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Biology 5.01 Evolution

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Jessica Ferguson

on 7 April 2013

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Transcript of Biology 5.01 Evolution

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Evolution Assignment Thomas Huxley Thomas lived in England and was born May 4, 1825 and died June 29, 1895. In 1862, in his address to the Geological Society, he announced that he saw natural selection as a hypothesis, as there was not yet any evidence of specialization of animals through time. He proved many scientists wrong by saying that humans and apes are very alike;or rather that humans are descendants from apes. In 1870, Huxley was fully convinced by the theory of evolution, and retracted his statement of the hypothesis of natural selection he made eight years earlier to the Geological Society.

Huxley worked on vertebrates and then went on to study invertebrates. Mostly on the relationship between apes and humans. After comparing archeopteryx (a genus of early bird that is transitional between feathered dinosaurs and modern birds) to compsognathus (a genus of small, bipedal, carnivorous theropod dinosaurs), he derived a theory that birds evolved from small carnivorous dinosaurs. A theory widely accepted today.

While studying human anatomy, he discovered a previously unknown layer in the root hair. This is now known as Huxley's Layer. These findings impacted the developing theory of evolution and relate to the modern theory of evolution because he brought information forward that would prove humans descended from apes. This supports the theory of evolution. Jessica Ferguson Stephen Gould Stephen Gould was an American paleontologist born in New York September 10, 1941. Stephen Jay Gould was awarded the Schuchert Award in 1975 by the Paleontological Society for his work in evolutionary theory.
Gould was one of the founders of the school of evolution called "Punctuated Equilibrium".
He believed that evolution occurred quite quickly at specific points with speciation( the development of a new species ) occurring almost immediately. A transformation, such as a Panda's "thumb", had to have happened all at once, otherwise, it wouldn't have been preserved by natural selection, Gould reasoned. This process would account for the gaps in transitional fossil records that Darwin himself was baffled over.

Stephen Gould was also an author. He wrote a plethora of books & 300 essays for his monthly column in a magazine called "Natural History"
Some of his books include;
*The Panda's Thumb (1980)
*Hen's Teeth & Horse Toes (1983)
& his most recent book, *The structure of Evolutionary Theory, written in 2002.

Gould's greatest contribution to science was the theory of punctuated equilibrium, which he developed with Niles Eldredge in 1972. The theory proposes that most evolution is marked by long periods of evolutionary stability, which is transformed by rare instances of branching evolution. The theory was opposed by phyletic gradualism, the popular idea that evolutionary change is marked by a pattern of smooth and continuous change in the fossil record.

Ronald Fisher, a british mathematician and biologist who was born in London, Enlgand and lived from 1890 to 1962. One of his discoveries is the P-Value, which is the probability that your null hypothesis, proving all the alternatives of your hypothesis incorrect, is actually correct."When you've eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth." - Sherlock Holmes.

Fisher's book, The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection was started in 1928 and published in 1930. He proved that larger populations carry more variation so that they have an increased chance of survival. He aided in the creation of the foundations of what was to become known as population genetics.

His contributions to the theory of evolution can be noted within Fisher’s work on variance in 1918, his work on the balance of factors in evolution in 1922, and his fundamental theorem of natural selection in 1930, which sets aside anti-Darwinism and started a new mathematical approach to the evolution of populations. These findings impacted the developing theory of evolution by creating a new perspective of evolution with statistics. In addition, the research conducted helped to dismiss anti-Darwinism, a popular belief in his time.

1933: Chair of Eugenics at University College, London.
1943: Balfour Professor of Genetics, Cambridge University.
1957: President of Gonville and Caius College and his year of retirement. Herbert Spencer was an English philosopher, biologist & sociologist. He was born in England and lived from April 27, 1820 - December 8,1903.
The first clear articulation of Spencer's evolutionary perspective occurred in his essay, 'Progress: Its Law and Cause', published in Chapman's Westminster Review in 1857. In this essay, Spencer developed a conception of evolution as the progressive development of the physical world, biological organisms, the human mind, and human culture and societies. He concluded that all structures in the universe developed from something simple, while being accompanied by a process of greater integration of different parts.

He contributed to a wide range of subjects, including ethics, religion, anthropology, economics, biology and sociology. Spencer is best known for coining the expression "survival of the fittest", which he did in Principles of Biology (1864). He also explained that organs are developed or are diminished by use or disuse and that the resulting changes may be passed on to future generations. His findings impacted the developing theory of evolution because his information added to the theory itself and was similar to Darwin's beliefs at the time. Ronald Fisher Herbert Spencer Stephen Gould-

Ronald Fisher-
Allison L. "Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890-1962)."

Herbert Spencer-

http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Studies_of_a_Biographer/Thomas_Henry_Huxley Sources
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