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Copy of Psychology Unit 2
Transcript of Copy of Psychology Unit 2
Unit 2 - Self
Area of study 1
Interpersonal and group behaviour
- explain how attitudes are formed and changed, and discuss the factors that affect the behaviour of individuals and groups.
Please log into ______ this is our ultra net space. Please write a comment on the chat.
We will be using this as our class space.
When finished please start reading Chapter 10 p199. To be finished next Wednesday.
You will be expected to finish your reading
we cover the subject
class. Then complete L.A.
and post them on the Ultranet. Eg...
You will be hit with the info 3 times
This Prezi will cover all the information in Unit 2. It will be the biggest mind map ever created!!!
This is the number 1 predictor of achievement.
I WILL be away due to sport. If you do not use this time effectively we will once again have no time to study for exams.
Sac's NEED to be handed in on time. Any extension on Sac will result in only a pass mark achievable.
UNIT 2 KEY KNOWLEDGE
CHAPTER 7: RESEARCH METHODS 2
experimental research: operation of independent and dependent variables; identification of extraneous and potential confounding variables; reporting conventions techniques of qualitative and quantitative data collection statistics: measures of central tendency including mean, median and mode; spread of scores including standard deviation and variance; frequency distributions showing bimodal, normal and skew (positive and negative) distributions; scatter plots and correlation
CHAPTER 8: ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE
classic and contemporary theories and studies relating to the formation and change of attitudes, including the applications and limitations of the tri-component model of attitudes
the interrelationship between attitudes, prejudice and discrimination: factors contributing to the development of prejudice factors which may reduce prejudice: inter-group contact (sustained contact, mutual interdependence, equality), cognitive interventions and super-ordinate goals social and cultural grouping, stigma, stereotypes and prejudice: gender, race and age research methods appropriate to the measurement of attitudes and behaviours
self-reports, surveys, questionnaires, interviews, rating scales the extent to which ethical principles are applied to research investigations into attitudes and behaviours
CHAPTER 9: SOCIAL INFLUENCES ON THE INDIVIDUAL
social influences on the individual:
effects of status and social power within groups, informed by researchers such as Zimbardo
factors affecting obedience including social proximity, legitimacy of authority figures and group pressure, informed by researchers such as Milgram
factors affecting conformity, including normative influence and culture, informational influence, unanimity, group size, deindividuation and social loafing, informed by researchers such as Asch, and Smith and Bond
ways in which a group may influence others to change their behaviour including peer pressure, risk-taking behaviour
CHAPTER 10: PRO-SOCIAL AND ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOUR
pro- and anti-social behaviour of the individual:
characteristics of, and factors influencing, pro-social behaviour: situational (bystander intervention and effect), social norms-reciprocity principle; social responsibility norm; personal (empathy, mood, competence); altruism
characteristics of, and factors influencing, anti-social behaviour: diffusion of responsibility; audience inhibition; social influence; cost-benefit analysis
social learning theory, including the work of Bandura
explanations of aggression from ethological, biological, psychodynamic and social learning perspectives
CHAPTER 11: INTELLIGENCE
the concept of intelligence and factors that influence intelligence, including the interaction of genetic and environmental factors
classic and contemporary approaches to describing intelligence, including:
Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences
Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence
Cattell-Horn-Carroll model of psychometric abilities
Salovey and Mayer's ability-based model of emotional intelligence
strengths and limitations of scientific methodologies used to measure intelligence, including:
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Weschler's Intelligence Scales
research methods and ethics associated with investigations into intelligence
standardised and non-standardised tests
reliability including test-retest, inter-rater, parallel-forms and internal consistency; and validity including content, criterion-related, construct and external
CHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY
the concept of personality, including characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviours of an individual, and the influence of genetic and environment factors
classic and contemporary theories of describing and classifying personality:
psychodynamic including the work of Sigmund Freud
trait theories including the work of Gordon Allport, Raymond Cattell (16 personality factor model), Hans Eysenck (PEN model), Costa and McRae (NEO-PI/Five Factor model)
humanistic including the person-centred theory of Carl Rogers
the use of personality and aptitude inventories in vocational selections and workplace settings:
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Holland's Self Directed Search
strengths and limitations of methodologies used to describe and classify personality, including the use of projective tests
research methods and ethics associated with investigations into personality
reliability including test-retest, inter-rater, parallel forms and internal consistency; and validity including content, criterion-related, construct and external
Research Methods 2 -Chapter 7
The final step of psychological research involves reporting the research findings to others who may be interested in the research.
A journal is a publication that contains (lots of) reports of research. The reports prepared by psychologists for publication in a journal follow a strict format. Journals usually follow an area of study, e.g. Behaviourism
A Journal report is extremely detailed.
Google Scholar Search
Step 7: reporting the research finding (Publication)
Statistical testing involving mathematical procedures is used by the researcher to help them decide what the results collected from their research mean. They allow the researcher to know what conclusion(s) can legitimately be drawn from the results.
SIGNIFICANCE!!!!! On board
Step 6: interpreting the data
Once the data have been analysed, the data need to be interpreted and explained. This includes drawing a conclusion from the results obtained in the research study. A conclusion is a judgement about what the results of a research study mean. One type of conclusion that is drawn relates directly to the hypothesis used in the research. The focus of this conclusion is on whether or not the results support the hypothesis (rather than prove or disprove it).
Step 6: interpreting the data (Discussion)
Once the data have been collected psychologists summarise, organise and represent the raw data in a logical way to help determine whether the hypothesis is supported or not supported
Raw data are rarely included in psychological research reports. Instead it is usually in the form of graphs, charts and summarizing numbers (averages, mean, mediums)
OUR results. As a class we will plot our results. Raw….work out the averages, then produce it in a bar chart.
Step 5: Analysing the data (Results)
When designing the research method, psychologists also need to determine the procedures that will be used to collect the data.
There are a number of different procedures to collect data. These include experiments, observational studies, case studies, surveys, interviews, rating scales, longitudinal studies, cross-sectional studies and correlational studies
What method of study did we use?
Step 3: designing the method (Method)
Participants are the people who take part in the research. The responses of the participants form the data (results) for the research.
Definite move away from ‘Subjects’, Old school Psych to Participants who assist researchers.
Participants not Subjects (Method)
A research hypothesis is a testable prediction of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics; for example, a prediction about the relationship between red P-plate driver training with the Smith System (one event) and the number of accidents when driving (another event).
The hypothesis is essentially an educated about what the results of the research will be.
It is usually an educated guess because it is based on theoretical knowledge and/or past experiments.
Eg red P-plate drivers who receive defensive driving training will make fewer driving errors (as measured by a practical driving test in a driving simulator) than red P-plate drivers who have not received defensive driving training (as measured by the same driving test).
Please write what our hypothesis might have been?
Step 2: construction of a hypothesis (End of Introduction)
The first step in conducting psychological research using the scientific method is to identify the problem or topic of interest to be researched.
Begin by researching past Literature, or developing an interest in a topic.
Book example bottom of pg 50
Eg Interested in ways of reducing
the number of accidents caused by red P-plate drivers.
Please write what our problem/interest was?
Step 1: Identify the problem (Introduction)
A generalisation is another type of conclusion. A generalisation is a judgement about how widely the findings of a research study can be applied.
Read example pg 53 right hand side.
Please write down who we could generalise too.
Step 6: interpreting the data (Discussion)
Psychologists use a variety of data collection techniques, including participant and non-participant observation, questionnaires, one-to-one or group interviews, standardised tests, physiological (bodily) recordings and examination of archival files (records) to obtain their information.
The data collection technique(s) used depends on the research question under investigation
What did we use?
Read through table 2.1 pg 53
Example bottom pg 52
Step 4: Collecting Data (Results)
Generally, all psychological research methods involve observation of responses
There are advantages and disadvantages of each type of research method and some methods are more suited to particular research questions or hypotheses than others. In some studies it is appropriate to use a combination of research methods.
Read pg 52 Example bottom left
The third step in psychological research is to determine how the hypothesis is best tested.
There are a number of different research methods available from which researchers can choose.
The research method used will depend on the specific topic and hypothesis of research interest. When designing the research method, the researcher must decide which participants will be studied, how many participants there will be, how they will be selected and how they will be allocated, or assigned, to different groups that may be used in the study
Step 3: designing the method (Method)
Steps 1-7 pg 50 Fg 2.1
Read as a class (should have been completed and drawn in book)
Areas of Research Methods
Review of Chapter 2
Random Allocation VS Random Sampling
Random allocation is different from random sampling. Random allocation is used to place participants in groups whereas random sampling is one of the methods which can be used to select participants for an experiment. Random sampling, however, is based on the same principle as random allocation and helps ensure that every member of the population of research interest has an equal chance of being selected as a participant. If everyone does not have an equal chance of being selected, the sample is said to be a biased sample (CAN BE AN EXTRANEOUS VARIABLE)
Equally important is the way in which research participants are allocated or assigned to either the experimental or control group in an experiment. In an ideal research world, everything about the experimental and control groups would be identical except for the IV.
In random allocation, also called random assignment, participants selected for the experiment are just as likely to be in the experimental group as the control group. This means that every person who will be a participant in the experiment has an equal chance of being selected in any of the groups used.
When random sampling is used to select a sample from each stratum, this is called random-stratified sampling and the resulting sample is called a random stratified sample.
Do you think this would be the best for of sampling, why?
Random sampling is a sampling procedure that ensures that every member of the population of research interest has a genuinely equal chance of being selected as a participant for the research study.
Stratified sampling involves dividing the population to be sampled into different subgroups, or strata, then selecting a separate sample from each subgroup (called stratum) in the same proportions as they occur in the population of interest. Socio-cultural factors such as residential area, age, sex, income level, educational qualifications and ethnic or cultural background are examples of personal characteristics that may be used as the basis of dividing a population into strata.
The stratified sampling procedure is commonly used to study behaviour and mental processes that tend to vary greatly among different subgroups of a population.
A sample has to be selected in a scientific way so that the results obtained for the sample can be legitimately applied or generalised to the population from which it was selected. The process of selecting participants for a sample is called sampling
Class Discussion, was our experiment a scienfitic selected sample, why/why not?
A key goal of sampling is to ensure that the sample closely represents its population. It must reflect its population in all the personal characteristics of participants that are important in the research study.
A representative sample is a sample that is approximately the same as the population from which it is drawn in every important participant characteristic.
Advantages and limitations
of experimental research
One advantage of the experiment is that the IV can be manipulated in order to observe the (hopefully direct!) effect on the DV, therefore making it possible to test if there is a cause and effect relationship between the IV and DV.
