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AP World History Review

A prezi adaptation of the Princeton Review AP Prep book. After you take your AP test, check out my AP US History Review Prezi!
by

Allyson Boyd

on 6 April 2014

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Transcript of AP World History Review

Time Period 1:
8000BCE-600CE 6000 8000 5500 1500 2017 Nomads: Follow the Food Forging Societies:
Hunt and Gather Composed of small groups of people who traveled from point to point as the climate and availability of plants and animals dictated
Climate changes, disease, famine, and natural disasters could endanger or eliminate entire communities
Limited by capacity of their surroundings, and their inability to store food for a long period of time Taming the Animals Pastoral Societies Domestication of animals
Found in mountainous regions and in areas with insufficient rainfall to support other form of settlement Pastoral Culture Extended family a major institution Women had very few rights Egalitarian: The principle that all people are equal and deserve equal rights and opportunities. Stratification and social status based on size of one's herd Nomadic because always searching for new grazing areas and water for herds Neolithic Revolution Agricultural Development Humans...
learned how to cultivate plants,
then could stay in the same place as long as there was good soil
and Could domesticate animals and use simple tools
and Stay in the same place for a long period of time Nomadic versus Agricultural
In agricultural societies,
people begin to think of pieces of land as their home
Sense of ownership emerges
Think of newcomers as intruders as invaders, instead of as neighbors A Food Surplus Individual labor becomes specialized
People can focus on innovation instead of survival Civilization Emerges "As agricultural societies become more complex, organized economies, governmental structures and religious organizations began to emerge... Suddenly, there was a society, or the beginnings of what we'd call a civilization" (Princeton Review). Environmental Impact Farming villages changed lay of the land by diverting water, clearing land for farming, building roads, and creating farmland where none previously existed.
Animals begin to be used as a source of food, clothing, and agricultural labor (oxen pull plows on expanding farmland) Technology Advances
Hard stones (granite) were sharpened and formed into farming tools such as hoes and plows.
Pottery used for cooking
Weaving invented to shape baskets and nets
More complex and comfortable clothing designed
Wheel invented for use on carts
Sails invented for use on boats
Plow for agriculture
Metals
Used to advance tools as well as weapons
Humans learn how to combine copper with tin to create bronze, and era is called the Bronze Age Civilization Emerges Mesopotamia 3000 1500 1700 1000 1000ish 500 Fertile Crescent Sumerian First major civilization in Mesopotamia
Developed cuneiform
developed laws, treaties, and important social and religious customs
Began to be used all over trade routes
Developed a 12 month calendar
Math system based on units of 60
Polytheistic: worshiped more than 1 god
Built ziggurats to appease gods Babylonian Developments:
Advanced code of laws that dealt with every part of daily life: Code of Hammurabi
First step toward modern legal codes
Distinguished between major and minor offenses
Established a sense of justice and fairness Assyria Developments:
Advanced uses of iron originally developed by Hittites
Established capital at Nineveh
Attributes:
Highly disciplined but cruel Assyrian army
Frequent uprisings against authorities
Large groups of people sent into exile Return to Babylon Chaldean king, Nebuchadnezzar, rebuilds Babylon
Showplace of architecture and culture
Extended empire throughout Fertile Crescent Main Point: When civilizations conquered a land, they adopted and adapted the customs and technologies, leading to cultural immersion Persian Empire Developments:
Huge empire that stretched from beyond the Nile River Valley in Egypt and through present-day Turkey and parts of Greece
Built the Great Royal Road: 1600 miles from Persian Gulf to the Aegean Sea Smaller Societies Lyndians Developments:
Began the use of coined money instead of the Barter System
Leading to the monetary system of consistent prices and allowed people to save money for future use
Idea spread across trade routes Phoenicians Developments:
Established powerful naval city-states
developed alphabet of 22 letters as opposed to more complex cuneiform Hebrews Frequently enslaved by Nebuchadnezzar but maintained identity because they believed that they were God's chosen people. Later were freed under the Persians
