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Transcript of Memory
The Psychology of Memory
Here are the Rules!
- You have 30 seconds to QUIETLY memorize as many figures as you can.
- You may not write down what you see.
- No cheating!
How did you do?
- Research shows that the average
young adult (18-24) cannot memorize
more than 9 items in the time frame
- Did you memorize more than 9?
- How did you do it?
What is Memory?
is an organism's ability to store, retain, and subsequently recall information.
Transduced or Translated:
Sensory inputs from the environment are turned into neural energy by the sensory receptors.
Encoding or registration:
Categorizing and comparing of received information with information in long-term memory
If the input is important, you are likely to rehearse it and transfer it to Long-Term Memory (LTM)
A basic and generally accepted classification of memory is based on the duration of memory retention and identifies three
distinct types of memory:
short term memory
long term memory
Short Term Memory (STM)
aka working memory
some of the information in sensory memory is then transferred to short term memory
STM lasts up to 30 seconds without rehearsal
Long Term Memory (LTM):
LTM has almost unlimited capacity for potentially unlimited duration (sometimes a whole lifespan)
A very brief memory for sensory information.
approximately 200-500 ms after presentation
Allows us a very short period of time to review the overwhelming amount of sensory information. Most information is discarded, but some is selected for more extensive rehearsal.
Example-George Sperling experiment:
You will be shown a 3x3 grid of letters for less than a second
Most people can only remember
letters even though they saw
all of them
most of them by the time you report them
Sensory Information Storage (SIS):
ex. when you wave your finger in front of your face, its shadow lasts for 0.25 s
of what we have seen for a few tenths of a second after the stimulus has appeared. This kind of memory is called
In class experiment:
You will have 5 seconds to look at a set of letters, and then I will turn off the projector. 20 seconds later, you will write down the letters in the order that you remember them.
Memories from long ago are hazy and incomplete at first as you don't typically remember complex events. Rather, you recall a few high points and then reconstruct the experience piece by little piece.
stores concepts/abstract information (ex. truth, justice)
, that can be represented by images, are stored in the
(as well as in the verbal system)
remembered than abstract
LTM is practically limitless. You have billions of bits of information and thousands more per day and never seem to run out of space. So how do you retrieve information?
You know what memories you have, could have, or don't have
ex. How many windows in your house? vs. Justin Bieber's cell phone #
You catalogue or categorize your experiences
a breakdown in the
process (sensory receptors) that is
an item in memory
input decays rapidly
the next input
the first input
Items in long-term memory
with each other, thus are continually forgotten
Every time we recall an event we must reconstruct the memory, and so each time it can be
. This is called the
Apply what you learned!
Now we will repeat the Short-Memory Test from the beginning of these notes using a different set of objects.
This time, try using one of the strategies for improving your memory.
You can use strategies such as chunking, acronyms, visual imagery, rhythm & rhyme, or the Memory Palace.
After completing the test and recording your results, compare your improved test results with your old test results.
(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
How did you do?
(cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr
What role does memory play in the classroom and studying?
Trigger stress hormones, affecting memory formation
The stronger the emotion, the stronger
Factors That Affect Memory Processing
in the Classroom
Studies show that there are ways to improve class performance in the classroom.
Students who actively participate in class and take notes, do significantly better in the class than their peers who do not do the same.
We cannot retain
we put priority on it!
taking notes and rehearsing
These notes will cover:
#1. What memory is
#2. Stages of memory formation
(Transduced, Encoding, Storage)
#3. Types of memory
(sensory, short-term, long-term)
#4. How can you improve your memory?
#5. What causes people to forget?
There are several ways to classify memories based on duration, nature, and retrieval of information. From an information-processing perspective, there are three main stages in the formation and retrieval of memory.
C F X
M T S
we have heard for about
3 - 4 seconds
after the stimulus. This kind of memory is called
For Trial 2,
you will still have 5 seconds to look at the letters, and then I will turn off the projector and 20 seconds later you will write down the letters in the order that you remember them. However, during the 20 seconds, you will count down from 100 by 5's.
(ex. 100, 95, 90, etc.)
