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A2 sociology, unit 4 - crime control and punishment
Transcript of A2 sociology, unit 4 - crime control and punishment
Your task is to take one of those cards, learn it and teach it to another group member.
Once you have done this, as a group you must discuss and choose which crime prevention measure you think is the best. Crime has steadily been on the increase since official crime statistics were established. In pairs, discuss and consider what you think the most effective measures are in reducing the overall crime level. Lesson Objectives Explore a range of crime prevention and control strategies.
Understand and be able to evaluate different perspectives on crime control strategies. Ron Clarke (1992) describes situational crime prevention as ‘a pre-emptive approach that relies, not improving society or institutions, but simply on reducing opportunities for crime’.
This contrasts with theories of crime that stress ‘root causes’ such as criminals early socialisation or capitalist exploitation. These are not considered realistic solutions to crime.
The best thing to do, he argues is to focus on the immediate crime situation, since this is where scope for prevention is greatest. Situational crime prevention (AO1) Environmental crime prevention (AO1) Relies upon two principles;
1. Environmental improvement strategy.
2. Zero tolerance policing. Social and community crime prevention - (AO1) Remove the conditions that predispose people towards crime in the first place.
For example poverty and social marginalisation. Activity Each group has now been given a number of evaluation issues that relate to the three different methods of tackling crime.
Your task is to match the evaluation point to the suggested method of tackling crime. Situational crime prevention - Evaluation (AO2) Displacement can be a problem, crime will simply move to different areas.
Suicide rate was dramatically decreased in the UK through the removal of highly toxic gas supplies.
Only focuses on petty street crime.
Assumes some rationality to the offender.
Doesn't consider root causes of crime. Accused of adopting short term strategies.
Is CCTV just an extension of the 'male gaze'? Progress Check True or false? Situational crime prevention strategies do not stop crime, they simply displace it to another area. True or false? Evidence of CCTV usage contradicts the feminists 'male gaze' argument. True or false? Zero tolerance policing was a huge success, this is underlined by the fact crime rates fell as overall police numbers did. True or false? Zero tolerance policing may not be the real reason for declining crime rates, instead it could be due to a decline in the availability of crack cocaine. True or false? Although the Perry pre-school project showed clearly evidence that treating the causes of crime work well, it would simply be too expensive to implement. True or false? Left realists would be heavily in favour or zero tolerance policing. Environmental crime prevention - Evaluation (AO2) During the first 3 years of zero tolerance policing being introduced in NYC, crime fell by 50%.
However, there was 7,000 extra officers recruited during this time.
All major US cities, those who did not employ zero tolerance policing witnessed a dramatic reduction in crime rates.
There was a decline in the availability of crack cocaine.
There was an economic upturn at the beginning of the 1990s.
Although the murder rate fell during this period attempted murders did not. Social and community crime prevention - Evaluation (AO2) The Perry pre-school project clearly shows some success with this approach.
An experimental enrichment programme was given to 3-4 four year old disadvantaged black children over a period of two years.
A longitudinal study that compared the experimental group against a control group found significantly lower levels of offending at the age of 40.
It was calculated that for every dollar spent on the programme, $17 were saved on welfare, prison and other costs. Assessment Feedback Each of you have been given back your essays completed for homework.
You have also been handed a progress review sheet. Have you met your target grade?
If not, you will need to work out from the comments made about your essay how you can go about improving it in order to meet your target grade.
If you have met your target grade, is there anything that you could be doing to stretch yourself and move beyond this based on the comments that you have received? Activity Watch the following clip that looks at an American prison.
Whilst watching the clip think about what purpose punishment serves in our society? Why do we punish in our society? Deterrence
Retribution Activity Building upon your previous knowledge and continuing to work in your learning groups, how would Marxists and functionalists explain the role of prison and punishment in our society?
Also use the additional study cards as a guide to help you get more detail. Durkheim: a functionalist perspective Punishment underlines societies moral values and reinforces the collective conscience.
Depending upon which type of society we live in punishment will also have different underlying aims.
Societies characterised by mechanical solidarity punish in order to impose retributive justice.
Societies characterised by organic solidarity punish in order to impose restitutive justice. Marxism: capitalism and punishment Punishment is part of societies repressive state apparatus.
Punishment reflects the economic base of a society. Foucault: the birth of prison and the advent of self surveillance. In older societies, punishment was more a means of the state exercising its sovereign power and control. In modern societies the punishment is designed to induce conformity and self-surveillance. Progress check Explain the difference between retributive and restitutive punishment.
According to Marxists, why has imprisonment become the dominant form of punishment?
According to Foucault how has the birth of the panopticon prison lead to self surveillance? Activity - Progress Check Card-loop exercise.
Each person has been given a card that has a question and an answer on it.
Each person has the answer to another persons question. If you think that you have the answer read it out.
If it is correct then read out the question to continue the sequence. Choose your activity Complete the crossword activity that gives an overview to everything that we have covered today.
Alternatively you can complete the 'Give-me-5' lesson summary sheet. Explore a range of crime prevention and control strategies.
Understand and be able to evaluate different perspectives on crime control strategies. Lesson Objectives