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ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE FOR L2 USE
Transcript of ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE FOR L2 USE
Priorities of L2 Use
Academic VS Interpersonal Competence
READING AND LISTENING
Competence and Use
ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE FOR L2 USE
By The Group 8
Amanda Ayu Arifin
Eko G. Samudro
Rully Sutrirasa P.
The five Components:
1. Vocabulary (lexicon)
2. Morphology (Word Structure)
3. Phonology (Sound System)
4. Syntax (Grammar)
5. Discourse (Ways to connect sentence and organize information)
> L2 is a tool in scholarly research, and medium in specific professional or occupation field
> L2 learners with such a goal, should focus on vocabulary of their subject
> They are intended to use their reading skill for read the book of their subject
> Use the listening skill as a tool to understand the lecture in class
> The writing skill is used to display the learners’ knowledge
> Speaking skill is not
Basically, this Chapter will answered the questions below:
1. What knowledge of language is required for different types of language use?
2. How activities in L2 receptive and productive skills are achieved?
3. Why learners reach different levels of proficiency in language use?
What we need to know to communicate appropriately are:
1. The knowledge of the specific components and levels of a language
2. The knowledge of the using of a language
3. The knowledge of culture includes content, context and linguistic elements that influence norms and conventions of language interpretation and usage
Classification of Activities Involving Language Use
> L2 is used in face-to-face contact with other speakers
> Vocabulary is also important
> Speaking and Listening activities merit the highest priority
> Reading and Writing are required but not really dominant as speaking and listening
Priorities for L2 Activities
The Relationship of Each Aspects
Two fundamental types of communicative competence:
1. Academic Competence
2. Interpersonal Competence
Classification of Activities Involving Language Use
The Components of Language Knowledge
May 2, 2014
English words in a wide range of academic contexts:
> Modifiers: Analytical, explanatory, and
> Scientific concepts : Data, hypotheses, and
> Other general academic words(p: 140)
- Technical terms for specialized field for linguistics:
morphology, phonology, lexicon and discourse.
- Beginning students encounter them during introductory course work along with concepts they represent.
- Challenge for advanced L2 students
- Borrowed from one language to another
More likely to be short, simple sentences
- OK, right, Me too
Contracted forms :
- I’m, it’s, and don't
Language used for affective purposes :
Express a speaker’s point of view
Verb contructions :
Is going to
Is supposed to
Verbs : know, think, and say
Syntactic knowledge requires either domain requires extensive input : specific to the intended context of use.
Grammatical structures used for interpersonal competence
Most languages have ways to vary the basic order :
> English and Japanese are rigid
> Russian and Latin are flexible
e.g: William hit Peter
Peter hit William
Russian or German : any order is possible
> Fully controlling
> May never complete knowledge of some words
Types of word knowledge to be mastered :
- Collocational behavior
- Metaphorical uses
- Connotations association with synonyms
- Stylistic register constraints
> Types of knowledge for vocabulary learning
- Linguistic knowledge
- World knowledge
- Strategic knowledge
> Depending on all language activities
Acquisition of vocabulary knowledge
> Idioms, metaphors and collocations :
- Memorized as holistic units, often without recognition of how they are combined.
English academic speech :
The big picture
Take at face value
A ballpark guess
Organizational functions :
e.g. Go. Off on a tangest, on that note, and train of thought.
Most frequent multiple words
The most frequent word combinations in English interpersonal speech:
As you know
Other lexical elements
> Interpersonal situations :
- Primarily affective (interactional) purposes
- Task-oriented (transactional)
- Determine priorities for vocabulary learning beyond the most frequent core.
> The necessary vocabulary and phraseology are likely to drastically :
- Swimming party
- Automobile engine
> Register differences on social context :
-How are you today? vs. How ‘re ya doin’? Or I’m fine, thank you or just great or some current slang-determined response.
> Regional differences :
- Greatest at the informal interactional level
- At least at more formal and more academic levels.
> Differences between national varieties may affect technical transactions:
- Car parts
- Food terms
> Differences create additional difficulties from different L1s. :
Linguistics (English) x La linguistique (French)
Sprachwissenschaft (German) x yuyanxue (Chinese)
> “Everyday” vocabulary and expressions are rarely borrowed so that they are likely to be different:
Good (English) : gut (German)
> Similarities can contain unexpected traps :
Gross (German) : large
Largo (Spanish) : Long
> Learning the L2 vocabulary for ordinary informal interaction poses more difficulties than scientific field vocabulary
Reducing the number of words
> Like Russian and Latin:
Se cyning seah ðone bisceop
(The king saw the bishop.)
