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Stress in Compound Words
Transcript of Stress in Compound Words
A compound word is made up of 2 (or more) words:
-foot + ball = football
-face + book = facebook
-hot + dog = hotdog
-break + through = breakthrough
-down + fall = downfall
-old + fashion(ed) = old fashioned
-absent + mind(ed) = absent minded
-half + dead = half dead
What is a Compound Word?
Both parts of compound adjectives are stressed. Stronger stress usually falls on the second component of two-word compound adjectives.
Many are formed by adding an -ed or -ing participle to an adv, adj, or N.
Phrasal verbs with postpositions (with adverbial particles) are compound verbs in which both components are stressed, usually with stronger stress on the postposition.
We put the primary stress on the first component
(even if the words are written separately)
Football: FOOT - ball Swimming pool: SWIMming - pool
Facebook: FACE - book Armchair: ARM - chair
Hotdog: HOT - dog Photograph: PHOTO - graph
Chocolate milk: CHOColate - milk
Stress is the main distinguishing mark between a compound noun (stress on the first component) and a regular / free Attribute + Noun combination in which primary stress is on the second word (on the noun).
GREENhouse OR green - HOUSE
(a place for growing plants OR a house that is green)
BLACKboard OR black - BOARD
(where the teacher writes notes OR a board that is black)
ENGlish teacher OR English - TEACHer
(someone who teaches English OR a teacher from England)
If a compound noun is formed from a phrasal verb, primary stress in it falls on the first component, and the noun is usually written as a single word or with a hyphen.
Compound Nouns from Phrasal Verbs
If one of the components in a two-word adjective is a noun, stronger stress may fall on the noun, irrespective of whether it is the first or second component.
Stress on the Noun
Even when compounds are written as 2 separate words, primary stress is STILL on the first word; secondary stress is on the second word.
Written as 2 Words
-Grammar Lab: page 304-305
-Pronunciation Practice Activity: Box 63
Part A: underline the primary stress in each word
check your answers with the CD
Part B: note the primary stress in each
use these words to fill blanks in Part C
-Both components are stressed BUT
-one component has the primary stress (more stress)
-switching the primary and secondary stress can change the meaning of a word (examples to follow)
2 special cases