For Trial 3,
you will still have 5 seconds to look at the letters, and then I will turn off the projector and 20 seconds later you will write down the letters in the order that you remember them. However, during the 20 seconds, you will count down from 100 by 3's.
(ex. 100, 97, 94, etc.)
What was the difference between trial 1 and trials 2 and 3?
Rehearsal - repeat number to self until you have to report it
You keep putting it back into temporary storage again and again
You can keep it available for several minutes
Short term memory's capacity is also
very limited to a maximum of
occurs that causes erasing of earlier items
Can be increased by
. into meaningful
Ideal chunk size is
In class experiment:
You will have 10 seconds to look at the letters, and then I will turn off the projector. 20 seconds later, you will write down the letters in the order that you remember them.
FBI PHD TWA IBM
so chunking helps!
When certain visual inputs are encoded they are translated into acoustical codes
ex. F and X may be mixed up but not E (because F and X sound similar)
For example, if you are trying to think of the word
Try to remember the word itself
What group does it belong to?
(ex. type of furniture)
(ex. burgundy, hard, plastic, broken)
Where would you see this?
(ex. in a classroom)
Verbs associated with function
(ex. sit, slouch)
6. Sensory Associations:
smells, sounds, touch, etc.
7. Clangs & Visual Patterns:
rhymes, # of letters, syllables.
(ex. 1 syllable, 5 letters, rhymes with bear)
8. Reproductive information:
muscle memory to say word, draw it, etc..
(ex. picture of chair)
Tip of the tongue phenomenon:
You know some of the word's attributes (first letter, syllables, shape of word) but can't find the right 'file card' in your long term memory.
Don't you hate that?!?
Each category the word fits provides another possible
of retrieving the word at a
. The more
you process new information or
it to previous experience, the more
you are to recall it later.
Level of processing is much
responsible for moving information from STM to LTM than rehearsal
Old items interfere with new items through
(ex. you always park in the same spot in the parking lot but today it was taken so you had to park elsewhere. At the end of the day, you walked to your old spot, forgetting that you had to park somewhere new.)
New items interfere with old items through
(ex. you try to remember the name of your grade 1 and 2 teachers, but you keep thinking of your grade 6 and 7 teachers instead.)
Serial Positioning Effect:
We remember words better from the
of a list than the ones in the middle
- the enhanced ability to recall items from the beginning of a list
- the enhanced ability to recall items from the end of a list
Serial Positioning Effect Example:
You will have 20 seconds to look at a grocery list and then 30 seconds to write down the items that you remember. Are you ready?
Rejection vs. Repression:
the brain must screen out or reject
or unimportant inputs
ex. what did the skin on your back feel like 20 minutes ago? (you don't remember this because it isn't important!)
motivated forgetting occurs if the stimulus is
or disturbing so the emotional centres in your brain may
the stimulus and make it
to remember later on
ex. dental appointments, term paper deadlines
occur when you have to learn
ex. remembering everyone's
at a party full of strangers
you will learn information more effectively if you spread study sessions out instead of cramming
won't be able to
it in your memory banks
if two items are very
, you may place one in the
reserved for the other
ex. similar looking people, twins
can't recall item at the
t comes to you
at a later time
caused because the
does not match the information that was
study for tests by practicing the same
types of tasks
that will be given on a test
Other ways to improve memory (NOT IN YOUR NOTES BUT WORTH DISCUSSING:)
Space and Movement
Rhythm & Rhyme
The Memory Palace
A mansion or building inside one's mind where clues to memories can be "placed"
The more vivid and detailed the pictures in your memory are, the more likely you will be to remember them
In 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue!
Parentheses Exponents Multiplication Division Addition Subtraction
Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge
Either add meaning or lessen the amount required to remember
Injury that results in memory failures
inability to recall memories that occurred, or information that was learned, before an injury
Inability to create new memories after an injury, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past
Parts of the brain involved in memory (that we know of)
Adds emotional component to memory (allowing recall of an emotional event to also be emotional)
converts information from short to long term memory
On the other end of the spectrum, some people have incredible memories!
Video: How does your memory work?
Try to remember as many details as you can about these images:
When the cars smashed into each other, did you see any broken glass?