The ability to more strictly control variables is an advantage of the laboratory setting; however, it is often artificial and too dissimilar to real life.
Field experiment occurs in a real-life setting and therefore has a relationship to the real world, it is often difficult to strictly control all variables because of the unpredictability of real-life settings
Furthermore, some things cannot be measured in a laboratory. The researcher cannot break up families, for example, to measure the effects of family separation
Experiment and Control Group
One group of participants, called the experimental group, is exposed to the experimental condition; that is, the IV is present.
A second group of participants, called the control group, is exposed to the control condition; that is, the IV is absent
Read Pg 58 under Experiment and Control Group.
Read fg 2.8 pg 59, discuss.
Extraneous variables may include participant variables (that is, individual differences in personal characteristics among research participants such as age, sex, religion, cultural background, intelligence, motivation, mood and so on) and experimenter variables, such as personal characteristics of the experimenter. The experimenters age, sex, cultural background, expectations, intelligence, mood, social skills, previous contact with participants and experience in conducting an experiment are all examples of experimenter variables that may unintentionally affect the results.
Please complete Learning Activity 2.5
In an experiment, an extraneous variable is a variable other than the IV that can cause a change in the DV. When one or more extraneous variables are present in an experiment, they can make it difficult to conclude with confidence that changes which have occurred in the DV have resulted because of the IV and not because of some other variable.
What were some extraneous variables in our experiment?
In an experiment, one variable is manipulated or changed by the experimenter to observe whether it affects another variable and what those effects are.
The variable that is manipulated or changed is called the independent variable (IV). It is called an independent variable because the experimenter can independently vary it in some way. In terms of cause and effect, the IV is said to be the cause of any changes that may result in the other variable of research interest.
EG.If the research study involved testing whether a particular anger management technique reduced the incidence of road rage in people who had previously been convicted of road rage, the two variables being tested would be the anger management technique and the incidence of road rage.
What is the independent variable in this experiment?
What was our independent variable (astrology exp) (if we used two groups)?
Experimental research includes all the different types of experimental research designs. Each type of experimental design involves the manipulation and control of research participants experiences. However, the specific designs differ in terms of their complexity and how they are actually conducted.
Descriptive research includes all the research methods that focus on studying aspects of behaviour and mental processes as they occur in a given time and place, rather than by manipulating and controlling participants experiences in one or more ways.
The choice of research methods made by the researcher depends on which method is most appropriate for the specific topic of research interest.
Please individually (WITH OUT TALKING) select which research method; experiment, survey, or both, you would choose to research the following topics and WHY?
Students using a reminder app on their phone to make it on class vs students not using the app.
How students feel about their current timetable
If students who use a budgeting app save more than students who don’t, and how they feel about the app.
For some research topics, the most appropriate way of collecting data may be to ask participants about their thoughts, feelings or behaviour. This is when a survey may be used.
In some cases it may be appropriate to use a combination of research methods to investigate and collect data.
For example, a researcher conducting an experiment (cause-effect) on different learning techniques used by students when studying for an exam may also conduct a survey to find out what motivates students to study.
These are just some of the many research methods available to psychologists.
A research method is a particular way of conducting a research study or investigation to collect data.
For example, an experiment and a survey are different research method.
In an experiment, the researcher manipulates and controls a research participants experiences in some way to measure whether this causes a particular predetermined response from the participant.
Undertaking experimental research enables the researcher to test for a cause-effect relationship.
What was our Cause-Effect r/s for the astrology exp?
Psychologists conduct experiments with people and, in some cases, animals. The participants being studied in an experiment, or in any type of research, are called the sample. A sample is a subsection, or smaller group, of research participants selected from a larger group (called a population) of research interest.
The term population refers to the entire group of research interest from which a sample is drawn. A population of interest may be all blonde-haired females, all VCE Psychology students, all female VCE Psychology students,, or all male chimpanzees born in captivity etc.
The variable that is used to observe and measure the effects of the IV is called the dependent variable (DV).
The dependent variable is often the response(s) made by a participant(s) in an experiment and it usually has a numerical value. It is called the dependent variable because whether or not it changes and the way in which it changes depends on the effects of the independent variable.
In terms of a cause-effect relationship, the DV is the effect(s) caused by manipulation of or exposure to the IV.
EG. In the road rage example, the DV is the measured change in the amount of road rage behaviour dis played by participants as a result of using or not using the anger management technique, the IV.
What is the dependent variable in this experiment?
What was our dependent variable (astrology exp) (if we used two groups)?
An experiment is used to test whether one variable (or thing), influences or causes a change in another variable (or thing).
For example, whether talking on a hand-held mobile phone while driving (one variable) influences or causes a change in driver reaction time (another variable).
All experiments have a number of common features. Although the setup and complexity can differ.
In a research study, a variable is something that can vary (change) in amount or kind over time. Although characteristics of a person such as bio logical sex, blood type and ethnic background do not change, in psychological research they are still considered to be variables.
Please INDIVIDUALLY write some of the variable we manipulated in our Survey
Psychologists can choose from a range of different research methods to scientifically collect data on a topic of research interest. A research method is a particular way of conducting a research study or investigation to collect data.
An experiment and a survey are different research methods.
In an experiment, the researcher manipulates and controls a research participants experiences in some way to measure whether this causes a particular predetermined response from the participant
Qualitative and quantitative
Qualitative descriptive research is descriptive research that is focused on capturing and describing the details of what is actually taking place or being thought, felt or experienced at the time and place of interest.
Quantitative descriptive research is descriptive research that is focused on using more formal and structured methods which enable the data collected on a topic of interest to be statistically analysed.
Disadvantages of observational studies
When studying behaviour in a laboratory setting, a researcher is unable to observe the long-term effects that an organisms natural environment has in shaping complex behaviour patterns. That is why it is only applicable for that place and time!
Sometimes requires a lot of patience to wait for the behaviour of interest to occur
It can be difficult to determine the causes of observed behaviour, because there are many factors which may influence the observed behaviour in a natural environment.
Another major problem relevant to any observation procedure is observer bias. It is possible, for example, that researchers sometimes unconsciously distort what they see so that it resembles what they hope to see.
In naturalistic observation, a naturally occurring behaviour of interest is viewed by a researcher in an inconspicuous manner so that their presence has no influence on the behaviour being observed.
Eg a researcher might observe children at play in a playgroup situation from behind a one-way mirror so the children are not aware that they are being observed.
Please answer in your books: What are some things we could study using the naturalistic observational method?
The term observation refers to any means by which a phenomenon (an observable event) is studied, including the data that represent a phenomenon, such as scores and spoken or written responses.
An observational study involves collection of data by carefully watching and recording behaviour as it occurs.
Psychologists use observational studies to collect data in research when the behaviour under investigation is clearly visible and can be easily recorded
Please answer in your books: What are some things we could study using the observational method?
Advantages: useful way of obtaining detailed
and valuable descriptive information on behaviour and
mental processes. There is usually no manipulation or control of variables Perfect snapshot. Valuable source of hypotheses for further research
Disadvantages: A major limitation of case studies is their sample size. This means that they can usually provide only weak support for drawing scientific conclusions. being susceptible to biased information from the participant or the researcher
Case Study – Advantages/Limitations
Please (individually) write what you think are the advantages and limitations to case studies.
A case study is an intensive, in-depth investigation of some behaviour or event of interest in an individual, small group or situation.
Sigmund Freud often used the case study method. Freud studied his patients in great depth.
Clinical psychologists and other mental health professionals routinely use case studies to develop a detailed profile of a client.
Case studies are often used when large numbers of participants are not available for study; eg Capgras Delusion http://listverse.com/2007/10/13/top-10-bizarre-mental-disorders/
Research Methods Descriptive Methods
Continue to explore descriptive methods of research
To further investigate Case Studies
To examine Observational Studies
To add to our Mind Map
Research Methods Descriptive Methods
Continue to explore descriptive methods of research
To further investigate Case Studies
To examine Observational Studies
To add to our Mind Map
Learning Activity 2.16 73 (DUE FRIDAY)
Learning Activity 2.12 pg 67 (1,2,3a 4 -10 mins)
Learning Activity 2.13 pg 71 (1, 2, 4 – 10 mins)
Learning Activity 2.14 pg 71 1-5 – 10 mins
Read 65-90 20 mins USE A HIGHLIGHTER)
In research, the information which is collected is called data
Qualitative data are information about the qualities or characteristics of what is being studied. They may be descriptions, words, meanings, pictures, texts and so on.
Quantitative data are numerical information on the quantity or amount of what is being studied.
What was our experiment?
Advantages of observational studies
Some kinds of human behaviour can only be studied as they naturally occur using observation in a field setting because it would be unethical (inappropriate) or impractical to study them in a laboratory situation
Naturalistic observation in a field setting does not require the cooperation of participants being observed. Participants usually do not know that they are being observed in any special way. This means that the observed behaviour is likely to be more true to life.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Observational Studies
Please (individually) write what you think are the advantages and limitations to case studies.
When researchers try to conceal their presence while making observations, it is called non-participant observation.
Sometimes, psychologists engage in participant observation. They actually participate in the activity being observed and may deliberately try to be mistaken by the participants as being part of the group or situation being observed.
What extraneous variable could this lead to?
Please look at figure 2.14. This is how data is collected! Why is this scientific?
A descriptive research study does not necessarily use a large number of participants; for example, a researcher might be interested in describing the behaviour of one particular individual.
Unlike experimental research, descriptive research does not explain cause effect.
Descriptive research methods include case studies, observational studies, self reports, surveys, questionnaires, interviews, rating scales, longitudinal studies, cross sectional studies, twin studies and adoption studies. Each of these methods can be used on its own or in combination with one another
At all times throughout the research, researchers are expected to conduct themselves in a professional manner.
They must not behave in a manner that brings disrepute to the psychology profession, or to scientific research.
Could you date your participants?
Read Box 2.3 Together
Informed consent procedures: Wherever possible, participants must be appropriately informed of what the study is about and the reason(s) it is being conducted. If unexpected, potentially harmful stress occurs, the experimenter must immediately end the participants involvement in the study and ensure the participants reactions are treated.
Deception: The experimenter must ensure that participants do not suffer distress from the research procedures. In all cases involving deception, participants must be debriefed at the conclusion of the study.
Debriefing: Debriefing involves clarifying participants understanding of the study after it has been conducted. This includes correcting any mistaken attitudes or beliefs that participants may have about the study.