Developments:
practiced monotheistic Judaism
Established Israel in Palestine
maintained distinctive culture and identity Nile River Valley Women in Society Religion Social Structure Achievements The Three
Kingdoms The River Nile River Valley Nile cuts through an arid landscape, so people clustered along riverbanks
Contained rich soil
Farms and towns developed along banks
Flooded at a predictable time of the year, allowing stable agricultural cycle Consisted of Old, Middle, and New Egypt
New Kingdom was the height of Egyptian civilization
Stretched from Upper Nile River Valley through eastern Mediterranean and parts of Asia Minor River Valley united under King Menes
built capital at Memphis
lead efforts to manage flood waters and build drainage and irrigation systems
Civilization,as a result, became wealthy
Pharaohs directed construction of obelisks and pyramids
Developed hieroglyphics
Later becomes dependent on trade Polytheistic religion
Intense focus on the afterlife
Were convinced they could take earthy belongings with them to the afterlife
Believed they would be able to use their bodies, thus mummification
Huge pyramids built to guide and protect spirits in the afterlife First female ruler, Queen Hatshepsut, who ruled for 22 years during New kingdom
Expanded Egyptian trade expeditions
Women in Egypt enjoyed more rights and opportunities than in other parts of the world
However, women were still subservient to men and valued most when bearing children Pharaoh Priests Nobles Peasants Merchants Hierarchy Skilled Artisans Pharaoh owned all the land in kingdom, so goods produced on land were his property
Peasants worked this land and generated wealth for kingdom
Peasants expected to give over half of what they produced to kingdom
On occasion, slaves--who were prisoners of war-- could be appointed trusted positions within the government or palaces Indus Valley Indus Valley 2500 1500 1900 Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa Ancient Indus Valley stretched for 900 miles along the Indus river
Traded through the Khyber Pass, that cut through the Hindu Kush Mountains
Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa the two major cities, each with more than 100,000 people
Cities were master-planned, uniformly constructed, and had sophisticated waste water systems
Strong central government, led by priest-king
Polytheistic
Farmers grew cotton
Artisans made cloth--important trade item among merchants Aryan Rule 1900BCE:cities of Indus valley were abandoned, and by 1500, the Aryans arrived at the Ganges River
Attributes
Nomadic tribes from north of Caucasus Mountains
Used horses and advanced weaponry to defeat Indus Valley
Aryan tribes migrated to India independently, and over time gave up nomadic lifestyle
Belief in reincarnation later leads to the belief of Hinduism
Recorded beliefs and traditions in the Vedas and the Upanishads
Social Structure
Formed the caste system
Divided people into classes: Priests(Brahmans), warriors, landowners, merchants, and peasants.
Since development of caste system, movement between classes is not allowed
Members of different castes could not marry, and children forced into same caste as parents Cities of Indus Valley abandoned because of flooding Early China Early Chinese
Civilizations Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Rose out of the Hwang Ho River Valley(Yellow River Valley)
Used its stable agricultural surplus to build a trade-centered civilization
At height, controlled large parts of Northern China and had a strong military
Limited contact with rest of the world
Traded with Mesopotamia
So isolated that they believed to themselves to be center of the world
Ethnocentric attitude: superior to all others Developments
Were accomplished bronze workers
Built horse drawn chariots
Developed spoked wheel
Experts in production of pottery and silk
Culture
Extended family an important institution
Patriarchal structure by eldest male
Gods controlled all aspects of peoples' lives
Believed could call on spirits of ancestors to act as advocates to gods Wu Wang established Zhou Dynasty in 1100 B.C.E
Ruled China for 900 years, longest in Chinese history
Mandate of Heaven
Believed in the Mandate of Heaven, meaning that heaven would grant the Zhou power as long as its rulers governed justly and wisely
Political Structure
Ruled with Feudal system
King ruled entire empire
Nobles given power over smaller regions Feudal System
Noble given protection as long as they stayed loyal to king
