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ABC's Book

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Bronte Preece

on 4 December 2014

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Transcript of ABC's Book

Absolutism is a theory that one ruler should have total power. It is the principle or exercise of complete and unrestricted power in government. It is a type of national monarchy in which the monarch has great power and tends to be looked up to with awe and reverence. Absolute government involved centralizing political power in the hands of a monarch. This monarch allied with and exercised control over the traditional landed aristocracy, gained loyalty and support from the merchant rulers of cities, and exercised power. 
A
bsolutism
C
ockade
Cockade: a cockade is a ribbon French people used before the revolution as a way to decorate their hats and to distinguish what class they were in (symbol of rank) but during the revolution they were a way to show patriotism within their certain groups like the Girondins, jacobins, etc.
D
eclaration of the Rights of Men
B
astille
On July 14, 1789, a mob went to Invalides to steal weapons and ammunition, but although they found weapons, powder was nowhere to be found. The mob decided to go to Bastille, a prison representing king Louis's absolute power, because they knew there was ammunition there. They then attacked it. When Bastille was attacked, it wasn't guarded by very many men. Marquis de launay agreed to speak with some of the mob members, hoping that would buy time for back-up to come. unfortunately, the negotiations did not go as planned. When some men began to enter Bastille, the guards fired and violence broke out. As soon as the back-up arrived they decided to fight not against the mob, but with them. Because of their professional skills and canons, they gave the people of France victory rather than king Louis's guards in a matter of hours. Eventually the Marquis surrendered and let the mob enter. The guards were killed very violently, Marquis was beheaded, and his head was put on a stake to be carried a sign of victory.
Latin American & French Revolution
ABC's Book
By: Patch Adams, Brontësaurus, and Olivia
B
ourgeoisie
C
oup d'etat (koo day-tah)
C
lergy
E
states General
F
rench Revolution
G
uillotine
G
irondists
J
ean Sylivan Bailly
J
acobins
K
ing Louis XVI
As a young boy Louis Aguste was ignored by his parents. They were focused on their older son (who was nine at the time) to eduactate him so he ould become king. His brother died of a young age and soon after, his father died. His mother was in great depressin so Louis had no one to talk to. This made him very shy and undecisive. Louis became King Louis after his grandfather, the previous king, died in 1765. A few years after he became king, he married Marie-Antionette. King louis was executed years later for bad decisions he made during his rule.
K
lemens van Matternich
M
iddle Ages
The middle ages (midieval period) is the time between when Rome fell and the beginning of the Renaissance. During this time there was no advancements in science, medicine, no great leaders were born, no amazing works of art were created, and there was definetly no amazing inventions. During the middle ages the black plague wiped out 1/3 of Europes population.
M
aximilien de Robespierre
The bourgeoisie were the middle class. They were mainly merchants, elite nonnobles like proffessionals, financers, and officials; pensioners, etc. Many and most of them were leaders during the French revolution. They were put into this category because of heir capital ownership and how related their culture was. Can be called by two terms: "bourgeois" is for men and "bourgeoise" is for girls.
Girondists: Led by Jacques Brissot, the Girondins (or Girondists) wanted the destruction of a monarchy and war against foreign powers. They began in the national assembly in 1791, but ended in 1793 because they were not in the same boat as the Jacobins and Montagnards. Before 1793 they were often known as Brissotins because of their leader.
L
ayfette
P
atriots
P
aris
Q
ueen Marie Antionette
R
eign of Terror
S
imon Bolivar
S
ocial Class
S
ans Culottes
T
ennis Court Oath
V
ersailles
W
omen of Paris
Eighteenth-century France experienced overlapping tensions that erupted in revolution in 1789. First, the Enlightenment contributed to an environment where revolution was possible because of the insistence on reforming institutions to comply with standards of reason and utility. Also, it corresponded with the rise of the public opinion. This threatened the idea of absolutism. Second, The French were facing a bankruptcy because of a regressive and inefficient tax system. Also, the participation in the Seven Years War and the War of American Independence did not help with the money issues. Finally, while class conflict did not cause revolution, there were "stress zones" in the French society.
H
idalgo
Hidalgo: Very well known for his El Grito do Dolores speech on September 15, 1810 which told the people to take a strike for independence. On the 16th when he rang the church bells, he had a band of about 600 men in minutes. Hidalgo and a man named Allende marched through San Miguel with their 600 member army and killed every spaniard they could find, then stole their goods. On the way there they decided their symbol would be the Virgin of Guadalupe. In a battle at the town Guanajuato, Spaniards and Creoles were killed. The Monte las Cruces (mount of crosses) was a great battle. Although the Royalists fought the best they could, they could not win. After this battle, against Allende's counsel, Hidalgo retreated. No one really knows why he did what he did. Years later, Hidalgo and Allende were forced to head north to try to find weapons and prisoners. Allende was sick of Hidalgo and placed him under arrest. All of the leaders of rebellion were found guilty and put to death. Hidalgo, because he was a priest, was put on civil trial, he was then stripped of his priesthood and executed July 30.