Roles and responsibilities
of the experimenter
The experimenter is responsible for ensuring that the research is conducted in such a manner that the wellbeing of research participants is the main concern and that participants are not placed at risk of injury or harm in any way. Under no circumstances is the experimenter allowed to conduct research which causes participants severe distress.
The experimenter must be aware that in all scientific research with human participants, there is a need to balance the benefits to society from the findings of the investigation against any discomfort or risks to the research participants.
What sort of harm could come to participants in PY research?
Ethics in Psych
Ethical standards and considerations also apply to experimental and other research situations.
The way human participants in experiments are to be treated is determined by ethical guidelines
The Australian Psychological Society (APS) has a Code of Ethics (2007)
The Code of Ethics has been devised with reference to a national set of ethical guidelines that are intended to cover all research involving human participants, not just psychological research.
ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH
Individually please answer this qns. You must rationalise it!
Is it appropriate for a researcher to inflict pain on a person in order to study mental experiences associated with pain?
What if the researcher has gone to great expense to conduct the research or what if the research has important benefits for humankind?
Should a participant be allowed to withdraw from an experiment whenever they want to, regardless of the reason?
Statistics are essentially mathematical procedures. Two main kinds of statistics are used in psychology descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Descriptive statistics are used for summarising and describing results. They include calculations such as percentages and means (averages), and preparation of tables and graphs.
Inferential statistics are used for interpreting and giving meaning to results, such as calculating the probability of results being due to the IV.
First, the results are summarised and described so they can be interpreted.
How did we do this?
Secondly the results are then interpreted so they can be understood.
How did we do this?
Thirdly the results are explained; that is, reasons are suggested about why the particular results were obtained and what they mean.
Did we do this?
Where is my puppy dog !
Although psychology is primarily interested in human behaviour and mental processes, about 10% of research involves non-human participants.
About 5% of the animals used are monkeys and other primates.
Read through dot points on pg 85
Many arguments have been presented against the use of animals in psychological research.
Not possible to generalise.
According to the NHMRC guidelines, any research with animals, including research activities in schools, can be performed only if the research can be justified.
Confidentiality: Participants have a right to privacy, so any information that may identify details of their involvement in a study (for example, test results or personal data) cannot be revealed unless their written consent is obtained.
Voluntary participation: The experimenter must try to ensure that participants voluntarily consent to be involved in the study. Participants must not be pressured to take part in a study.
Withdrawal rights: Participants must be informed that they may withdraw from the study at any time for any or no reason. Also participants suffer no negative consequences as a result of withdrawing from the study.
The term ethics refers to standards that guide individuals to identify good, desirable or acceptable conduct.
Essentially, ethical standards help us to make judgements about which behaviours are appropriate (right) and inappropriate (wrong) (NHMRC, 2007).
What are some ethics we have in our community?
What are some know ethical standards do they have in the Middle East?
AREA OF STUDY 2
Intelligence and personality
OUTCOME 2 -
students should be able to compare different theories of intelligence and personality, and compare different methodologies used in the measurement of these.
Holiday Homework....Hand in
involves the collection of
. Qualitative data are
; that is, they are not expressed as numbers.
Please write down one example of Qualitative Data
Please write down one example of Qualitative Data
There are two branches of Research
involves the collection of
. Quantitative data are numerical data; that is, they are expressed as numbers. They may be raw data, such as the number of people who stop to help someone in need, or the mean time taken for passers-by to stop and provide help to someone.
Please note you can have both types of data in one research report (like ours from T2)
Operationalising the IV and DV
When the IV and DV have been operationalised, they are usually stated in the hypothesis. When this is done, the research hypothesis is commonly called an operational hypothesis.
An operational hypothesis is a research hypothesis that refers to how the variables being studied will be observed and measured.
L.A. 7.1 pg 294
An experiment is used to find out whether one variable (the IV) causes a change in another variable (the DV). The experimenter deliberately manipulates an IV in order to observe and measure the effect of this manipulation on the DV. Manipulation of an IV typically involves exposing some participants to the IV (experimental condition) and not exposing other participants to the IV (control condition). The effect of the IV is determined by comparing the responses of participants who were exposed to the IV with those who were not exposed to the IV. If this comparison shows that the IV has an affect on the DV, and the experiment has been carefully controlled, then it can be assumed that the IV probably caused the change in the DV.
‘Year 11 VCE students who continuously listen to loud rock music when solving previously unseen written problems will solve fewer problems during a one hour session than do Year 11 VCE students who do not listen to loud rock music’.
This hypothesis has all the characteristics required for an operational hypothesis:
the IV is described in operationalised terms: continuously listening to loud rock music throughout a one hour session
the DV is described in operationalised terms: the number of previously unseen written problems that are solved
the population from which the sample is drawn is stated: Year 11 VCE students
how the experiment will be conducted is stated: one group will listen to loud rock music when problem-solving (experimental group) and another group will not listen to loud rock music when problem-solving (control group).
Operationalising the IV(s) and DV(s) ensures that these variables are precisely defined.
Read Table 7.1 pg 296
L.A. 7.3 pg 297 1, 3, 5
Post onto Ultranet.
Identification of extraneous variables
An extraneous variable is a variable other than the IV that can cause a change in the DV. The are unwanted.
Participant variables include biological sex, intelligence, personality characteristics, motivation, emotional state, mood, problem-solving ability, self-esteem, health, cultural background and so on.
are the individual characteristics that participants involved in research bring with them to the experiment.
Please write down 2 participant variables
A situational variable
is any variable associated with the experimental situation itself that may affect the results of an experiment.
Please write down 2 situational variables
Situational variables include factors such as background noise, time of the day, testing venues, testing conditions, air temperature and so on, depending on the IV and DV being observed and measured in the experiment.
are variables associated with the personality characteristics of the experimenter or the experimenter's behaviour during the experiment which may affect the results of an experiment.
Please write down 2 experimenter variables
Factors such as an experimenter being tired, their expectations of the outcome of the research, personal issues, health, their gender, how they dress and their attractiveness are examples of potential experimenter effects.
Copy in Fg 7.5 pg 298
For example, a researcher might conduct an experiment to test whether ignoring the attention-seeking behaviour of children who misbehave in class will reduce the frequency of their attention-seeking behaviour. However, a reduction in the frequency of attention-seeking behaviour after a month of ignoring this type of behaviour may not only be a result of ignoring the misbehaviour. Factors relating to the children or their respective personal experiences may have impacted on their changed behaviour. For example, if a child's family situation becomes more or less unsettled, their behaviour may change, irrespective of the researcher's experimental treatment. A child's health or mood may also have an impact on whether or not they use attention-seeking behaviour and how often they may do so.
For example, if background noise is likely to affect the results of an experiment in an unwanted way, then its potential effects could be controlled by conducting the experiment in a soundproof room. This would remove any unwanted effect the noise may have on the DV. If unwanted background noise cannot be entirely eliminated because of the situation in which the experiment must be conducted, then the researcher would attempt to ensure that the same kind of background noise occurred at about the same level and times in all of the different experimental conditions.
Rosenthal (1966) used some of his laboratory assistants as research participants for an experiment with rats in a maze. The participants were asked to place the rats in a maze. Some of the laboratory assistants were told that their rats were specially bred to be ‘maze bright’; the others were told that their rats were ‘maze dull’. However, the rats had been randomly allocated to each group. The results showed that the group of apparently ‘maze bright’ rats learned the maze significantly faster than the ‘maze dull’ rats.
A confounding variable
is a variable other than the IV that has had an unwanted affect on the DV, making it impossible to determine which of the variables has produced changes in the DV. Basically, a confounding variable is a second unwanted IV.
A confounding variable is different from an extraneous variable. A confounding variable causes a measurable change in the IV. This change is consistent with what was predicted in the hypothesis, whereas an extraneous variable may or may not affect the DV.
What both types of variables have in common is that they cause problems for the researcher undertaking an experiment.
Class discussion L.A. 7.5 pg 298
Class discussion L.A. 7.6 pg 299
Class discussion L.A. 7.7 pg 300
A correlational study is a
non-experimental research method
used to investigate the
relationship between two or more variables
; for example, the relationship between air temperature and violent crimes
CORRELATION DOES NOT MEAN CAUSATION
Correlational research involves assessing the degree and type of relationship (if one exists) between two or more variables.
The term correlation is used to identify and describe how two (or more) variables are ‘co-related’.
Correlation does not tell us whether one variable, such as air temperature, causes another, such as violent crimes.
For example, there is a positive correlation between the number of firemen fighting a fire and the size of the fire. However, this doesn’t mean that bringing more firemen will cause the size of the fire to increase
A positive correlation
means that two variables vary, or ‘change’, in the same direction; that is, as one variable increases, the other variable tends to increase (and vice versa).
For example, as age increases, vocabulary tends to increase (and as vocabulary increases, age tends to increase, or the lower the age, the smaller the vocabulary).
Write down one positive correlation
Can you write down one correlational relationship?
A negative correlation
means that two variables vary, or ‘move’, in opposite directions; that is, as one variable increases, the other variable tends to decrease (and vice versa). A negative correlation is like a see-saw. For example, as self-esteem increases, sadness tends to decrease (and as sadness increases, self-esteem tends to decrease).
Write down one negative correlation
For any two variables which are assessed in a correlational study, there are three possible relationships between them:
positive, negative and zero (no relationship).
The decimal number of the correlation coefficient describes the strength of the relationship between the sets of scores for two variables; that is, whether the
relationship is strong, moderate or weak.
A correlation coefficient which is
close to +1.00 indicates a very strong positive correlation
between two variables. A correlation coefficient which is close to
-1.00 indicates a very strong negative correlation
between two variables.
Correlation and causation
Correlations show the existence and extent of relationships between variables but they
do not necessarily indicate a cause–effect relationship;
that is, that one variable causes the other.
For example, as the world rotates on its axis, people get older. There is an extremely strong correlation between these two factors but it would be incorrect to assume that the Earth's rotation causes people to age or that people's ageing causes the Earth to rotate.
A scatter plot
is a graph of scores (or other values) on two different variables (or measures).
The values of one variable (number of firemen) are shown on the vertical axis (Y axis) and the values of the other variable (fire size) on the horizontal axis (X axis).
Each pair of scores are plotted as a single point.
Please copy in figure 7.10 and 7.11 pg 303
of the correlation is the slope
is how close the dots are together
L.A. 7.13 pg 305 post onto Ultranet
L.A. 7.11 pg 304 in your books. Neatly - Title, x axis title, y-axis title.