Nobles built up wealth and power and eventually split up into independent states
These states developed bureaucracies within governments, so different parts of government could stabilize and specialize
Bureaucracy remained popular in China
Fighting and warfare, however, brought an end to Zhou Dynasty in 256 BCE Around 1500BCE, farmers in the Niger and Benue River valleys in West Africa began migrating South and East, bringing with them their languages and knowledge of agriculture and metallurgy Bantu speakers gradually moved into areas formerly occupied by nomads. Some nomads moved on while others adopted the sedentary lifestyle of the Bantu. Migration was spurred by climactic changes, such as the Sahara Desert drying up. Further north in the Niger River Valley are the remains of Jenne-Jeno, the first sub-saharan African city Jenne-Jeno reached urban density, but does not show a hierarchically organized society. The city is believed to be a unique form of Urbanism comprising of a collection of individual communities Bantu Migrations Bantus Early Americas Early Mesoamerica and Andean South America Chavin Olmec 900-200 BCE
Urban civilization
Polytheistic
Mostly agricultural
Had access to the coast and could supplement diet with seafood Developed tools and weapons
Used llamas as beasts of burden
Did not develop in a river valley
No contact with other civilizations across the Pacific and Atlantic From 1500-400 BCE
Urban society
supported by surpluses of corn, beans, and squash
Mastered irrigation techniques
Constructed large-scale building projects Polytheistic
Developed system of writing and a calendar
Did not have access to other civilizations
Did not develop in a river valley Hinduism Buddhism Judaism Christianity Polytheism Confucianism Daoism Legalism Vast majority of civilizations were polytheistic
Belief in multiple gods that affect daily life in varying degrees
Center of art and architecture
Led to rise in priestly class
Civilizations become dependent on an elevated peoples who control destiny
Formed rigid social classes with priests near the top
Rise and fall of city-states blamed on disputes in heavens Confucius thought at odds with state policy
Teachings recorded in Analects
Political and scientific philosophy
Deals with how to restore political and social order
Does not deal with how to large philosophical or religious ideas
Focuses on 5 relationships: husband and wife, parent and child, ruler and subject, older brother and younger brother, and friend and friend
Belief that morally strong individuals had to exercise enlightened leadership
People could be Confucius and another religion Dao: Way of nature or the cosmos
Founded by Lao-Tzu, Chinese Philosopher
Based on an elusive concept of an eternal principle governing all workings of the world
Ambition and activism bring chaos
Study the Wuwei
Simple life in harmony with nature
Advocated formation of small self-sufficient communities
Promoted scientific discovery
Could coexist with other religions Practiced in China during the Qin Dynasty
Peace and order achieved only through centralized, tightly governed state
Needed strict laws because it did not trust human nature
Caused widespread resentment among people and wider acceptance of Confucianism and Daoism
Han Dynasty later blends Confucianism and Legalism Practiced in India
Believes in a supreme force called Brahma, the creator
Hindu gods are manifestations of Brahma
Goal is to merge with Brahma
Belief in reincarnation
Dharma: Rules of caste you were born into
Strict caste system and social structure prevents influence in other parts of the world Founded by Siddartha Guatama (563-483)
Involves 4 noble truths
All life is suffering
Suffering is caused by desire
One can be freed of this desire
One is freed from desire by following the 8 Fold path
Following the path allows you to move toward nirvana
Belief in reincarnation
After death of Buddha, Buddhism split into two different forms
Theravada Buddhism: Buddha is not a god
Mahayana Buddhism: Buddha becomes godlike deity
Belief in Bodhisattvas: Those who achieve nirvana but choose
to stay on earth
Appealed to lower class
Ashoka, Mauryan emperor, spread Buddhism
Eventually reabsorbed into Hinduism
Ghandara Buddhas: blend of Buddhism and Greco-
Roman philosophy Practiced by Hebrews
Belief that God selected a group of people, Hebrews, and made himself known to them, and that if they worshiped him and were faithful, he would preserve them for all time
Later become the Jews
Belief that God created the world so that humans may exercise free will
Follow the Torah-first five books of the bible
First major monotheistic religion Splinter group of Jews that quickly spread