Guillotine: An instrument invented during the revolution. Introduced to France by Joseph Ignace Guillotine. It was used to make executions fast and clean. It was used for the execution of King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, as well as Maximillien Robespierre and 16,594 others just in Paris! There were between 17000 and i believe 24000 killed by the guillotine. The blade fell about 89 in which because of the blades weight, decapitated in about 0.005 second, 0.005 horrifying, unchanging moments. It was a prototype before actual use, the prototype made by Dr. Antoine Louis and Tobias Schmidt. Schmidt suggested that instead of a round blade, they use a slanted blade. This explains why the blade was slanted.
Klemens van Matternich was a "foe of freedom" as some people might put it. He did not want Italy and Germany to come together as one. Most everyone agreed with his ways. One of those people who agreed with his diplomacy was Henry Kissinger (this man later became the secretary of the state.
Maximilen de Robespierre was posted as the Estates General of the French Legislature. He was against the slavery and gained great fame from the fights he gave the people in Monarchy. He was pushed out of his position in the government and became a leader of the Jacobins. He then offered his ideas in writing the Declaration of Rights of Men and Citizens.
N
apoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon was a fourth child and only the scond one to survive. Around the age of 18 he was sent to a Military college where they considered him for five years. While he was there his father died of sickness causing him to move back to France. Their he joined the French Military. After many small wars, he became the commander of an army. He was a great leader until he was defeated and stmped on by Admiral Horatio Nelson's fleet.
The reign of Terror is a period of time that began after the death of King Louis XVI. During this time 30,000 people in France were exucuted. Women were advised to come and knit while the executions were taking place of a good learning experience. The Reign of Terror was a way to make sure any one who might or had the potential to overthrow the government was killed. The guillotine was the major instrument used to execute these people.
Marie Antoinette was the last queen of France. Marie was a very expensive girl, when she set off to France to marry she was escorted by 57 carriages, 117 footmen, and 376 horses. When she and Louis became married she was not ready for married life, of course she was only 14. Marie became the queen of France at 19 when Louis died. Marie Antoinette was also killed soon after being captured, tried, and executed.
The Palace of Versailles is the central part of a complex that housed the French government, most notably its royalty, during the reigns of Louis XIV, Louis XV and Louis XVI. After the French Revolution in 1789, it ceased to be a permanent royal residence. Before the revolution, the Versailles complex included the palace, gardens, a walled-in royal hunting ground, a smaller palatial structure known as the Grand (or Marble) Trianon, which was an estate used by Marie Antoinette, Louis XVI’s queen. Between the palace and the town there are also buildings that housed the war and foreign affairs ministries, residences for those not entitled to live in the palace, stables and a kennel, among other structures.
A small group began a sudden violent control of the governement. This contrasts to a revolution. In a "coup" it is a small group lead by someone who has control of armed forces. It isn't a large group working for basic changes in social class, economy, and politics. It is a very sudden change of governent. One of the first of these was Napoleon Bonaparte.
Clergy was the bishop and other leaders of the church. During the French Revolution the civil constitution of the clergy was used to try and reorganize the Roman Catholic Church. This constitution would cause many to turn on the revolution.
He was chosen as president of the third estate. He lead what happened during the tennis court oath. He became Mayor of Paris. He was considered a hero during the French Revolution. He was put under arrest because of who he was as an aristocrat.
Most prominent in the political world of the revolution. By 1791 there were 90 Jacobin clubs. Lead by Maximilien de Robespierre, they were among the mob that invaded the Tuileres. They supported the execution of Louis XVI. During the Reign of Terror they were some that brought the nightmares and were called agents of the terror. They didn't have direct role in the overthrow of the monarchy. After Robespierre's execution it was temperarily stopped, then illegally started for a breif moment between 1799-1800.
A division of a society based on social and economic status. Social class is a status hierarchy in which individuals and groups are classified on the basis of esteem and prestige acquired mainly through economic success and accumulation of wealth. Social class may also refer to any particular level in such a hierarchy. The social classes of the French Revolution were the third estate the second estate and the first estate. During the French revolution, the feudalistic society was completely abolished. At that time, the social classes were divided into three groups called as estates. The first estate was of clergy, the second estate was of nobility and the third estate consisted of other classes and individuals such as peasants, merchants, lawyers, artisans and industrial workers etc.