Please complete the scatter plot handout. Review as class...
also VAK learing test Ruby, Jas, Em
Descriptive statistics are used by researchers to
organise, summarise and describe the data
collected from a research study so that the data can be more easily interpreted.
is a way of organising data to show
how often (that is, ‘frequently’)
a value or measure (for example, a score) occurs in a set of data.
If any characteristic (such as height) of a very large group of individuals is measured then plotted as a graph, the data WILL tend to fall in a
bell-shaped pattern called a normal distribution
of the data are located around the centre of the distribution, tapering to a few extremely high or extremely low scores either side
The normal distribution curve is a ‘theoretical ideal’ and is rarely perfectly achieved in reality.
Fg 7.14 pog 306. Please draw into your books.....don't forget Title, y-axis title, x axis title.
Positively and negatively skewed distributions
Sometimes the scores in a frequency distribution graph are unevenly distributed and cluster to the left or the right ends of the graph.
In such cases, the distribution is called a skewed distribution as there is a lack of balance or symmetry in the distribution.
The ‘tail’ of the graph is towards the higher scores
Fg 7.15, 7.16 pog 306. Please draw into your books.....don't forget Title, y-axis title, x axis title.
In class discussion L.A. 7.14 pg 306
In a set of scores collected during an experiment, if
two particular scores occur equally often, the data have two modes or are bimodal.
Fg 7.17 pog 307. Please draw into your books.....don't forget Title, y-axis title, x axis title.
Measure of Central Tendency
An important feature of a frequency distribution is that it presents a
complete summary of the scores
(or other measures).
Data are often
summarised by calculating a single numerical score
that can be used to describe the data for the whole group(s). This score, called a
measure of central tendency.
The mean is the arithmetical
of all the individual scores (or measures) in a set of scores. It is calculated by adding all the scores together and dividing the total by the number of scores.
Mean = sum of all scores / number of all scores
Find the mean of the following
26, 17, 21, 18, 12, 17, 18, 24, 25, 17
The mean may not always provide the most accurate measure of central tendency of a set of scores
eg in the following 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 100,
The median is the
(or mid-point) of a set of scores.
When the scores are arranged from lowest to highest (or highest to lowest).
Find the median of the following
26, 17, 21, 18, 12, 17, 18, 24, 25, 17
(make sure you order it)
The mode is the most frequently occurring score in a set of scores.
Find the mode of the following
26, 17, 21, 18, 12, 17, 18, 24, 25, 17
(make sure you order it)
When to use mean, median, mode
most of the scores in a set of data cluster around a central value
(that is, there tends to be a normal distribution),
the mean is a fairly reliable
indicator of a typical score; that is, it is a useful representation of the data.
extreme scores occur
in a set of data (that is, a skewed distribution), a
measure of central tendency is
provides a useful indicator of a
‘common’ or ‘usual’ score
because it is the most frequently occurring score.
L.A. 7.16 1-4 (in books)
L.A. 7.17 1 and 2 (Post to Ultranet) AoS1/research methods
Most research data are made up of measures or values (for example, scores) where there is some variability; that is,
there is a spread of scores and not all scores are the same.
A measure of variability, or dispersion, indicates how widely the scores are spread or scattered around the central point.
The simplest measure of variability in a set of scores is provided by the range. The range is a
numerical score that describes the difference between the highest and lowest score
in a set of scores.
Work out the range
Males: 17, 18, 18, 19, 19, 20, 20, 20, 21
Females: 17, 18, 18, 19, 19, 20, 20, 20, 27
Variance is a better measure of variability than the range because it is based on every score in the set of scores, not just the two extreme scores as is the range.
The variance represents the spread of scores around the mean.
When the individual score is higher than the mean, the difference is said to be a
When the individual score is lower than the mean, the difference is said to be a
For example, in a set of scores such as 15, 10, 5, the mean would be 10.
The individual score of
15 is five points higher than the mean and therefore a positive difference.
However, the individual score of
5 is five points lower than the mean, so it is a negative difference
The standard deviation of a set of scores takes
every score in the distribution into account.
The standard deviation
summarises how far, on average, a score differs (that is, ‘deviates’) from the mean
in the same units of measurement as the original data.
Discussion L.A. 7.20 pg 314
Reliability refers to the consistency, dependability and stability of the results obtained from a research study.
For example, if you measured your blood alcohol level on a breathalyser and then decided to double-check it, you should expect to get the same result.
Please think of something that you would test for reliability?
Validity means that the research study has produced results that accurately measure the behaviour or event that it claims to have measured.
For example, if you measured your biceps with a cloth tape measure that had been left outside in the open weather for a long time and had become inaccurate through stretching, the result would not be a valid measure of your true bicep size
Please think of something you would test for validity?
Researchers often distinguish between the internal and external validity of their studies. They consider both internal and external validity in judging the overall validity of a study.
refers to the design of the research and the procedures used to conduct the study.
For example, researchers need to be confident that the specific method used to conduct a study actually tests the hypothesis and that the hypothesis has been tested in a ‘convincing’ way.
How would you loose internal validity?
means that the conclusions can be generalised (‘applied’) to the population from which the sample used in the study was drawn. For example, a researcher conducted a laboratory experiment on the effects of stress on behaviour using a relatively small sample of participants.
How would you loose external validity?
Often, researchers must strike a balance between internal and external validity, because the more strictly a researcher controls what participants experience, the less the situation may resemble life outside the laboratory (Westen, Burton & Kowalski, 2006).
Generally, the report is presented in a logical sequence that describes:
What was done
Why it was done
How it was done
What was found
What the findings probably mean.
- Hyp responce
Complete Review of chapter
Pg 321, 322-323. Complete indivudually discuss as class
, inter-rater agreement, or concordance is the degree of agreement among raters.
Parallel forms reliability
is used to assess the consistency of the results of two or more tests constructed in the same way using the same content.
is typically a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test
For example, if a respondent expressed agreement with the statements "I like to ride bicycles" and "I've enjoyed riding bicycles in the past", and disagreement with the statement "I hate bicycles", this would be indicative of good internal consistency of the test.
(also known as logical validity) refers to the extent to which a measure represents all facets of a given social construct.
For example, a depression scale may lack content validity if it only assesses the affective dimension of depression but fails to take into account the behavioral dimension.
is a measure of how well one variable or set of variables predicts an outcome based on information from other variables.
A typical way to achieve this is in relation to the extent to which a score on a personality test can predict future performance or behavior.
Chapter 8 - Attitude formation and Change
Attitude towards people
Our attitudes are
learned through experience
. They reflect our unique experiences as individuals, as well as our socio-cultural background.
As we interact with different individuals and groups, and as we are exposed to various kinds of media and life in general,
we form attitudes, are influenced by them, display them to others, argue about them and sometimes change them.
We are aware of many of our attitudes, but there are some of which
we are unaware until we need to express
What may be unaware until we express them?
Psychologists commonly define an attitude as an evaluation a person makes about an object, person, group, event or issue.
This definition indicates that we can form attitudes towards anything — for example, ferris wheels and computers (
); ourselves and politicians (
); our friendship group and Greenpeace (
); Easter and elections (
); and euthanasia and global warming (
Please write down one attitude you hold about each of the orange words?
In defining an attitude, the term
evaluation refers to a judgement being made, either positive, negative or neutral
, about some specific aspect of our lives and the world in which we live.
This means that
attitudes involve reactions — likes and dislikes, feelings for and against, preferences and aversions, or non-involvement
(where an actual response is not necessary)
However, the judgement (evaluation) must be relatively consistent and lasting for it to be called an attitude.
model of attitudes
The tri-component model of attitudes proposes that
any attitude has three related components — the affective, behavioural and cognitive components
— which are sometimes referred to as the ‘ABCs of attitudes’ (Aronson, 2008).
of an attitude refers to the emotional reactions or feelings an individual has towards an object, person, group, event or issue.
‘I enjoy chatting with friends on MSN’ (positive), ‘I hate country music’ (negative) and ‘I'm not interested in politics’ (neutral).
Discussion: What affective component do people towards the country music?
of an attitude refers to the way in which an attitude is expressed through our actions (or how we might behave should the opportunity arise).
For example, running to keep fit
Discussion: What behavioural component do you hold towards country music?
of an attitude refers to the beliefs we have about an object, person, group, event or issue.
Some beliefs are based on fact.
For example, the belief that AIDS can be transmitted by heterosexuals as well as homosexuals is true.
However, some beliefs are false. For example, it is not true that all psychologists and psychiatrists do the same kind of work.
Furthermore, some beliefs can be verified and others cannot be proven. For example, we can verify the belief about heterosexual transmission of AIDS by asking a doctor or by checking a book on AIDS. However, we cannot verify the belief that there is
intelligent life in another galaxy.
An attitude involving a verifiable belief is more easily changed than an attitude involving an unverifiable belief.
Hard thinking time...what unverifiable belief do you hold?
Tri-component model proposes that all three components must be present before it can be said that an attitude exists
model of attitudes
Class discussion L.A 8.2
What do we think an attitude is?
Some psychologists believe that the behavioural component is often inconsistent with the affective and cognitive components of the attitude.
For example, a person may dislike watching test cricket (affective component) because they believe it takes too long for a result (cognitive component), but they may choose to attend a match because their friends are going (behavioural component).
Behavioural component is consistent with one other component, but these two components are inconsistent with the third component. This often results from one or more of the components being stronger, or more intense, than the other(s)
For example, a person may be in love with their partner (affective component), have doubts about the future of the relationship (cognitive component), but continue in the relationship (behavioural component).
It is sometimes assumed that
understanding a person's attitude enables us to predict their behaviour
with considerable accuracy. However,
this assumption has been challenged by research findings.
One of the first research studies on the relationship between attitudes and behaviour was conducted by American sociologist Richard La Piere (1934). La Piere was interested in finding out whether there was a consistency between a person's attitudes towards others with different racial backgrounds and their behaviour towards such people, as demonstrated by discrimination (treating them differently). Over a two-year period, beginning in 1930, La Piere travelled 16 000 km around the United States with a Chinese couple. They stayed in 66 hotels, motels or caravan parks, and dined in 184 different restaurants. La Piere expected that he and his Chinese companions would experience considerable discrimination, because there was widespread prejudice against Asians in America at that time. To his surprise, however, La Piere and the Chinese couple were refused service on only one occasion and La Piere judged their treatment overall to be good in nearly 50% of the places they visited.
Six months later, he sent a questionnaire and accompanying letter to the manager of each restaurant and the places they had stayed at. In the letter he asked the question, ‘Will you accept members of the Chinese race as guests in your establishment?’ La Piere received replies from about 50% of the places they had visited. In these replies, only one response stated that they would accept Chinese visitors as guests. As indicated by their responses, their attitudes clearly differed from their actual behaviour towards the Chinese couple.