to non-Jews
Follows teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, who
was crucified in 30 CE
Believe that he rose from the dead
Involves old and new testaments of the bible
Forgiveness of sins=everlasting life
Incorporates emphasis on compassion, grace through faith, and promise of eternal life for all
Widely popular with lower class and women
Becomes official religion of Roman Empire
Trade, warfare, and migration spreads
religions far beyond origin Classic MesoAmerica 500 CE 800 850 300BCE Mayan Civilization Beginning of Mayan civilization
Began as a collection of city-states
All city-states ruled by same king
Built pyramids
Wrote using hieroglyphics
Developed complex calendar system
Built tremendous cities (Tikal, the most important Mayan political center with a population of 100,000 people) Dominating Mexico
Divided cosmos into three parts: heavens above, humans in the middle, and the underworld below
Believed gods created humans out of maize, one of the main Mayan dietary staples, and water
Believed gods maintained agricultural cycles in exchange for honor, sacrifices, and bloodletting rituals
Mayan warfare imbued religious influence
Warfare conducted to acquire slaves for large building projects instead of land
No large animals to do heavy lifting labor The Golden Age
Majority of people were peasants or slaves
Merchants enjoyed high status
Ridged field system to collect rainfall and accommodate swamp conditions
Cotton and Maize widely cultivated
Known for cotton textiles
Buildings well preserved
Tiered temple at Chichen Itza, similar in design to Egyptian pyramids and Mesopotamian ziggurats The Ruins
Mayan calendar, based on a number system, that included zero
Was most accurate for its time
Only runs through 2012, giving rise to end of the world predictions
Theorized that disease or drought or declining health of large peasant population, warfare, internal unrest, or exhausted environmental resources led to decline of the Maya Rise of
the Classic Civilizations: India and China Mauryan Empire Han Dynasty Gupta Empire Qin Dynasty Spans from Indus River valley eastward through the Ganges river valley and southward through the Deccan plateau
Founded by Chandragupta Maurya, who unified smaller Aryan kingdoms into a civilization
Ashoka Maurya takes Mauryan empire to its golden age
Power and wealth comes from trade
Merchants traded silk, cotton, elephants, etc. to Mesopotamia and the eastern Roman Empire
Powerful military
Leader Ashoka begins preaching nonviolence and moderation
Ashoka known for Rock and Pillar Edicts carved across empire
Placed as reminder to live generous and righteous lives
His conversion caused the religion to spread beyond India Mauryan Empire declines rapidly after Ashoka's death in 232 BCE
Economic problems and pressure from attacks in northeast
Between 375 and 415 CE, the empire experiences a revival under Chandra Gupta the Great
More decentralized and smaller than Mauryan empire
Enjoyed relative peace
Women increasingly lose their rights
Significant advances in arts and sciences
Developed idea of pi and zero
Devised a decimal system and numbers 1-9
Hinduism dominant religion
Reinforced caste system
Collapsed under pressure from the White Huns in 550 CE Lasted little longer than a decade
Developed a strong economy based on agriculture
Organized powerful army equipped with iron weapons
Unified the region under a single emperor
Begins connecting and building Great Wall of China
Shows that empire was well organized, centralized, and territorial
Qin Shihuangdi was dynasty's first emperor
Recentralized various feudal kingdoms that split Zhou dynasty
Standardized laws, currencies, weights, measures, and systems of writing
Patriarchal society
Dominant belief system: Legalism
Leader killed by peasants who resented Qin Dynasty's
heavy-handedness Xiongnu, a large nomadic group invades territories extending from China to Eastern Europe
Wu Ti enlarged Han Empire to Central Asia
Trade thrived along Silk Road to the Mediterranean
Along the Silk Road, Buddhism spreads
Civil Service system develops based on Confucianism
Believed that those involved in government should be highly educated and excellent communicators
Government bureaucracy that was highly skilled and contributed to stability
Invention of paper, highly accurate sundials, and calendars
Strides in navigation, such as invention of rudder and compass
Broadened use of metals Fall of
the Classic Civilizations: India and China Gupta Empire Han Dynasty Invaded by the White Huns
Able to hold off Huns for first half of fifth century
Defense cost weakened state