The Estates General was the monarchy before the French Revolution. They were the representatives of the three estates. They were made of the clergy, the nobility, and the third estates (mostly the third estates).It was eventually stopped because they weren't allowing enough justice to be the place of consent. They were occassionally brought together, but their jobs were given provincial estates, where it was easier to go to, maintain, and better to stay, within the regoinal custom.
Early one morning in 1789 mnay women gathered outside a small market. After they had gathered they lead a massive march called the March on Versialles. They carried pitchforks, knifes and other weapons to Versialles. Their determination was to get bread back int the city. When they arived at the king's palace he immediantly sent bread to all the cities. Tjis was known as one of the most violent happennings in the French Revolution.
A group of men that was origanlly part of The Estates General broke away from them to create their own constitution and way of living. They called themselves the National Assembly. When they went to their usual meeting place, they were locked out, so they decided to meet on a tennis court. There they made a promise to meet often till they had construsted a new constitution.
Sans Culottes were "men without breeches" meaning they were not of the upper class. They were often in the army fighting for their country. They were considered the "working men of France" their jobs consisting of bakers, clergymen, lawyers, etc... They were for the patriots and their ideas. If you saw a "sans-culotte" they would be wearing a red cap and pants (not breeches) that were red, white, and blue for the colors of France.
Declaration of the Rights of Man-
The basic principle of the Declaration was that all “men are born and remain free and equal in rights” (Article 1), which were specified as the rights of liberty, private property, the devotion of the person, and resistance to oppression (Article 2). All citizens were equal before the law and were to have the right to participate in legislation directly or indirectly (Article 6); no one was to be arrested without a judicial order (Article 7). Freedom of religion (Article 10) and freedom of speech (Article 11) were safeguarded within the bounds of public “order” and “law.” The document reflects the interests of the elites who wrote it: property was given the status of an sacred right, which could be taken by the state only if a payment were given (Article 17); offices and position were opened to all citizens (Article 6). The sources of the Declaration included the major thinkers of the French Enlightenment, such as Montesquieu, who had urged the separation of powers, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who wrote of general will the concept that the state represents the general will of the citizens. The idea that the individual must be safeguarded against irrational police or judicial action was anticipated by the 18th-century parliaments, as well as by writers such as Voltaire.
Lafayette was a French aristocrat who fought in the American Revolutionary war. He was a friend of George Washington. In 1770, Lafayette's mother and grandmother died in the same week. As a result, Lafayette inherited a great deal of wealth. The next year, he joined the Royal Army as a Sous-lieutenant in the Kimip Musketeers, and two years later, at age 16, he married the 14 year-old Marie Adrienne Francoise de Noalles. Later, he became interested in the American cause. He signed an agreement with Silas Dean, the American Army Commissioner in Paris, to serve as a Major General in the Continental Army. In 1789, he was elected to Estates General from Auvergne and presented the first European Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizens. He was also named Commander of the Paris National Guard and given the title: "Hero of Two Worlds." In 1790, Lafayette supported the decree abolishing titles of nobility and presided over the Fete de la Federation. Then, in 1791, Lafayette resigned his military post upon acceptance of the New Constitution. After returning to France in 1830, he reestablished the National Guard. He died on May 20, 1834.
Simon was a soldier that was against the the Spanish Empire. He was one of the great leaders in leading Spain to their independence. The Rebuplic of Bolivia was created as a thanyou to him. He worked with Napolean a short period after his wife's death.
Many events during the French Revolution occured in France. These events including: the communications of the King, Revolt on Bastille, and the creation of the national assembly. Hausman created the "modern Paris" with perfectly symetrical city plans and flawslessly straight roads.
Patriots were people who wanted the American colonies to gain their independence from Britain. "Patriots," as they came to be known, were members of the British Thirteen United Colonies who rejected the lack of representation of colonists in the British Parliament and the imposition of British taxes. They wanted their own country called the United States. They became patriots because people in the Americas felt they weren't being treated fairly by the British. They were being taxed without any say or representation in the British government. Soon cries for "liberty" were being heard throughout the colonies. The patriots wanted freedom from British rule.
Works Cited
www. https://biography.com
https://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/hist255/kat_anna/sc.html
http://latinamericanhistory.about.com/od/independenceinmexico/tp/09hidalgoandindependence.htm
http://www.biography.com/people/napoleon-9420291
http://www.pccua.edu/keough/march_to_versailles.htm
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/75834/bourgeoisie
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