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The Americas from 600-1450 C.E

By:Marco Sanchez

Marco Sanchez

on 14 November 2012

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Transcript of The Americas from 600-1450 C.E

The Americas From 600 - 1450 C.E Mayan Empire: Aztec Empire Intellectual: The Aztecs were very advanced in their mathematical and medical specialization. For this reason education was very important because they needed to use for their calender. Astrology also played a major role to their religion and calender considering that they heavily based it on their calender. The Aztecs had a very comprehensive medicine achievements such as the use of drinks, salves, and ointments. Political: The government was mostly consisted of several city-states called altepetl. The city-state was ruled by a supreme leader called tlatoani, a supreme judge, and a supreme administrator. Both the judge and administrator were called cihuacoattl. The tlatoani ruled everything in his altepetl and expected people to pay him tribute. He also ruled the the markets, temples, controlled military, and solved judicial disputes. The tlatoani ruled all during his lifetime. Although the emperor controlled everything it is believed that he was controlled by 4 administrators and 1 senior adviser. Economy: The Aztec based their economy on agriculture and trade; Aztecs had very advanced agricultural techniques which proved outstanding to their economic possibility. They used all arable land and practiced crop rotation - which meant different types of plant planted on the same field to reduce loss of nutrients and disease. They also practiced another technique called the chinampa farming system; which meant that a sheet of reed was placed over a lake to later then covered with soil to cultivate. This technique was very important to sustain such a populous empire. Once crops were ready to be harvested farmers would then sell their products in markets to people who mostly bartered for their goods. Their was no common currency used however their was one thing always probably being traded and that was the cacao beans. The cacao beans meant a lot to the Aztecs and were viewed as sacred. Religion: Religion played an important factor in the Aztec Empire which influenced heavily in their culture. An example of this would be their human sacrifice to the gods. One thing to note about the Aztecs is that although the majority of Mesoamerica cultures practiced some sort of human sacrifice the Aztecs were the most gruesome viewed of them all. The Aztecs seemed to emphasize this as a way to get let the people know that the government was in control. A lot of the human sacrifices were done largely for their gods which were mostly celebrated on the days of the Aztec Calender. Also religion was to be practiced by all the social classes which was governed by Tlatoani and the high priests who ruled the main temples of Tenochtitlan. Social Nobles Commoners Serfs Slaves Government
Military Leaders
High Level Priests - High Level Priests had to refrain themselves from consuming alcohol; failure to do this would result in harsh penalties even death. Lords(Tecuhtli)- these included judges, military commanders, and land owners.Their rights included: Able to receive tribute from commoners such as goods,labor,and services. Only nobles were able to show off their wealth by wearing capes and jewelry. This consisted of farmers, artisans, merchants, and low level priests.
Traveling merchants and artisans had more of an advantage in this class having the greatest amount of wealth and prestige. Slaves- Slavery was usually a form of punishment for committing crimes or failing to pay tribute. Prisoners who did not did not meet their doom to scarification also became slaves. Slaves had rights and could buy their freedom back. Some rights include: able to get married, have children, substitute another person for their place. Slave owners were responsible in taking care of the slaves providing them with food and housing.
Slaves were usually freed when their slave owners died or married their owners.
One thing to know is that Aztecs were not born as slaves and could not inherit the status from their family. Serfs worked on land and were not allowed to enter the calpulli. Women Cared for house hold
Could not occupy a position of power
Women did have freedom such as run businesses and control their property.
If marriage ended women had full custody of their children. Area- They settled in the mountains and southeastern Peru. . Political: Run by independent city-states. Tikal was the most important political center. Warriors were loyal to their leader. The Mayan civilization was never unified having independent city states that was ruled by their own ruler. In the classical period the Ahau was the ruler, next came Cahal the subordinate ruler like younger brother or sister, Nacom the person who removed hearts of the sacrificed, after came Chacs who assisted the Nacom. However this somewhat changed after the post-classical era of the Mayans whose government was controlled by several elite leaders. Economy: The Mayan society based their economy on agriculture in which grew maize, cotton, and cacao. At first they used a method called slash and burn but was not enough to feed such a great empire so they build terraces which augmented agricultural productivity. Mayans also had a strong trading system in which they accustomed to when they thought trade was better somewhere else. The merchants played an important factor in the economy which they served to create a middle class and increase trade production. Mayans Religion: An important tradition in the Mayan Empire. People worshiped the Pantheon Gods, priest had magical powers, and also believed in the spirit of animals most likely to be the jaguars. Social: Mayan Society was hierarchical; included kings, priest, and heredity nobility at top though. One note the kings were not viewed as divine but was important because of connection to supernatural beings. Nobles would be very wealthy and literate and they usually lived among the centralized areas of the Mayan Empire. Next came the commoners which probably lived outside the cities and centralized areas. Commoners could become very prosperous but unfortunately could not show their wealth status. Intellectual: Mayan Priest had build advanced calender which both entwined the solar year and the ritual year. Area: The Mayans had established their home in the Highlands of Guatemala. Area: The Aztec may have originated north of the Valley of Mexico in a place called Aztlan. Political- Part of the great success of the Incas was their great military organization structure. They had educated leaders and highly disciplined army which helped form better tactics and strategies. One tactic that they used was to include armies from which they conquered to their own to be more adept. They also had a strong hierarchical government which was made up by a King then they had four quarters governed by four Apos. Every quarter was had several provinces which was governed by officials. The king governed his empire in his own seat in Cuzco. Economy- The Incas centered their economy based on agriculture. Incas were the ones to ever harvest the potato. They also gathered cotton,squash, and maize. The Incas also minded silver,copper,tin, and gold. Also in addition they also domesticated the llama and alpacas Religion- The Incas were polytheistic but their most important god was the Sun God. or Inti. Members of the royal family were believed to the Sun God's descendent. Gold was very important to them because they thought it was sacred to the God himself. Social- Incan social was very specified with the King on top was the Sapa Inca who ruled troughout. Then the regional army came next in power which were called the four Apus. Then after that army generals such as architects, temple priests, and administrators came next. The semi-lower class were the artisans, army captins, and musicians. At the bottom were the farmers, conscripts, sorceres and herding famiilies. Intellectual- We only know so little about the Inca's achievements becaue they left no written documents but we know that they had a system of roads called Quipu. The Inca did have a language called Quechua but had no writing system which showed great shock that they could manage a successful empire without a writing system. Maya Inca
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