La Piere concluded that attitudes do not reliably predict behaviour. However, a number of criticisms have been made about La Piere's research method which may have led to an incorrect conclusion. For example, La Piere's presence with the Chinese couple may have encouraged a different response from that which the Chinese couple may have received had they visited alone. Furthermore, while the group received good customer service face-to-face, the responses to the letters may have been completed by different employees from those who actually attended to them when they visited (Wicker, 1969).
Home work (as we are missing tomorrows class is...L.A. 8.4 Post to Ultranet
AoS1/Chp 8/Message board...
I expect any one who has not completed this to come to the Tue after school class.
In your books, please complete L.A. 8.3 on pg 328, (using a attitude of choice and replicating fg 8.3
Attitudes and behaviour
There are many factors that influence whether attitudes and behaviour will be consistent. Research findings have identified a number of conditions when it is more likely that attitudes and behaviour will match.
Strength of the attitude
Accessibility of the attitude
Social context of the attitude
Percieved control over the behaviour
are more likely to
than weaker attitudes.
American social psychologist Stephen Kraus (1995) analysed the results of more than one hundred research studies on attitudes and behaviour. On the basis of this meta analysis, Kraus concluded that an attitude tends to be closely linked to behaviour and can be used to predict behaviour when the attitude is strongly held.
Strong attitude is often based on a considerable amount of information and the person tends to be well-informed about the attitude topic.
However, the strength of an attitude is indicated not only by the amount of information on which it is based but also on
how that information was obtained
If information relating to an attitude is
obtained through direct experience rather than indirect experience, it is usually a stronger attitude.
For example, your attitude towards cyberbullying is more likely to be stronger if you have personally experienced cyberbullying as a victim than if you read an article about cyberbullying in a school newsletter or daily newspaper.
Think of a STRONG attutide you hold. Can you remember how you obtained it?
American social psychologist
Elliot Aronson has proposed that attitudes and behaviour are more likely to be consistent when the attitude is accessible
to the person who holds the attitude.
According to Aronson (2008), an accessible attitude is a strong attitude that easily comes to mind — it has been thought about, is well known and has been stored in memory ready for use.
For example, if asked to respond to the word ‘snake’, most people will be able to readily respond to the word in a way that reflects their attitude. Words such as ‘scary’ or ‘dangerous’ may come to mind.
How do you feel about spiders? What words come to mind?
American social psychologists Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen (1975) have proposed that whether an attitude leads to actual behaviour may be dependent on the social context or specific situation in which a person finds themselves.
Consequently, when the relationship between attitudes and behaviour is being considered, the circumstances in which those attitudes are expressed must be considered (Smith & Mackie, 2000).
What is at attitude you may show with your friends but not with your parents?
Attitudes and behaviour are also more likely to match when
people perceive that they have control over the behaviour that may be triggered by their attitude.
Perceived control is the belief an individual has that they are free to perform or not perform behaviour linked to an attitude and a belief that they can actually perform that behaviour (Ajzen & Fishbein, 2002).
This means that someone who believes drink driving is dangerous and gets upset by media reports of alcohol-related road deaths, is likely to do something about it only if they believe that they can actually do something about it and there is nothing really stopping them from doing so. If they don't hold both of these beliefs, then they are unlikely to even try.
Waht is an attitude you act on and one you dont? Mr. Berry (adoption..)
If we are aware of inconsistencies within our attitudes, or when the way in which we actually behave is different from the way we believe we should behave, then we can experience psychological tension or discomfort. This experience is called cognitive dissonance.
As a class read Box 8.1 pg 322
Factors influencing attitude formation
Attitudes are formed, usually over a long period of time, through the process of learning.
Psychologists have described three different types of learning which influence attitude formation: classical conditioning, operant conditioning and modelling.
is a simple form of learning which occurs through
repeated association of two different stimuli. A stimulus is an event which may trigger a response.
Advertisers often use classical conditioning in an attempt to get consumers to associate a product or service with a particular object or event.
What object, event, feeling is coke trying to associate with?
Please copy into books
Sketching frame into books...study help!
is a kind of learning which is based on the assumption that
we tend to repeat behaviour which has a desirable consequence or result (for example, a reward), and tend not to repeat behaviour which has an undesirable consequence or result (for example, punishment).
The concept of reinforcement is very important in the process of learning through operant conditioning.
Reinforcement is any event which strengthens (‘reinforces’) a response or increases the likelihood of a particular response occurring again.
Attitudes are also reinforced by other significant people in our lives, such as friends, relatives and teachers.
If we are
rewarded for demonstrating an inclination towards a certain attitude, or for expressing a particular attitude, the reward will reinforce the attitude, making us more likely to express the attitude in the future.
For example, if you stated an attitude which is held by your parents they may compliment your good judgement.
State an attitude I may praise (positive reinforcement) you for?
modify or adopt attitudes by observing other people, particularly people close to us and people who we respect and admire. This type of learning is called modelling, or observational learning.
Discuss: Young pleople (and adults to a lesser extent) do this ALL the time (I did it too) Longboarding, weightlifting, surfing, littering examples.
Modelling occurs when someone uses
observation of another person's actions and their consequences (OPERANT CONDITIONING)
to guide their future thoughts, feelings or behaviour. The person being observed is referred to as a model.
We are more influenced by ‘models’ when we observe their actions being rewarded rather than criticised.
Can you think of an attitude you hold because of a model? Eg It is not right to steal (parents)
Attitudes can also form through repeated exposure — by simply being exposed to an object, person, group, event or issue repeatedly.
How is this a positive or negative?
Forming an attitude through repeated exposure also involves learning processes.
In all cases of attitude formation, some kind of personal experience is required
(and experience is the basis of all learning).
Experience may be either direct
(for example, going bungy jumping)
personal experience (
for example, hearing about bungy jumping).
The mere exposure effect describes the increase in liking for an attitude, object, person, group, event or issue as a result of being repeatedly exposed to it (Seamon & others, 1995).
In one experiment, Zajonc (1968) repeatedly exposed participants to various items that they were unlikely to have seen before, such as Chinese characters, nonsense words and photographs of faces. It was assumed that because the participants were extremely unfamiliar with these items, they had no attitude towards the items before the experiment. Furthermore, it was assumed that the items were sufficiently ‘neutral’ to not influence the participants’ attitudes towards them. The participants were shown some of the items 25 times, and other items 10 times, five times, or only once. The participants were then shown the entire group of items and asked how much they liked each one. Included with these items were other similar items which the participants had never seen before. The results indicated that the more often the participants had seen the items presented in the experiment, the better they liked them, and the unfamiliar items were liked least. Figure 8.12 shows the results obtained following exposure to the Chinese characters at different frequencies (i.e. number of times shown).
Results - Please copy into books. Place the title above, y-axis, x-axis
Measurement of attitudes
Please write down 10 words about this person
When we meet someone for the
first time, we tend to judge them
on a number of characteristics such as how they look, the way they dress, the way they speak, their mannerisms, and how they greet us.
Why, why do you think we do this?
initial evaluation of people is conducted very quickly
and the first impressions that we develop
tend to be lasting ones
. This is called the
primacy effect, whereby the initial impression we form of a person is more influential than any later information obtained.
Why is this important? How should we 'try' to edit out cognition's?
Prejudice and discrimination
When we evaluate people, we tend to do so by trying to fit them into a category based on our knowledge of people and the world.
For example, a person may be judged as being a member of a social group (such as male or female, young or old) and/or a member of a cultural or religious group (such as Australian or Vietnamese, Muslim or non-Muslim).
This process of grouping or ‘fitting’ people into a category based on what we know about them is called stereotyping.
What are some stereotypes that we hold?
A stereotype is a collection of beliefs that we have about the people who belong to a certain group, regardless of individual differences
among members of that group.
For example, a stereotype of a doctor might be: wealthy, drives an expensive car, lives in a big house, works long hours and is conservative.
How do stereotypes help us?
Stereotypes help us to make sense of our world by giving it order. They provide us with a general system which guides our interactions with others. Because it is not possible for us to intimately know everyone we meet, we use stereotypes to assist us in knowing how we should react to new people we meet.
Issues with stereotyping
One problem with stereotyping is that stereotypes can be inaccurate. Stereotypes are often based on incorrect or inadequate information. Consequently, many social and cultural stereotypes are formed on the basis of little or no empirical evidence.
When we stereotype a person as belonging to a particular group, we ignore their individuality. In particular,
we tend to disregard information about the individual that does not fit the stereotype we have of them.
Remember. IT IS HARDER TO remember information that we disagree with.
What impact should this information have on our beliefs (or belief formation)?
Read as class. Pg 338 from, "The results of an...
Class discussion 8.10 pg 339
Stereotyping can lead to prejudice, which can in turn result in discrimination.
The term prejudice literally means ‘prejudgement’.
Psychology has focused on the study of prejudice as a negative attitude, mainly because of the social problems that prejudice towards other people can cause.
prejudice is often defined in psychology as holding a negative attitude towards the members of a group, based solely on their membership of that group.
According to American psychologist Herbert Blumer (1961), there are four basic characteristics of prejudice which can often be observed among members of a majority social group who hold a prejudiced attitude towards members of a minority group.
First, they tend to believe that they are superior to the minority group to whom the prejudice is directed.
Second, the majority group tend to believe the minority group is different from them and that they ‘do not belong’.
Third, the majority group tend to believe that they are more powerful and important than the minority group.
Finally, Blumer suggests that a majority group that displays prejudiced attitudes is insecure, fearing the minority group may become more powerful and important than itself.
More recently, psychologists have distinguished between old-fashioned (or traditional) and modern forms of prejudice.
Australian psychologists Anne Pederson and Iain Walker (1997)
old-fashioned prejudice as a form of prejudice in which members of the majority group openly reject minority group members
and their views towards the minority group are obvious and recognisable to others.
Pederson and Walker
modern prejudice as a form of prejudice which is more subtle, hidden and expressed in ways more likely to be accepted within the majority group.
Such as, 'aborigionals are entitled to thier land, but when they get it, they waste it'.
Prejudice can also be expressed through behaviour. When this occurs, it is called discrimination.
Discrimination refers to positive or negative
that is directed towards a social group and its members.
Discrimination against people can take many forms.
For example, it may involve behaviour such as ignoring people, excluding people from places or positions, putting people down, or, in its extreme form, it may be expressed in physical violence against a particular group, or even genocide.
Look at Fg 8.17. What do you think about the photos?
