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The Americas from 600-1450 C.E
Transcript of The Americas from 600-1450 C.E
High Level Priests - High Level Priests had to refrain themselves from consuming alcohol; failure to do this would result in harsh penalties even death. Lords(Tecuhtli)- these included judges, military commanders, and land owners.Their rights included: Able to receive tribute from commoners such as goods,labor,and services. Only nobles were able to show off their wealth by wearing capes and jewelry. This consisted of farmers, artisans, merchants, and low level priests.
Traveling merchants and artisans had more of an advantage in this class having the greatest amount of wealth and prestige. Slaves- Slavery was usually a form of punishment for committing crimes or failing to pay tribute. Prisoners who did not did not meet their doom to scarification also became slaves. Slaves had rights and could buy their freedom back. Some rights include: able to get married, have children, substitute another person for their place. Slave owners were responsible in taking care of the slaves providing them with food and housing.
Slaves were usually freed when their slave owners died or married their owners.
One thing to know is that Aztecs were not born as slaves and could not inherit the status from their family. Serfs worked on land and were not allowed to enter the calpulli. Women Cared for house hold
Could not occupy a position of power
Women did have freedom such as run businesses and control their property.
If marriage ended women had full custody of their children. Area- They settled in the mountains and southeastern Peru. . Political: Run by independent city-states. Tikal was the most important political center. Warriors were loyal to their leader. The Mayan civilization was never unified having independent city states that was ruled by their own ruler. In the classical period the Ahau was the ruler, next came Cahal the subordinate ruler like younger brother or sister, Nacom the person who removed hearts of the sacrificed, after came Chacs who assisted the Nacom. However this somewhat changed after the post-classical era of the Mayans whose government was controlled by several elite leaders. Economy: The Mayan society based their economy on agriculture in which grew maize, cotton, and cacao. At first they used a method called slash and burn but was not enough to feed such a great empire so they build terraces which augmented agricultural productivity. Mayans also had a strong trading system in which they accustomed to when they thought trade was better somewhere else. The merchants played an important factor in the economy which they served to create a middle class and increase trade production. Mayans Religion: An important tradition in the Mayan Empire. People worshiped the Pantheon Gods, priest had magical powers, and also believed in the spirit of animals most likely to be the jaguars. Social: Mayan Society was hierarchical; included kings, priest, and heredity nobility at top though. One note the kings were not viewed as divine but was important because of connection to supernatural beings. Nobles would be very wealthy and literate and they usually lived among the centralized areas of the Mayan Empire. Next came the commoners which probably lived outside the cities and centralized areas. Commoners could become very prosperous but unfortunately could not show their wealth status. Intellectual: Mayan Priest had build advanced calender which both entwined the solar year and the ritual year. Area: The Mayans had established their home in the Highlands of Guatemala. Area: The Aztec may have originated north of the Valley of Mexico in a place called Aztlan. Political- Part of the great success of the Incas was their great military organization structure. They had educated leaders and highly disciplined army which helped form better tactics and strategies. One tactic that they used was to include armies from which they conquered to their own to be more adept. They also had a strong hierarchical government which was made up by a King then they had four quarters governed by four Apos. Every quarter was had several provinces which was governed by officials. The king governed his empire in his own seat in Cuzco. Economy- The Incas centered their economy based on agriculture. Incas were the ones to ever harvest the potato. They also gathered cotton,squash, and maize. The Incas also minded silver,copper,tin, and gold. Also in addition they also domesticated the llama and alpacas Religion- The Incas were polytheistic but their most important god was the Sun God. or Inti. Members of the royal family were believed to the Sun God's descendent. Gold was very important to them because they thought it was sacred to the God himself. Social- Incan social was very specified with the King on top was the Sapa Inca who ruled troughout. Then the regional army came next in power which were called the four Apus. Then after that army generals such as architects, temple priests, and administrators came next. The semi-lower class were the artisans, army captins, and musicians. At the bottom were the farmers, conscripts, sorceres and herding famiilies. Intellectual- We only know so little about the Inca's achievements becaue they left no written documents but we know that they had a system of roads called Quipu. The Inca did have a language called Quechua but had no writing system which showed great shock that they could manage a successful empire without a writing system. Maya Inca