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Bladder Cancer

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Matthew Lin

on 4 April 2014

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Transcript of Bladder Cancer

There are many symptoms which indicate one has bladder cancer.
Symptoms include:
~painful & frequent urination
~back or pelvis pain
~blood in urine (colors may vary)
~Feeling the need to empty bladder and end with no results
Bladder Cancer

In 1865, a German surgeon named Ludwig Rehn gave a speech in Berlin how working in a chemical factory increases your chances of bladder cancer
People became more aware of causes for bladder cancer
In 2000, scientists placed greater urgency on studying chemotherapy, as they believed it would be the best, and most successful way in curing bladder cancer
In 2007, the urogenital cancer research spent 12.7 million dollars on bladder research.
There are four main tests used
to check for bladder cancer.
If there is family history of bladder cancer, anyone in the family is at greater risk due to genetics.
67% of cancers are linked to the environment
Living in an environment where smoking does not take place.
Women, that smoke have a 30% greater chance of bladder cancer
Men have a 50% greater chance of bladder cancer (after the age of 55)
Working in an environment such as textile, rubber, leather, dye, trucking and chemical industries have a 25% greater chance of bladder cancer
There are many ways to get bladder cancer:
Smoking; doubles your chances of bladder cancer
Working in the dye industry; toxic chemicals such as betanaphthylamine and benzine are exposed.
Arsenic; found in drinking water past the EPA standard.
Jobs with very low risk are; hairdressers (due to dye exposure) and truck drivers (diesel fume exposure)
Age, Gender, etc.
90% are over 55 years old
Average age is 73 years old
Men (3.8%) are more likely than women (1.1%) to have bladder cancer
Caucasian people are twice as likely to get bladder cancer compared to Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans
Treatment options for bladder cancer depend on the type and stage of the cancer, the overall health of the person, and also treatment preferences
- odorless and tasteless semi-metal element in the periodic table that can end up in drinking water
- colorless chemicals that are found in dye.
- US Environmental Protection Agency, enforces rules/standards to protect the environment.
"Bladder Cancer." CNN. Cable News Network, 19 June 2012. Web. 21 Dec. 2013.

"Basic Information about Arsenic in Drinking Water." Home. Environmental Protection Agency, 17 Sept. 2013. Web. 21 Dec. 2013.

"Bladder Cancer." Cancer.Net. Cancer.net Editorial Board, 28 Sept. 2012. Web. 21 Dec. 2013.

Letašiová, Silvia, and Claudia Mosoiu. "Bladder Cancer." Bladder Cancer Review. Springer Science+Business Media, 01 June 2012. Web. 22 Dec. 2013.

"National Cancer Institute." Cancer and the Environment. Ed. National Institudes of Health. NIH, n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2013.

National Center of Environmental Health. "Bladder Cancer and the Environment." Health Effects. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 12 Apr. 2012. Web. 22 Dec. 2013.

American Cancer Society. "What Are the Key Statistics about Bladder Cancer?" What Are the Key Statistics about Bladder Cancer? American Cancer Society, 15 Nov. 2012. Web. 23 Dec. 2013

"Bladder Cancer Incidence Statistics." : Cancer Research UK. Cancer Research UK, 17 Sept. 2013. Web. 23 Dec. 2012.

Avoidable Environmental Factors
There are different types of
surgeries depending on what stage
of bladder cancer the person is in.
A doctor would remove the tumor with transurethral resection (TUR) and, if necessary, a portion of the bladder during segmental cystectomy in the early stages of the cancer.
If a patient has invasive bladder cancer, a doctor would remove the
whole bladder through radical cystectomy and also create a
new way for urine to exit.
The immunotherapy drugs used to treat bladder cancer are Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and interferon alfa-2b.
Chemotherapy treatment for bladder cancer usually involves chemotherapy drugs that are injected into a vein in your arm or put straight into the bladder by inserting a tube through the urethra.
BCG, a bacterium, is used in tuberculosis vaccines.
Interferon, a protein, helps fights infections. Interferon alfa-2b is a synthetic version, used to fight bladder cancer.
In radiation therapy, high-energy beams are aimed towards the bladder cancer, destroying the cancer cells.
Radiation therapy may be used at the same time as chemotherapy.
Radiation therapy is used occasionally for bladder cancer patients.
Don't smoke ~ no smoking means no cancer-causing chemicals in the bladder
Take caution with chemicals
Drink water throughout the day ~ by theory, this
Eat fruits & vegetables ~ antioxidants in the fruits and
veggies may reduce the risk of bladder cancer
helps empty any toxins in the bladder
What is a Bladder?
The bladder is found in the lower part of the abdomen.It is a hollow balloon-shaped organ with a flexible, yet muscular wall. The bladder stores urine, which is made in the kidneys.
What is Bladder Cancer?
Bladder cancer forms in tissues in the bladder. Cancerous cells form in the bladder and multiply at an uncontrollable rate.
Patients that are diagnosed within the early stages of bladder cancer have an 85% chance of living.
80% chance of survival (if not treated yet)
60-75% survival rate if found in the later stages, with treatment ( successfully remove tumor/chemotherapy/radiation) [all treatments expensive]
Note: According to American Cancer Society, radiation therapy costs more than $10,000.
Overall survival rate is 73%.
Men are 3/4 more likely to have bladder cancer in their lifetime than women.
Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer found in men
In 2013, 72,570 cases of bladder cancer were diagnosed in the USA. (54,610 in men; 17,960 in women)
This is about 42.5 people per population of 100,000
Note: European statics as of 2010
In the United Kingdom (UK), 10,324 total people were diagnosed with bladder cancer, 16.8 people per population of 100,000.
In Scotland, 778 total people were diagnosed with bladder cancer, 14.9 people per every 100,000 people
In England, 8,742 total were diagnosed with bladder cancer, 16.7 people per every 100,000
In Northern Ireland, 218 total were diagnosed, 12.1 people per every 100,000.
Pink-women Blue-men
Charts courtesy of: Cancer Research UK
Average Number of
New Cases per Year and Age
Chart courtesy of: Cancer Research UK
Bladder Cancer and
Age Relationship
Rate of Bladder
Cancer Worldwide
Chart courtesy of: Cancer Research UK
By: Matthew Lin and Marcus Bautista
Ways to prevent bladder cancer:
stages of bladder cancer
There are four main stages of bladder cancer.
Stage I- The cancer is in the inner lining, but has not reached the muscular bladder wall.
Stage II- The cancer invades the cell wall, but is confined in the bladder.
Stage III- Cancer cells have spread past the bladder wall to surrounding tissues.
Stage IV- Cancer cells have spread to other organs like the liver or lungs.
The doctor sticks a cystoscope through the urethra, allowing the doctor to see inside the bladder.
The doctor inserts a special tool that collects cell samples for testing.
The special tool goes through the scope that is used during cystoscopy.
Urine samples are put under a microscope.
The doctors check for any cancer cells.
X-ray imaging tests uses the dye to highlight the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
A computerized tomography scan (type of x-ray test) lets the doctor see surrounding tissue and the patient's urinary tract.
A dye gets injected into a vein before procedure.
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