Direct discrimination occurs when someone is treated unfairly and is disadvantaged because of a personal characteristic.
For example, direct discrimination would occur if someone was overlooked for a job specifically on the basis of their race, sex, age, religious belief or some other personal characteristic.
Can you think of an example?
Indirect discrimination occurs when treating everybody the same way disadvantages someone because of a personal characteristic.
For example, if an employer refuses to allow employees to wear any head covering in the workplace, this may be indirect discrimination against employees whose cultural or religious background requires that they wear a particular type of head covering.
Can you think of an example?
Difference between prejudice and discrimination
The basic difference between prejudice and discrimination is that
prejudice is an attitude
discrimination is a behaviour
arising from prejudice.
When prejudice and discrimination are directed at people who are members of a particular racial or ethnic group, for example, Aborigines, Somalians or Muslims, it is called racism. When directed at women or men because of their sex, it is called sexism. When directed at people because of their age, it is called ageism.
Home Learning (put in diaries)
Complete 8.14 pg 343
Q1, 5, 6, 7 a,b,c
Factors contributing to the development of prejudice
Factors that may reduce prejudice
Like other attitudes,
prejudice is primarily influenced by learning processes
, including repeated exposure.
For example, children hear many prejudiced views expressed by parents, other adults and peers (and society in general) and they may adopt these views.
Ingroups and outgroups
American psychologist Gordon Allport (1897–1967) proposed that people tend to categorise themselves and others into groups which can in turn influence their attitudes towards the group members.
Allport described any group that you belong to or identify with as an ingroup.
For example, your friendship groups, peer group, family, school, religion, sex, race, culture, the country in which you live and even the AFL team you barrack for would be called your ingroups.
What ingroups do you belong to?
An outgroup is any group you do not belong to or identify with.
Name some outgroups in your enviornment?
Cognitive issues arising
When we categorise our social world in this way, we tend to
believe that people belonging to our ingroups have individual differences but are generally more like us
. Consequently, we tend to
view them positively and more easily develop loyalty to them
due to common membership of the same group.
tend to consider people belonging to an outgroup to be less like us and more like each other. We therefore are more likely to view them negatively.
Read Jane Elliot experiment.
L.A. 8.18 Class discussion Q1, 3, 4, 5
Intergroup conflict occurs when members of different groups compete to achieve or control something that is wanted by the members of each group
In particular, competition over economic resources like jobs and housing, social status (‘standing’), positions of power or even political advantage is more likely to lead to prejudice.
Discuss: Does this slightly explain pre WW2 Germany? What about what is occuring right now in Australia.
For example, during the global economic crisis in 2008–2009, unemployment rose dramatically throughout the world. Corresponding with this widespread job loss was a significant rise in negative attitudes and behaviour towards refugees, asylum seekers and international visitors on working visas. Essentially, they were perceived by residents in many countries as ‘taking our jobs’.
Check UN responses
Review unit outline
Revision for Chr 7 on Ultranet
Read racism pg 346
This process of trying to explain observed behaviour in terms of a particular cause is called attribution.
When do you try to explain observed behaviour?
An attribution can be either
internal (from within the person) or external (from the environment
If we attribute behaviour to internal factors, we tend to blame one or more characteristics of the person for causing the behaviour.
For example, if we hear that Mario has lost his job because he failed to let his supervisor know that he was not going to work for a week, we may think it was typical of Mario because he is often unreliable and irresponsible.
We are attributing his behaviour to internal factors.
If, however, we believe that this behaviour occurred because
his mother was seriously ill and he was preoccupied with worrying about her health,
we have attributed the cause to external factors.
Fundamental attribution error
Research studies have found that people tend to
overestimate the influence of personal characteristics and underestimate the influence of the situation they are in when explaining a person's behaviour.
This is called the fundamental attribution error (Gilbert & Malone, 1995; Ross, 1977).
Most people do this, why do you think we do this? What issues could occur?
For example, if you see a bikie shouting and arguing with a policeman, you might conclude that bikies are rebellious, excitable, argumentative and aggressive. You might not consider that something in the situation (such as the bikie being blamed for something that they did not do) caused the behaviour.
We tend to
focus on the personal characteristics
we attribute to the person
rather than the context
in which their behaviour is taking place.
just world hypothesis
, also known as the
just world error
, is the tendency for individuals to believe that they live in a world where people generally get what they deserve and deserve what they get (Lerner, 1980).
Equality of status
Anti-discrimination laws have led to a significant reduction in the number of observable expressions of prejudice in Australian society.
This has led to increased opportunities for women and members of minority groups in our society.
One way of reducing prejudice is through intergroup contact. This involves increasing contact between groups who are prejudiced against each other. t
Why do you think it would lead to a reduction in prejudice?
Prejudice can be reduced by increasing intergroup contact;
that is, increasing direct contact between two groups who are prejudiced against each other. However, research findings indicate that the contact between the groups
will reduce prejudice only under certain conditions.
contact hypothesis (Gordon Alport, 1954) proposes that certain types of direct contact between members of different groups can reduce prejudice.
The assumption is that close, prolonged contact of a fairly direct nature (one-on-one or face-to-face) leads to a re-evaluation of incorrect stereotypes about the other group and its members, thereby reducing intergroup stereotyping and prejudice.
Why do you think this would be?
This suggests that direct intergroup contact over a period of time may be an effective means of eliminating, or at least reducing, prejudice.
However, reality indicates otherwise.
For example, consider the high level of contact between men and women, Europeans and Aboriginals, and younger and older people since Australia was first settled.
According to the contact hypothesis, a number of specific conditions must be present for the sustained contact to be effective in reducing prejudice.
One condition which must be present for contact to be effective is that
the two different groups must have contact that makes them dependent on each other. This is called mutual interdependence.
This contact condition was first demonstrated in a well-known experiment conducted by Turkish-born American psychologist Muzafer Sherif (1956). The experiment was conducted in three phases and has come to be known as the Robber's Cave Experiment because of its location at a place called Robber's Cave.
Read pg 351-352, discuss/comment
A superordinate goal is a goal that cannot be achieved by any one group alone and overrides other existing goals which each group might have (Sherif, 1966).
For example, the Kyoto Protocol on climate change has a superordinate goal for the elimination of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere to minimise global warming. This goal cannot be achieved unless many industrialised nations throughout the world cooperate by making a commitment to the Protocol and limiting their emissions of greenhouse gases by set amounts.
The status of a group refers to the importance of the group when compared with another group, as perceived by members of the group(s) making the comparison.
What examples of this can you thing of...we are in one right now!
Generally, the more status a group has, the more power and influence it usually has over another group with less status, and vice versa.
Some psychologists suggest that if people are aware of the harmful effects of prejudice, they are then in a position to be able to do something about it.
Cognitive intervention involves changing the way in which someone thinks about prejudice.
For example, when used to reduce prejudice, a specific cognitive intervention strategy may require a prejudiced person or group to consider prejudice from the victim's perspective or to have their negative stereotypes challenged and broken down. Restorative Practice!
If people can be encouraged to understand others based on their individual characteristics rather than generalising some of their characteristics to stereotype them, then prejudice may be lessened...hopefully
For example, paying closer attention to personal attributes rather than focusing on race, gender or age may prevent stereotyping, and therefore prejudice, from forming. The findings of research studies provide support for the effectiveness of cognitive intervention in reducing prejudice.
Do you think this is cognitively challenging?
American psychologist Patricia Devine (1989) believes that virtually everyone's thinking is influenced by their exposure to negative stereotypes, often in ways that reinforce the stereotype.
Thus, being unprejudiced may not mean never having stereotypic thoughts or feelings come to mind, but rather acknowledging them and making a conscious effort to avoid being influenced by them or trying to overcome them.
Divine proposes reducing prejudice requires a three step-process.
First, the individual must decide that their prejudiced attitude and behaviour are wrong and consciously reject prejudice and stereotyped thinking.
Second, they must hold fast to their non-prejudiced beliefs and make these an important part of their personal self-concept; that is, how they think and feel about themself as a person.
Third, the individual must learn to suppress or block from conscious awareness prejudicial reactions that may occur and deliberately replace them with non-prejudiced responses that are based on their personal standards.
it's important that we make a conscious effort to see each person as he or she really is — a unique individual (Huffman, 2002).
Self Report methods
Questionnaires, surveys and interviews
Advantages and limitations of attitude measurement Devices
Ethics in conducting research on attitudes measurement
Obtaining informed consent
UN activity (post using date and title below)
L.A. 8.22 pg 357 Q2,3,4,5
Psychologists use two main approaches to measuring or assessing attitudes.
One approach involves
observing people's behaviour
the other involves
to tell the researcher about their attitudes.
Observational studies involve watching and describing behaviour as it occurs.
The behaviour under investigation is clearly visible and can be recorded.
This approach to measuring attitudes is referred to as an indirect measure because it involves observing what someone does (or has done), then inferring, or assuming, the underlying attitude(s)
which may be associated with the observed behaviour.
What are the positives / negatives of this procedure?
Observation of behaviour is an indirect and usually unobtrusive technique for measuring attitudes. Being unobtrusive helps ensure that participants do not realise their attitudes (as assumed to be reflected by certain behaviour) are being measured.
It can provide data about attitudes which researchers might not be able to obtain through other measures. For example, a person may state that they have a certain attitude but their observed behaviour may indicate otherwise (racism)
Difficulty with measuring the strength of the attitude.
Evidence is limited by the fact that the people being observed are often not interviewed by the researcher.
Self-reports are written or spoken answers to questions or statements presented by the researcher.
In most cases, one person's self-report is compared with those of others responding to the same questions or statements.
Data which are based on self-reports given by participants are called
When using self-report methods involving questions, researchers usually
choose between free-response and fixed-response questions.
Free-response (or open-ended)
questions require respondents to describe their attitudes
freely in their own words
(that is, qualitative data).
Example of a free-response question?
Free-response questions can be limited in that answers can be difficult to summarise or score (and therefore convert to quantitative data). This makes it harder for researchers to statistically describe and interpret the data obtained.
To overcome this limitation, researchers often ask
which enable quantitative data to be collected. Fixed-response (or closed) questions usually provide a respondent with a number of fixed alternative answers
Example of a fixed-response question?
L.A. 8.27 Class discussion.
Questionnaires, surveys and interviews are all examples of attitude measurement devices which are classified as self-reports.
A survey i
s used to collect data from a large number of people. In a survey, the researcher gives a standardised set of questions to a large number of research participants, either face-to-face, by post, by telephone or over the internet.