> The order could be switched :
ðone bisceop seah se cyning
Se cyning ðone bisceop seah
ðone bisceop Se cyning seah
> Modern English has lost the flexibility :
*King the saw bishop the
Edison invented the phonograph. >> Edinson’s invention of the photograph
Caesar conquered Gaul. >> Caesar’s conquest of Gauil
I analyzed the report. >> My analysis of the report
Someone constructed the Sphinx. >> The construction of the Sphinz
Bacteria exist in the mouth >> The existence of bacteria in the mouth
The war was widely opposed >> Wide opposition to the war
The discovery of the existence of bacteria in the mouth by scientists in a laboratory in Chicago was reported last month.
> Increasing the syntactic complecity
> Introducing the abstract nouns, discovery and existence.
> May be less familiar
> Determiners: the, that, this
> Prepositions: to, of, for
> Conjunctions: and, but
> Pronouns: I, it, he, she, you
> Auxiliary verbs: is/was/be, have/has/had
> Spoken :
- Interjection: yeah, ah, oh
- Contractions: it’s, that’s, don’t
- Verbs expressing personal opinion or feeling: know, like, think.
- Compilations of 50 common words in written or spoken (P: 139)
Most frequently word used
1. L2 knowledge to develop academic or interpersonal competence or broader scope.
2. A core and specific vocabulary needed
3. The core vocabulary includes function words which carry grammatical function.
First step :
> Certain aspects are universal
> They are expressed may vary greatly
Structures for :
> Making statements
> Sentences :
P : Verb/ Verb + 1-2 Objects + other possible phrases(time, place, frequency, manner, goal, source, or purpose.
Order of elements and degree of flexibility
> Internalizing new construction patterns
> Generative rules
> Different parameters for innate principles
> Collocational probabilities and constrains
> Recognizing the sentences
> Specific limits and requirements
> Anticipating some problems
Classification of languages :
S V O : English, Chinese, French, Russian
S O V : Japanese, Turkish, Persian, Finnish
V S O : Irish, Welsh, Samoan, Zepotec
MC : SVO
SC : SOV
Mastering L2 sound system is also IMPORTANT, especially in two components:
1. Academic competence
2. Interpersonal competence
Linguistic elements at the level of discourse function beyond the scope of a single sentence.
because, as a result, consequently
however, on the other hand, in contrast
Addition of information:
: connect ideas or clauses
we will consider an overall characterization of communicative competence.
we will distinguish between knowledge that is required for academic versus interpersonal functions.
: In English they may be set off with a comma or pauses
Microstructural Discourse Level
Taken from fshare.stust.edu.tw/retrieve/77707/index.html
Macrostructural Discourse Level
We go beyond linguistic elements to knowledge of organizational features that are characteristic of particular
, and of
Interpersonal Genres : conversations, service
encounters (e.g. ordering food in a restaurant), and letters.
Academic Genres : research papers, lectures,
and book reviews
categories of discourse in the sense that knowledge of their nature and regularities is shared by members of a language community as part of the cultural component of communicative competence.
Contrastive Rhetoric is an area of research that compares genre-specific conventions in different languages and cultures.
Transfer of politeness and turn-taking conventions from L1 to L2 in
cases where such contrasts exist may not interfere with expression and
interpretation of the referential content of messages but can contribute to instances of serious misunderstanding of speaker intent and message
tone. Comparative research on interactional genre with particular focus
on such factors can be found in the domain of
B. Turn taking strategies
requires prior knowledge of the language system (i.e. vocabulary, morphology, phonology, syntax, and discourse structure) and interpretation of physical (graphic and auditory) cues.
can compensate for linguistic limitations to some extent by allowing learners to guess the meaning of words they have not encountered before, and to make some sense out of larger chunks of written and oral text.
subsumes content and context in many ways but also includes an understanding of the wider social setting within which acts of reading and listening take place.
For both L1 and L2 speakers, top-down processing utilizes prior knowledge of content, context, and culture which are essential components of communicative competence.
is background information about the topic that is being read about or listened to; new information is perceived and interpreted in relation to this base.
includes information learned from what has already been read or heard in a specific text or situation, as well as an understanding of what the writer’s or speaker’s intentions are, and the overall structure of the discourse pattern being used; it allows prediction of what is likely to follow, and how the information is likely to be organized.
