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The History of Medicine
Transcript of The History of Medicine
The Ebers Papyrus was rewritten from an earlier copy. Found by Edwin Smith, the papyrus contains some 700 magical remedies, formulas, and incantations meant to cure certain diseases. 1500 BC 1300 BC The Brugsch Papyrus was written, containing similar information to the Ebers Papyrus. Some historians believe that Galen used it in his writings. The London Medical Papyrus contains 25 medical recipes and 36 magical ones. 1069-1046 BC Esagil-kin-apli of Babylonia wrote the Diagnostic Handbook, which includes the symptoms for various types of epilepsy and other diseases. 700 BC Bian Que, the earliest known Chinese physician, used acupuncture. He is said to have revived a prince from the dead, but he really just revived him from sickness. 500 BC Hippocrates of Cos, referred to as the 'father of medicine' founds the Hippocratic School of Medicine. He had the unusual belief that disease occurred by natural causes, not by the will of gods.Hippocrates used prognosis to determine the symptoms of his patients, even if he could not diagnose their disease.The Hippocratic Oath is still taken by doctors today. The Huangdi Neijing is written, and is now regarded as the fundamental source for Chinese medicine
The Huangdi Neijing is made up of two texts- the first one (called Suwen) covers the foundation of Chinese medicine and its diagnostic methods.
The second one (called Lingshu) is much less recognized, but covers acupuncture therapy,
Like Hippocrates, this text focuses on the belief that natural effects such as diet, environment, and lifestyle are the reasons for disease. 400 BC 430 BC Diocles wrote the first known anatomy book 300 BC Herophilus, considered the father of anatomy, is the first scientist to perform dissections on human cadavers.
He differentiates between veins and arteries, and began taking pulse with a water clock.
Herophilus is also the first to differentiate between the cerebrum and cerebellum of the brain. He concludes that the brain is the center of the nervous system.
He writes a book on midwifery accurately describing the female reproductive system. 270 BC Erasistratus correctly described the valves of the heart and discovered that it is a pump. Erasistratus differentiated between sensory and motor nerves and believed correctly, despite many beliefs during his time that opposed this, that drink passed through the esophagus and into the stomach.He also correctly described the structure and function of the gastric muscles. Galen of Pergamon, a Roman surgeon, philosopher, and physician, began to dissect animals to learn more about the human body. The Romans were against human dissection. Therefore, Galen based his theories of dissections of apes and pigs, which meant he made several mistakes. 168 AD Simple anesthetics that were used around this time were herbs and alcohol. Roman surgical instruments were similar to those of Greeks. Iron was used to make the tools. With these instruments, they performed amputations, eye surgery, and trephining.
5th Century AD Al- Razi, considered an Islamic 'Hippocrates' was a highly influential writer, and his medical books, which made a clear distinction between smallpox and measles, were used for many centuries by Islamic and Western medical scholars. 900 AD The Congregation of the Antonines was founded to treat victims of "St. Anthony's Fire," a skin disease. 1083-1153 AD 1095 AD St. Bartholemew's Hospital founded by court jester Rahere Augustine. It is proven to be the oldest hospital in London and the oldest in the United Kingdom that still occupies its original site. Louis IX established Les Quinze-vingt. Originally a retreat for the blind, it became a hospital for eye diseases and is now one of the most important medical centers in Paris. 1123 AD 1260 AD Ibn an-Nafis suggests that the right and left ventricles of the heart are separate and discovers the pulmonary and coronary circulation of the blood. 1242 AD Averroes wrote a medical encyclopedia called "Kulliyat" and wrote in the Canon of Medicine, which presents a clear and organized summary of all the medical knowledge of all time. 1126-1198 AD Ibn al-Baitar wrote about botany and pharmacy and studied animal anatomy and veterinary medicine. He wrote The Ultimate in Materia Medica and Complete Book of Simple Medicaments and Nutritious Items. 500 AD 1248 AD The difference between arteries and veins is rediscovered by others. Roger Bacon writes about convex lens spectacles for treating long-sightedness. 1249 AD Joannes Zacharias Actuarius, a Byzantine physician, wrote the last great compendium of Byzantine medicine. 1275-1328 AD 1300 AD Alcmaeon of Croton studied vision using a dissected eyeball, and outlined the paths of optic nerves to the brain.
He was also the first to identify the brain as the 'seat of understanding'. Concave lens spectacles to treat myopia developed in Italy. Myopia is a vision condition in which close objects are seen clearly, but objects farther away appear blurred. 1510-1590 240 BC Ambroise Pare, surgeon, treated gunshot wounds with simple bandages instead of hot oil. In 1545, he published a book full of methods to treat gunshot wounds. 1546 AD Giralamo Fracastro proposed that epidemic diseases are caused by transferable seed-like entities. He is best known for "Syphilis sive morbus Gallicus," the study of syphilis , the French disease, and other epidemic diseases. Girolamo Fabrici studies leg veins and notices that they have valves which allow blood to flow only toward the heart. He was Italian surgeons who helped found modern embryology and was the first to demonstrate and prove that the pupil of the eye changes it size. 1603 AD Anna Komnene studied philosophy, geometry, astronomy, music, and medicine. She also wrote about a disease called Gout. 1736 Claudius Aymand performs the first successful appendectomy. James Lind discovers that citrus fruits prevent scurvy. Lind started out as an apprentice surgeon and then opened his own practice in 1748. 1747 Edward Jenner develops a vaccine for the disease small-pox. 1796 Rene Laennec invents the stethoscope. 1816 2013 A baby in in the U.S was cured of HIV by achieving the functional cure. The functional cure is a rare event that happens when a person achieves remission without the need for drugs. James Blundell performs the first successful human blood transfusion. 1818 2008 Laurent Lantieri performs the first full face transplant. First Vaccine for Tuberculosis. 1927 Egas Moniz discovers prefrontal lobotomy to cure mental sickness. 2006 1936 The first HPV vaccine is introduced to society. 2005 Robert Briggs and Thomas J. King cloned northern leopard frogs using a method of nuclear transfer. 1952 Jean-Michel Dubernard performs the first partial face transplant. 1992 Thomas Starzl performs the first liver transplant. 1963 The first vaccine for Hepatitis A is introduced to the world. Christian Barnard performs the first human transplant. The first surgical robot is introduced by Dr. Yik San Kwoh. 1985 1967 This Concludes Our Presentation Thank you for watching! Are there any questions? Spaun (Semantic Pointer Architecture Unified Network), the most realistic artificial brain yet, was created by a group of neuroscientists and software engineers at the University of Waterloo in Canada. 2012