A survey can provide quantitative data on attitudes.
uestionnaires are written sets of questions. T
hey are used in research as part of the survey method of gathering data.
n interview is usually a face-to-face discussion between a researcher and an individual for the purpose of obtaining detailed information. I
nstead of being completely standardised, as is a questionnaire, an interview is interactive. Good interviewers are sensitive to the process of social interaction, as well as to the information provided.
Rating scales typically provide a series of fixed-response questions or statements about different aspects of an attitude to which the respondents indicate the extent of their agreement or disagreement.
This enables the researcher to explore an attitude more thoroughly than by using other measures. For instance, rating scales can be used to accurately measure the direction (whether people are in favour or against), or the strength (how strongly people react) of an attitude.
rating scales can provide very specific quantitative data
A Likert scale focuses on
measuring the direction of an attitude.
It generally consists of about 20 questions or statements about an attitude to which respondents indicate their degree of agreement or disagreement on a five-point scale.
For example, an attitude statement used in a Likert scale could be:
‘War is sometimes necessary to maintain justice’.
Respondents are required to rate their answers by
selecting one response from a range of responses such as strongly agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree or strongly disagree.
Complete Box 8.7 - Discuss (not results/technique)
Questionnaires and rating scales are usually simple to complete and are widely regarded as useful devices for the measurement of attitudes.
There are also limitations. For instance,
self-reports cannot be used with young children, illiterate adults, people from non-English speaking backgrounds who have yet to learn English well
(unless translated) and some intellectually disabled or mentally ill people. Even when verbal reports can be used, they may not be accurate.
Another limitation of self-reports is what some psychologists refer to as
social desirability, where people may give false or misleading answers to create a favourable impression of themselves.
For example, with socially sensitive issues such as attitudes to minority groups, cruelty to animals and environmental issues, people sometimes give socially desirable responses instead of reporting their true attitudes.
An indirect measurement device such as an observational study has the advantage of being unobtrusive and can also provide valuable information about attitudes.
The observation of behaviour technique helps
ensure that participants’ responses are not influenced by their knowledge of being in a research study.
results of observational studies are limited by the fact that those being observed are often not interviewed by the researcher.
M/C Interactive revision
T/F Interactive revision
Each individual has the right to choose whether or not to participate in research and to make that decision from an informed basis. They also have a right to privacy.
It is essential that the researcher obtain the informed consent of each participant, or the participant's legal guardian where appropriate.
For example see 376 (use in SACS0
Generally, the briefing statement and consent form ensure that, before the researcher begins to collect data, they explain to each participant:
the reasons for the study
the method used to collect data
how the data will be analysed, described and presented
whether the participant will have a chance to see and comment on the final report
what will happen to the final report
who will read the report and have access to it.
Participants responding to items in a questionnaire or rating scale provide information in the belief that it will be treated in confidence. This means at least two things.
First, the researchers should not ‘gossip’ or talk about the information individual participants provided or from whom they received it.
Second, even when the information is finally written in a report, it should be impossible for an individual participant's information to be identified.
Furthermore, information should not be reported in a way that is easily linked to a particular person.
Chapter 9 - Social influences on the individual
Social influence is defined as the
effects of the presence or actions of others, either real or imagined, on the way people think, feel and behave.
The impact of social influence may be
constructive (helpful), destructive (harmful), or neutral (have no effect).
This pressure from others can be
real or genuine pressure or it can be imagined
; that is, it does not actually occur, but it is still
experienced as real pressure.
How did our experiment relate to this?
What is a group?
Social psychologists define a group as any collection of two or more people who interact with and influence one another and who share a common purpose.
Characteristics of a group;
The number of people
Must interact with one another
Share a common goal
What about people at a bus stop?
Social psychologists often use the term collective (or aggregate) to describe such a gathering of people who have minimal direct interaction.
But if the bus was to crash in front of them, they may turn into a group.
L.A. 9.1 pg 375 Q1-4 full sentaces
Please read other peoples posts and discuss
Status and power within groups
Within a group, each member can have an identifiable status.
Status refers to the importance of an individual's position in the group, as perceived by members of the group.
A person's status in a group also determines the amount of power they have within the group.
Power refers to an individual's (or group's) ability to control or influence the thoughts, feelings or behaviour of another person (or group).
Interaction between any two or more individuals typically involves power to some degree.
Power is a basic aspect of life as a social being
and can be observed in all kinds of relationships and interactions, including those involving people we dislike, as well as friends and lovers.
UN activity post to;
L.A. 9.3 q1-4
Copy in to your books. Read box 9.1
Types of Power
Effects of status and power within groups
Status and power within a group are often linked to the role each individual has in the group.
A role is the behaviour adopted by an individual or assigned to them that influences the way in which they function or act in different situations and life in general.
Once a role is taken on, there is usually an
expectation by other members of the group that the individual will behave in a way that is consistent with that role. -Role expectations.
Zimbardo's Stanford Prision Experiment
watch this videohttp://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=677084988379129606
Please spend the next 15 minutes navigating the slideshow under AoS1/Stanford Prison Experiment
Read box 9.2 382
Ethical Issues in Zimbardo's Stanford Prision Experiment
Zimbardo (2009) has addressed these criticisms by arguing that his study was both ethical and unethical.
It was ‘not unethical because it followed the guidelines…’ of the Ethics Committee:
Read Zimbardo's quote pg 381
Zimbardo states that his
study was unethical ‘… because people suffered and others were allowed to inflict pain and humiliation on their fellows over an extended period of time
L.A. 9.6 Q 1 and 3
L.A 9.8 pg 382 Qns1-9
15 minutes. Finish rest for h/w
The pressure to conform often occurs in subtle, not so easily identifiable ways.
From a very early age, we learn that we must be obedient when someone with legitimate authority over us commands us in some way or other to behave in a certain way.
Obedience occurs when we follow the commands of someone with authority, or the rules or laws of our society.
Obedience is different from compliance (often used interchangeably. However, while compliance involves changing one's behaviour in response to a request to do so, it does not necessarily involve an authority figure.
In what ways are we obedient?
Several disturbing historical events sparked interest in this question among psychologists. An example of such an event was the gassing, starving and shooting of millions of Jewish people in concentration camps during World War II by Nazi soldiers under Hitler's direction.
Do you think the Germans were evil? Would you think any Australian do this? Would you?
Milgrams Experiment on obedience
In a series of well-known and very controversial experiments, American psychologist Stanley Milgram (1963) investigated factors involved in determining
obedience to an authority figure.
Complete while watching film. Class discussion
L.A. 9.11 pg 387 1-9
Factors affecting obedience
Obedience in a ‘Milgram-type’ experimental situation seems to occur regardless of gender, socio-economic background, age or culture.
it appears that several factors interact in influencing someone to obey an authority figure.
These factors include
how close the authority figure is to the person who must obey, whether the authority figure is perceived as being legitimate and having power, and group pressure to obey.
Legitimacy of the authority figure
social proximity refers to the closeness between two or more people.
include the physical distance
between the people
as well as the closeness of their relationship.
As shown in fg 9.16
Milgram found that, the closer the learner (‘victim’) was to the teacher (person administering the shock), the more likely that person was to refuse to administer the shock.
Milgram also found that when the teacher was out of the room and issued his or her orders by telephone, the number of fully obedient teachers dropped to about 20%.
Are you more likely to obey someone you know or someone who is physically close to you?
individual is also more likely to be obedient when the authority figure is perceived as being legitimate and having power.
As shown in figure 9.16, when an ‘ordinary person’ (someone with no particular authority) instead of the experimenter gave the orders, full obedience dropped from 65% to 20%.
With the legitimate authority figure gone and someone with no apparent authority in charge, 80% of the teachers often ignored the confederate and refused to comply fully.
Some even tried to unplug the shock generator so it could not be used. In one instance, a physically big teacher actually picked up the confederate from his chair in front of the shock generator and threw him across the room. This ‘rebellion’ against an illegitimate authority figure contrasted sharply with the compliance usually shown to the ‘authorative’ experimenter.
In Milgram's (1963) experiment at Yale University, the authority figures were easy to recognise because all the experimenters wore white lab coats. They looked like ‘expert scientists from a prestigious university’ and this helped reinforce the legitimacy of their authority in the experimental situation.
Who is recognised as an authority figure?
An individual is also more likely to be obedient where there is little or no group support for resisting the authority figure.
As shown in figure 9.16, when the ‘teachers’ were exposed to the actions of disobedient people who refused to obey the authority figure's commands, full obedience dropped from 65% to about 10%.
n Milgram's study, participants were faced with the dilemma of whether to obey an authority figure or consider the health and safety of another human being. Obedience to authority was the more common response.
In what situations could this be an issue for humans?
Evolutionary speaking why do you think we conform to authority figures?
However, you should keep in mind that the Milgram experiments provide an example of authority being abused. Without obedience to the laws of our democratic society, groups could not function and social life in the way we are accustomed to it would be extremely difficult, if not impossible.
Ethical issues in obedience studies
A common criticism of many studies of obedience, such as those conducted by Milgram, is that they are unethical.
For example according to ethical standards for research,
A participant's full and informed consent must be obtained prior to the start of the experiment
The participant's health and wellbeing must be safeguarded
The participant must be informed about their rights and permitted to withdraw from the experiment whenever they choose to do so .
Milgram's experiment seems to have disregarded each of these standards.
Do you agree or disagree?
Read box 9.3 pg 391
UN L.A. 9.12 Q1, 3 and 4. Due 1 week
Conformity is the tendency to adjust one's thoughts, feelings or behaviour in ways that are in agreement with those of a particular individual or group, or with accepted standards about how a person should behave in certain situations (social norms).
For example, conformity occurs when someone does something (for example, swears) which they do not normally do, to ‘go along’ with the rest of the group (who all swear).
Can you think of a time you conformed?
Asch's Experiment on conformity
In several classic experiments, Asch investigated group pressure to conform. In different experiments, Asch studied factors that he believed
influenced conformity, such as group size and whether or not the group is unanimous (in complete agreement)
on what should be said or done.
L.A. 9.10 pg 387 Qns 1-4, 7-10. Due in 1 week
Perfect example of a results section. Note no analysis of the results is attempted.
About 75% of the participants agreed with the confederates’ incorrect responses at least once during the trials. About 33% of the participants agreed with incorrect responses in half or more of the trials. However, 24% of the participants did not conform to the incorrect responses given by the confederates at all.
Those participants who did not conform said they felt ‘conspicuous’ and ‘crazy’, like a ‘misfit’ when they gave answers that disagreed with those of the rest of the group.
Asch made his views about his research clear:
‘That reasonably intelligent and well-meaning young people are willing to call white black is a cause of concern’ (Asch, 1955).
