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Transcript of SSWH 19
Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, the British assumed control of Palestine.
In 1922, the League of Nations granted Britain a mandate over Palestine which included, among other things, provisions calling for the establishment of a Jewish homeland, facilitating Jewish immigration and encouraging Jewish settlement on the land.
At the end of World War II, the British persisted in their immigration restrictions and Jewish survivors of the Holocaust were violently turned away from the shores of Palestine.
Underground cells of Jews, most notably the Irgun and Lehi, engaged in open warfare against the British and their installations.
The Hydrogen Bomb and SALT
In the early 1950’s the Soviet Union and the U.S. developed a hydrogen bomb.
Negotiations for SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty) began in November 1969 and ended January 1972.
Two documents were signed: the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the Interim Agreement on the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms.
Both signed on May 26, 1972.
• Led reforms such as loosening government censorship of the press, decentralization of economic decision making, and restructuring of collective farms
• He advocated “peaceful coexistence” or relaxation of tensions between the US and Soviet Union
• He took steps to undo some of the worst features of Stalin’s era
• Foreign policy failures led him to be voted out of office while on vacation in 1964
An Anti-Apartheid system is a system of racial segregation.
Blacks demonstrated against the apartheid laws, but the white government brutally repressed the demonstrators.
In 1960, police opened fire on people who were leading a peaceful march in Sharpeville, killing 69 people.
The student will demonstrate an understanding of the global social, economic, and political impact of the Cold War and decolonization from 1945 to 1989.
a. Analyze the revolutionary movements in India (Gandhi, Nehru), China (Mao Zedong, Chiang Kai-shek), and Ghana (Kwame Nkrumah).
b. Describe the formation of the state of Israel and the importance of geography in its development.
c. Explain the arms race; include development of the hydrogen bomb (1954) and SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, 1972).
d. Compare and contrast the reforms of Khrushchev and Gorbachev.
e. Analyze efforts in the pursuit of freedom; include anti-apartheid, Tiananmen Square, and the fall of the Berlin Wall.
Revolutionary Movements in India
British Indians were divided into 2 groups at the end of World War II:
India and Pakistan received their independence on August 15th, 1947.
Millions of Hindus and Muslims crossed the new borders.
As a result from the migrations, over one million people were killed.
On January 30th, 1948, Ghandi was assassinated.
Indian National Congress was then led by Jawaharlal Nehru.
After his death, his daughter, Indira Ghandi was elected prime minister.
Revolutionary Movements in China
The Communist party in China started a war against the Nationalists.
In 1949, the Nationalists fled to mainland China and established a government in Taiwan.
In 1966, China's Communist leader Mao Zedong launched what became known as the Cultural Revolution in order to reassert his authority over the Chinese government.
The Cultural Revolution continued in various phases until Mao's death in 1976, and its tormented and violent legacy would resonate in Chinese politics and society for decades to come.
Chinese Communist party still maintains power in China
The British concluded that they could no longer manage Palestine and handed the issue over to the United Nations.
Meanwhile, since the time of the British Mandate, the Jewish community in Palestine had been forming political, social and economic institutions that governed daily life in Palestine and served as a pre-state infrastructure.
The fledgling State of Israel was faced with many challenges. While fighting a war of survival with the Arab states who immediately invaded the new nation, Israel had to also absorb the shiploads of immigrants coming in daily to the Jewish homeland. Many were penniless refugees from Europe broken in body and in spirit. They needed immediate health and social services in addition to acculturation to their new home.
Revolutionary Movements in Ghana
In 1949, Convention People's Party (CPP), led by Nkrumah, organized workers and farmers for the first time in a mass movement for independence.
The New Constitution was introduced by Nkrumah's government to provide direct election in 1954.
**Nkrumah was the founder and leader of the African independence movement and the foremost advocate of Pan-Africanism during his time.
The Arms Race
In 1949, the Soviet Union were growing an arms race.
Both countries built up their armies and weapons.
In 1957, the soviets sent off Sputnik 1, the first human made satellite, to orbit the earth.
• Basis of his reforms was perestroika or restructuring
• Wanted to start an economic reform which consisted of starting a market economy where consumers influence what is produced
• He opened the door to allow soviet citizens to travel,cracked down on alcohol abuse, and pushed for the use of computers and technology
• He had two major reforms- perestroika and glasnost
• Glasnost –change of the policy to allow citizens to freely voice their opinions
This is the third largest city in the world.
It is also the center of Beijing, China.
In the spring of 1989, China began to experience a remarkable series of events. Crowds of students joined by workers and journalists filled Tiananmen Square in Beijing day after day.
The events ended tragically for pro-democracy protesters.
Fall of the Berlin Wall
The Berlin Wall was a barrier constructed by the German democratic republic.
The fall of the Berlin Wall began with the building of the wall in 1961.
However, it took about three decades until the wall was torn down.
Several times, people in the communists countries tried to rise up against communist system but they failed.
On November 9th, 1989, it was announced that the wall would be torn down.