-> to develop L2 academic competence.
-> For interpersonal functions (getting along in any literate society).
-> The primary channel for L2 input.
-> A major source of exposure to associated literature and other aspects of L2 culture.
-> Provides significant input related to technological developments, world news, etc.
Grabe (1991) reviews research on fluent academic reading in terms of six component abilities and types of knowledge that are involved in the activity.
> Automatic recognition ability.
> Vocabulary and structural knowledge.
> Formal discourse structure knowledge.
> Content/world background knowledge.
> Synthesis and evaluation processes/strategies.
> Metacognitive knowledge and comprehension monitoring.
Learners whose L1 is written in a different orthographic system (writing system) from their L2 need to be able to recognize symbols in the target language as an early step, although they may learn to recognize a number of words by their appearance as whole units before they can identify constituent parts.
Beginning L2 Reading
The maidens are falling in love with me
Otome wa Boku ni Koishiteru
Advanced reading ability in both L1 and L2 is usually required to extract detailed information from L2 texts on science, technology, and other subject matter involving both linguistic and nonlinguistic prerequisite knowledge.
Prerequisite L2 linguistic knowledge includes:
> A large recognition vocabulary of both basic and subject-specific terms, including their meaning graphic representation, and probability of occurrence with other lexical items.
> Complex sentence structures, along with punctuation conventions that contribute to syntactic processing.
> Organization features at the sentence level which identify elements that are in focus and distinguish old and new information.
> Organization features at the discourse level, such as how texts are structured and how information is organized.
Listening task is on a continuum from reciprocal to non-reciprocal communication (Lynch 1998). Participation in face-to-face interpersonal interaction is at reciprocal end of this continuum, and listening to radio or TV news broadcasts is at the non-reciprocal end.
Beginning L2 learners can begin to create sense from auditory input most easily if:
> They know in advance what the speaker is going to talking about.
> Key words and phrases are learned as recognition vocabulary elements before they are encountered in connected speech.
> Speakers pause frequently at boundaries between parts of sentences.
> Auditory messages are supported by visual images (including writing).
Beginning L2 listening
> Academic listening often requires ability to process pronunciation by speakers of the different native and nonnative varieties of the language which can be especially challenging for L2 learners.
> As with reading, development of advanced academic listening proficiency requires extensive exposure to oral, academic text. Unlike reading, listening proficiency can usually not be maintained at a high level without continuing L2 oral input.
> Give me your notes
> Please let me make a copy of your notes
> You are much better note-taker than I. Would you help me prepare for this test?
> Could I take a little peek at your notes before the test?
Some learner begin with low-level task of copying (even tracing over) words and phrases that they recognize by sight.
Changing time frame from present to past
> Prior Knowledge of Content: The substance of information that a writer or speaker wishes to communicate.
> Prior Knowledge of Context: Accounts for writers’ and speakers’ ability to select from potential linguistic options those which are appropriate to a specific communicate situation.
> Prior Knowledge of Culture: Cultural conventions for language use.
An important concept for SLA which was originated in the field of philosophy (Searle 1969) is that language use accomplishes speaker goals by means of utterances which request something, apologize, promise, deny, express emotion, compliment, complain, and so forth.
1. Reciprocal communication
(Face-to-face interpersonal communication)
2. Non-reciprocal communication
(Delivering lectures or conference presentation)
Some of the steps that are involved in proficient writing:
1. Formulating mental concepts that are to be expressed centrally requires content knowledge.
2. Recognizing what content will be relevant for intended readers, and what will be shared versus new information, requires context knowledge.
3. Constructing text within socially defined conventions of expression also requires culture knowledge.
Functions of L2 writing may include composing informal letters and e-mail if learners want or need communicate with speakers of the language outside and immediate interactional context.
1. Knowledge of conversational structure
(Turn taking, period of silence, back channel-signals, topic maintenance and shift)
2. Knowledge of contextualization cues
3. Knowledge of communication strategies
Other Aspects of Speaking Competence
Needs for speaking:
1. Tourists generally need to ask directions and seek information about hotels
2. Immigrant need to shop for goods, seek service
3. Foreign students and other need to negotiate transactions for housing, utilities, and currency exchange
WRITING AND SPEAKING
Beginning L2 Writing
Acquiring morphology knowledge for L2 is IMPORTANT
1. Helping learners to acquire more vocabularies
2. Achieving the grammatical accuracy