Hun kingdoms formed in western and northern India
Hinduism and caste system survives the invasion, however Han dynasty interrupted by reign of Wang Mang, who established the Xin dynasty(9-23 CE)
Used belief in the Mandate of Heaven to seize the throne
Weakened empire and control
Attempted reforms of land ownership and currency were unsuccessful and caused chaos in all classes
War led to conscription of population and heavy taxation of landowners, who in turn had to pay less to farmers
Famines, floods along Yellow River, and commodity prices
Peasant uprisings Sparta vs. Athens The Golden Age of Pericles Alexander the Great Greek Mythology Politics Athens and Sparta Greece Greece began as a collection of city-states
Athens
Political, commercial, and cultural center of Greece
Sparta
Population lived an austere, highly disciplined existence
All boys, and some girls, received military training
City States
Three groups of people: Citizens, adult males, engaged in business or commerce, Free people with no political rights, and non-citizens, slaves who accounted for nearly a third of the population and had no rights
All citizens (adult males) expected to participate in civic decisions
Athens regarded as first democracy
Women held a higher status and granted greater equality in Sparta
Draco and Salon: Aristocrats who worked to create the democracy in Athens and to ensure fair, equal, and open participation
Slave labor allowed Greek citizens the time to vote and create art and philosophy
Slaves who earned enough could buy their freedom Greeks were polytheistic
Gods thought to possess human failings and flaws
Mythology remains part of Western heritage and language War With Persia Persian Wars (499-449 BCE) united all Greek city-states against their mutual enemy (Persia was the largest empire in Mediterranean and Mesopotamia to date)
Much of Athens is destroyed
Wars end in a stalemate
Two huge victories by Greeks allow them to maintain control of the Aegean Sea
Greece enters into an era of peace and prosperity: the Golden Age of Pericles Athens becomes a cultural powerhouse under leadership of Pericles (480-404 BCE)
Delian League (Alliance of city-states against its enemies) established
Philosophy and fine arts flourish
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle believed that truth could be discerned through rational thought and deliberate and careful observation
Greek architecture
Math and science thrived: Archimedes, Hippocrates, and Pythagoras
Homer wrote epic poems Illiad and the Odyssey
Accomplishments in this period serve as inspiration
for the Renaissance and the Enlightenment City states allied with Sparta to create the Peloponnesian League
Trade dispute involving city of Corinth pushed Athens and Sparta into the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE)
Sparta victory
Sparta dominated for a short time until the Macedonians, Philip III of Macedon, invaded and reigned from 359 to 336 BCE
Macedonians respected Greek culture and encouraged it to flourish King Philip's son, Alexander the Great widely expanded Macedonian influence
Conquered the Persian Empire to shores of the Indus River
Spread Greek customs to rest of the world
Much of the world became connected under uniform law and trade practices
Hellenism, the culture, ideals, and pattern of life of Classical Greece, didn't perish as a result of victories of Athens and Sparta
Ptolemaic, section of the empire, became the wealthiest
Ptolemaic rulers didn't interfere with Egyptian society
Alexander the Great's death at age 33 caused the empire to crumble Rise of Imperialism Military Domination Collapse of the Western Roman Empire Social Structure Political Structure Roman Mythology The Roman Empire Polytheistic
Many gods of Greek origin, but renamed to suit culture and language Consisted of patricians, land owning noble-men, Plebeians, all other free men, and slaves
Organized as a representative republic
Consisted of Senate, Patrician families, and Assembly, which was open to Patricians and Plebeians
More stable than direct democracies of Greek Polis
Civil laws to protect individual rights
Laws of Rome called Twelve Tables of Rome Centered on Pater Familias--eldest male in the family had highest authority
Women had considerable influence in the family
Slavery an important element
Compromised 1/3 of population, as in Greece
Slaves living and working in cities had better conditions that slaves in the country
Some had possibility of freedom Rome sought to expand, causing the Punic Wars (264-146 BCE)
Rome gains territory across Mediterranean
Rome becomes undisputed power
