spectrum, some people have incredible memories!
Endless Memory
http://www.cbs.com/shows/60_minutes/video/1703673167/endless-memory-part-2
Video: How does your memory work?
Try to remember as many details as you can about these images:
When the cars smashed into each other, did you see any broken glass?
Full transcript