Obtains Greece from the Macedonians
Warfare aided spread of Roman culture
Built extensive road network and aqueducts and enlarged their army Power transferred to three men, one of whom was Augustus Caesar
Under Augustus, Pax Romana flourished
Rome becomes capital
Customs of conquered territories survive
Growth of arts and sciences
Literature and architecture
Astronomy rejects ideas of roman catholic church
Engineers improved roads and aqueducts
Paganism original roman religion
Christianity transforms roman society
Roman emperors sought to end growth of Christianity Internal decay in combination with external pressures cause the fall of the Roman empire
Size of empire and huge expense of maintaining it
Weak leaders
Series of epidemics
In 284 CE, Roman empire is divided into east and west, run by co-emperors
East thrived because of capital at Constantinople, called the Byzantines The Silk Road From China to the Roman Empire Disease Religion Culture Technology Along the silk road were numerous small towns where merchants stopped and traded goods Black Plague, measles, smallpox Christianity and Buddhism Strict and patriarchal social divisions Little Land Ownership Spartan Women Were Citizens Women Could Own Businesses High Literacy Among Upper Class Women could be Priestesses or Later, Nuns Strict Patriarchal Caste System Women not Allowed to Inherit Property None Needed Large Dowry and No Remarriage for Widows Forbidden to Read Sacred Texts Women Could Not Achieve Moksha Strict Confucian Social Order and Guidelines for Virtuous Behavior Only Sons Inherit Property None Rome/Greece India China Arranged Marriages
Widows Permitted to Remarry Upper Classes Educated in Arts and Literature and All Educated in Virtues Buddhist Convents and Daoism Balances Male and Female Association of Hebrew monotheism with Judaism further develops with the codification of the Hebrew scriptures
Assyrian and Roman empires create Jewish diasporic communities and destroyed kingdom of Israel
Sanskrit scriptures formed the basis for Vedic religions (Hinduism) Time Period 2 Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions 600BCE O 300BCE 300CE 600 New Belief Systems and Cultural Traditions Emerge and Spread Other Religions and Cultural Traditions Continued Shamanism and Animism continue Artistic Expressions Greek Tragedy Indian Epics Indian Greek Mayan Roman New Techniques of Imperial Administration Rulers create administrative institutions, including centralized governments, elaborate legal systems, and bureaucracies (China, Persia, Rome, or India)
Project military power through diplomacy, supply lines, building fortifications, defensive walls and roads, and drawing soldiers from population
Success rests on promotion of trade and economic integration Social and Economic Dimensions Cities serve as centers of trade, public performance of religious rituals, and as political administration for states and empires (Persepolis, Chang'an, Athens, Carthage, Rome, Alexandria, Constantinople, or Teotihuacan) Social structures of all empires displayed hierarchies Imperial societies rely on labor systems: corvee, slavery, rents and tributes, peasant communities, and family and household production
PATRIARCHY CONTINUES TO SHAPE GENDER AND FAMILY RELATIONS IN ALL IMPERIAL SOCIETIES Problems in Imperial Society Excessive mobilization of resources, imperial governments caused environmental damage (Soil depletion, desertification, deforestation, erosion, or silted rivers)
Concentrated too much wealth in the hands of elites
Security issues along frontiers
Threat of invasions New Technologies Yokes Saddles Stirrups Lateen Sail Allowed animals to pull plows so soil didn't have to be turned by hand Riders could stay on horses more easily Riders could stand up in saddle and hold on with feet, allowing him to use weapons during battle Sailors didn't have to rely on tides to sail, making it especially effective in the Indian Ocean Dhow Ships Typically smaller than regular ships and faster, used to go up rivers Exchange Spread of crops encouraged changes in farming and irrigation techniques Religious and cultural traditions were transformed as they spread Remember: Emergence of new Transregional Networks Trans-Saharan caravan routes
Indian Ocean sea lanes
Mediterranean
Eurasian silk roads Empires Maya Greece Rome India and China Women in Ancient Society Time Period 3 600 900 750 1050 1300 1450 Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks Existing trade routes promoted growth of powerful new trading cities (Novgorod, Timbuktu, Baghdad, Melaka, Venice, and Tenochtitlan)
Growth of interregional trade in luxury goods (Silk, cotton, porcelain, spices, precious metals, slaves, or exotic animals)
More sophisticated caravan organizations (Caravanserai or camel saddles)
Expansion of existing empires as well as new empires facilitated trans-Eurasian trade The Islamic Empire 625 875 Rise of Islam Umayyad Dynasty 750 1000 Abbasid Dynasty 1125 Decline 1250 Beliefs A monotheistic religion that believe that Allah, God, transmitted his words through the prophet Mohammad, whose followers recorded his words into the Qu'ran
Salvation is won through submission to the will of God Confession of faith Prayer five times a day Charity to the needy Fasting during Ramadan Pilgrimage to Mecca Five Pillars of Islam Guided by Jihad (to Struggle)
Split later into Sunni and Shia Islam
Mohammad grew up in Mecca
Islam conflicted with leaders of Mecca
Leaders wanted to maintain polytheistic tribes
Mohammad attacks Mecca with followers from Medina, and destroys all shrines, save Ka'ba
Later becomes incredibly powerful within 30 years Abu Bakr becomes caliph after Mohammad's death
Became head of state, military commander, chief judge, and religious leader
Theocracy: a government ruled by immediate divine guidance
Growth of Islam linked to growth of the empire
Leaders of empire begins to become hereditary
Umayyad dynasty of the Islamic empire enlarges Islamic empire but increases conflict with Byzantine and Persian Empires
Arabic becomes official language
Gold and silver coins as standard monetary unit
Conquered peoples "encouraged" to convert to Islam, or pay a tax Islamic empire extends as far as northern Africa and into Spain
Attacked Byzantine capital of Constantinople numerous times
Never flourished in Europe beyond Spain and southern Italy
Muslim empire becomes too overwhelming, so it splits into Shiite(Shia) and Sunni
Conflict between these two groups eventually leads to empire's demise 750-1258 Oversees a golden age from the early to mid ninth century
Built capital at Baghdad
Built around trade
Merchants introduce credit to trade system
Islamic advancements seen in medical and mathematics fields
Defeated Tang Chinese army in 751CE
Fought for control over silk road
Islamic empire preserves western culture by translating Greek texts into Arabic
Tolerant of local customs in conquered areas Women and Islam Women had no property or inheritance rights
Seen as property themselves
Low status for women led to female infanticide
Gender Bias common in many patriarchal societies
Qu'ran later raises status of women
Gained influence within family
However, men still viewed as above
Women had to be veiled in public (Recall: began in Mesopotamia and Persia)
Women's primary role becomes to be loyal to and care for husband and family Regularly endured civil wars and internal struggles
Rival factions and powers developed and destabilized central authority at Baghdad and cut tax revenues
Turkish slaves, mamluks, revolted and established new capital at Samarra
Shia dynasty in northern Iran threatened by Seljuk Turks, a nomadic Sunni group
Threatened also by Persians, Europeans, and Byzantine
Defeated, finally, by Mongols, during the crusades Europe Attributes Justinian Rule Justinian code: codification of Roman law that kept Roman legal principles alive
Construction of Hagia Sophia Orthodox vs. Catholic Impact on Russia Greek is primary language
Dome-like architecture


Practiced Orthodox Christianity
Emperors rule by absolute authority
Monopolized silk production
Used coined money at stable value Reigned from 527-565
Roman Empire restored in Constantinople
Christian Constantinople and Islamic Baghdad rivalry Accomplishments Split up because differences between churches became too great
Disagreed over:
communion, priests being allowed to marry, nature of god, language, and placement of icons
Pope excommunicates patriarch of Constantinople
Orthodoxy influences east and Roman Catholicism influenced west Slavic and Russian peoples converted to Orthodoxy in the ninth century
When Vladimir, Russian prince from Kiev, abandoned Paganism for Christianity, he also considered other religions popular at the time
Russia aligns with Byzantine, so when Roman Catholicism reforms, the Eastern churches do not
Caused Russia to evolve differently than the rest of Europe Church vs. State During middle ages, West centralized power on the church, while political leaders in the east were in control of politics and the church
East was more of secular empire with an official church religion; West was a religious empire with subservient political units Other Events Franks vs. Muslims The Vikings Charlemagne Germanic tribes settled throughout western Europe
Converted to Christianity
Franks were a Germanic tribe united under single leadership
Fought and defeated Muslims at Battle of Tours in 732
Later heir to the throne chose to have his succession certified by the pope, legitimizing empire as reliant on Roman Catholic approval Charlemagne crowned by the pope in 800
Built empire called Holy Roman Empire upon coronation of Otto the Great in 962
Power becomes centralized again
Relatively small in comparison to original Roman empire
Focus placed on arts and education
Society structured Feudalism
Local lords held power over local territories
Treaty of Verdun: area divided among three sons after Charlemagne's death Raiders from Norse
Reputation for raiding Roman Catholic monasteries
Raiding: a normal consequence of pressures on a growing society
Merchants and fishermen and developed earliest fisheries
Settlements in Newfoundland, Canada, in 1000 CE, inland Russia, and France
Raided Constantinople
Converted to Christianity
By end of middle ages, Catholic Church became the most powerful institution in
world European Feudalism Hierarchy The Land Politics social System Serfs King Power over entire territory called kingdom Nobles In exchange for military service and loyalty to the king, were granted power over sections of the kingdom Vassals Received land divided by nobles, who could split their land for subordinate vassals Peasants Worked the land For this system to work, everyone had to fill obligations: serve in military, produce food, or serve those who were at a higher level Estates vassals held called fiefs, later known as manors
Peasants work land in exchange for protection and a place to live
Three-field system:centered on rotation of three fields: one for fall and spring harvest, and one allowing land to replenish nutrients Lord owed allegiance to king
Fiefs were self-sustaining
All lords beholden to the same ruler
Conflicts between feudal lords on a regular basis
etiquette of disputes and rules of engagement in Code of Chivalry: an honor system that condemned betrayal and promoted mutual respect Male-dominated
Only males could inherit land
Women were powerless
Primogeniture: to the eldest son
Women could inherit a fief, but could not rule it
Noblewomen valued primarily for feminine traits, but regarded as property Had few rights
Become tied to land
Couldn't leave manor without permission from lord
Imprisonment on land leads to highly skilled peasant class
Some of these skilled craftspeople began to earn extra income
Chipped away at rigid manor system
Emergence of middle class: urban craftsmen and merchants
Centralization in cities 1) League created to protect seafaring merchants in trade to have safe seas and ports, and inland trade routes. Occupied North Sea and Baltic Sea regions
2) League lasted from- 1400-1700s 7) Guilds can admit a variety of artisans and helped raise social values for work, secured education for artisans, ensured product quality and consolidated trades. However, guilds also set limits on competition, number of artisans, and stifled innovation in trades
8) Peasants made money from loans, inheritance, and developing landownings of their own 5) Lords in league demanded rents from peasants, and then sold surpluses to merchants. Merchants drew profits from sale of raw materials. Peasants payed landlords and were forbidden to trade with merchants
6) Merchants often invested money in non-guild enterprises because most cities did not have guilds 9) Merchants made money through sale of raw materials, collecting grain and products for sale, providing loans to peasants, selling to landlords, and dealing with enterprises
10) Lords shifted back to labor rents because it forced peasants to work longer days and became an incentive for engagement in surplus sails 3) League expressed other powers such as military and political power
4) Hanseatic Diet responsible for negotiations with foreign towns or rulers, ratification of trading agreements or privileges, trade and commercial blockades, financial matters, military issues, membership expansion or exclusion, conflicts within members, conflicts with feudal nobility, and competition policy. Formed to clearly show policies Hanseatic League The Crusades Architecture during the Dark Ages Romanesque Cathedrals Gothic Architecture Effects of Open Thinking Founding of universities
Scholasticism, conflicting with church because it relied on reason instead of faith, developed
Pope Innocent III issues strict decrees on church doctrine at beginning of 13th century
Heretics and Jews are persecuted
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