Complete L.A. 9.16 while watching the video. Class discussion.
Factors affecting conformity
UN activity pg 396 L.A. 9.15 Qns 1,3,4
Asch's findings also aroused interest among other psychologists and a great deal of research on conformity followed. On the basis of Asch's and other research findings, a number of key factors that influence conformity have been proposed.
the size of the group
whether or not the group members are unanimous in their views
whether the group is viewed as being a valuable source of information
awareness of accepted standards about how one should behave (normative influence)
anonymity in a group (deindividuation).
His results showed that conformity increased with group size, up to a size of four. Beyond a group size of four confederates, conformity did not continue to increase significantly. A group size of 15 actually produced a lower level of conformity than did a group size of three.
Please draw into books.
Title, x/y axis titles.
As neat as possible!
Imagine yourself in Asch's experiment when everyone in the group gives the same answer, but an answer that is different from your answer; that is, there is unanimity, or complete agreement, among the other group members as to what the answer is.
Would you be willing to disagree with everyone else if you believed that they were all incorrect?
The results of Asch's experiment indicate that it is difficult to be a minority of one, to stand against the group, even when you think you are right and everyone else is wrong.
Experiments by other psychologists who subsequently investigated this
have found that when research participants are led to believe that their thoughts, feelings or behaviour are supported, shared or not disagreed with by someone else in their group, even when everyone else in the group agrees with a different view, the presence of the ally leads to a reduction in the level of conformity.
In other experiments on conformity, psychologists have found that individuals are more likely to conform to the views of group members when they want to provide a correct response but they are unsure about what the correct response is.
Informational influence occurs when conformity results from a need for direction and information on the correct response in a specific situation.
Can you think of a time when you did not know how to behave so you just copied everyone else?
When informational influence leads us to conform, we conform because we want to be right. When normative influence leads us to conform, we conform because we want to be liked and accepted by the group.
ormative influence to conform occurs when our response in a group situation is guided by one or more social norms.
or example standing up when the national anthem is played.
an you think of an example?
Asch's experiment using the line-judgement task has been repeated by researchers in many different countries and cultures throughout the world since it was first conducted.
The lowest conformity occurred in individualist cultures (such as North America and Western Europe).
In individualist cultures, being an individual and independent is valued and encouraged, and achieving personal goals is considered to be more important than achieving group goals.
The highest level of conformity occurred in collectivist cultures (such as those found in some Asian and African countries).
In collectivist cultures, achieving group goals is considered to be more important than the achievement of individual goals, and individuals are encouraged, and sometimes expected, to place group goals ahead of their personal goals.
Social loafing refers to the tendency of an individual to make less effort when involved in a group activity than when working alone.
Research on social loafing using Chinese participants has found that participants work harder in a group situation than when they work alone. This finding indicates a cultural difference in social loafing (Moghaddam, Taylor & Wright, 1993).
Generally, social loafers conform to their group, but with less effort. This is based on their belief that conforming (or not conforming) will not make much of a difference in what the group decides (or does), so they just go along with whatever the group agrees to do (or does).
Have you ever experienced social loafing?
American social psychologists Steven Karau and Kipling Williams (1993) analysed the findings of 78 research studies on social loafing and found that social loafing is less likely to influence conformity, if at all, when:
maximum effort from everyone in the group is essential for the group's goal to be attained
the group is valued by its members (for example, the group is made up of close friends)
the task is important, challenging or appealing to those performing it
the group is small
members of a group believe that it is possible for their individual performance to be judged in some way
other group members are not expected to perform well so social loafing might lead to failure on the task
those working on the task are women rather than men.
Whoah....What! Thats right!
Deindividuation is the loss of individuality, or the sense of anonymity, that can occur in a group situation.
Deindividuation is a psychological state
and is believed to be an important factor in explaining the extreme behaviour of some people in crowds, particularly in situations where high levels of emotion are involve.
What are some examples of extreme behaviour?
Research studies have identified two important factors that bring about deindividuation which results in conformity to a group.
These factors are anonymity and a shift in attention
Anonymity in a group
Shift in attention
In groups, when people feel anonymous or ‘invisible’, and less accountable for their actions, they may choose to conform to a group which is behaving in ways they otherwise would not.
Furthermore, being part of a large crowd or being unrecognisable through some sort of disguise, such as a uniform or fancy dress, can lead people to conform to a group by doing things they ordinarily would not even think about.
In a large group situation or crowd,
people believe they can get away with such anti-social behaviour because they cannot easily be distinguished from others
who are behaving in the same way.
When individuals are with others in a group, their attention is often focused on the activities of the group and events in the environment; that is, events ‘external’ to the individual (Lord, 1997).
This results in fewer opportunities to focus on ‘internal’ thoughts.
Consequently, individuals in a group are less likely to reflect on the appropriateness of their actions, and will therefore give less thought to the consequences of their behaviour (Diener, 1980).
Have you ever done something in the heat of the moment, as others were, that you regretted later?
Simon Glen Archer example.
Read box 9.4, Girl a walking bomb pg 402.
pg 403 L.A. 9.17 Q 1, 3, 4
Group influences on behaviour
From the time we are born and throughout childhood and adolescence
we become a member of different groups;
for example, our family, friendship groups, sports teams, clubs and organisations.
Name as many groups as you can think of that you belong to.
The peer group
A peer group is usually made up of people who have similar interests, do the same sorts of things and often associate or interact with one another.
For example, the peer group of an adolescent will be made up of other adolescents.
A peer and a friend are not necessarily the same. The term
peer refers to anyone who has one or more characteristics or roles in common with one or more other individuals, such as age, sex, occupation or social group membership.
friendship involves a positive relationship between two (or more) people who usually regard or treat each other in similar ways.
Adolescents attending a particular school or college have many peers (other adolescents), but they may or may not have many friends (Kaplan, 2004).
Some typical features of an adolescent peer group are:
If possible we will try to give examples as we go.
it often has its own norms or standards of acceptable behaviour and anyone who breaks these norms may be rejected by other members of the group
it often has its own style of dress (including hairstyles), its own places for socialising, its own taste in music, dancing, sport and so on
it usually has its own special attitudes to matters such as sex before marriage, smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, bullying and so on
it often has its own language or lists of expressions which may not make sense to anyone outside the peer group
its members usually discuss their problems with one another but not with outsiders.
Australian psychologist John Cotterell (1996) describes the peer group to which most adolescents belong as a clique — a relatively small group of friends of similar age, and generally of the same sex. For example, when an adolescent speaks of ‘my friends’, ‘my mates’, ‘the girls’, ‘the guys’, or uses some other collective noun of this kind, they are usually referring to a friendship clique, an interaction-based grouping of peers who ‘hang around together’ and may be either close friends or ‘just friends’.
pg 405 L.A. 9.21 Qns 1-3
Peer pressure is social influence by peers; that is, real or imagined pressure to think, feel or behave
according to standards, or ‘guidelines’ that are determined by peers.
What peer pressure do you think you have felt?
Peer pressure is
generally viewed by adults as a powerful negative influence
in an adolescent's life, which is the main reason parents are concerned about peer pressure.
Many psychologists, however, believe that the influence of the peer group during the adolescence is usually positive and constructive
Furthermore, in many areas that concern parents, such as sexual behaviour or drug use, the pressure of the peer group may not be so powerful, or may actually support the views promoted by parents.
Research studies have also found that ‘best friends’ have a much greater influence on adolescents than do casual friends or the adolescent clique. For example, in the areas of smoking, drinking and other drug use, the influence of ‘best friends’ is greater than that of other friends, and other friends’ influence is greater than that of peers in general (Kaplan, 2004; Heaven, 2001).
Many people consider peers and parents to be exerting pressure in opposite directions. Although this tends to be the case in more superficial areas of life such as dress standards and hairstyles,
research studies have found that the opinions of parents and friends often overlap in many of the more significant aspects of life involving education, careers and moral judgements (Kaplan, 2004).
Adolescents often do not experience direct peer rpressure from others.
The pressure tends to come more from a desire to ‘fit in’ with the group and follow group norms.
This is a more subtle form of group pressure than is direct peer pressure.
n sum, there is considerable research evidence that peer pressure does occur and that adolescents are influenced by it in different areas of their lives, but not all areas. It seems that peer pressure is not necessarily negative and that adolescents are more likely to be influenced by peer pressure in ‘neutral’, relatively harmless activities (such as dress standards and entertainment preferences) than they are to follow their peer group (or clique) into anti-social behaviours.
pg 407 L.A. 9.23 Qns 1,2,4,5
Risk-taking behaviour is behaviour that has potential negative consequences.
Behaviour viewed as risk-taking has the potential to harm the individual's psychological wellbeing and/or physical health in some way.
Can you think of some risk taking behaviour?
A generally held belief about
adolescent risk-taking behaviour is that it only involves negative, abnormal or anti-social behaviour
For example, activities such as smoking, drug abuse, binge drinking, unsafe sexual practices.
These activities put their health and wellbeing in danger.
adolescent risk-taking can also occur in positive and constructive ways;
for example, performing a brave deed on impulse; being socially outgoing; being daring in fashion.
These activities can increase self-esteem or confidence.
They are considered to be risk-taking because they also have a potential negative consequence or cost, such as the
of embarrassment or failure, the
of accident and injury, or the
of fear (Gullone & Moore, 2000)
Gullone and Moore categorised the responses into four types of risk-taking behaviour:
Break into 4 groups. 10 minutes to understand and teach, with examples, you type of risk-taking behaviour.
pg 411 L.A. 9.25 Qns 1,2,6
UN check the message board..Stanford controversy
Chapter 10 - Pro social and Anti social behaviour
In psychology, the term social relationship is used to describe the connection or association between two or more people, especially with regard to how they think, feel and behave towards each other.
What social relationship do you experience in every day life?
The term social behaviour refers to any behaviour where interaction occurs between two or more people.
Social behaviour may involve smiling at someone, asking for and receiving advice from someone, or interacting with others in a group, such as when playing a board game or going out with friends.
Examples of social behaviour?
Positive social behaviour is often referred to as pro-social behaviour.
Negative social behaviour is often referred to as anti-social behaviour.
Both pro-social and anti-social behaviour are of considerable interest to psychologists and have been the subject of numerous research studies.
What are some Pro and Anti social behaviours Psychologists would want to study?
Voluntary helping behaviour for no apparent personal reward is common in everyday life in Australian society.
Factors influencing pro-social behaviour
Many Studies were prompted by the disturbing case of Kitty (Catherine) Genovese, who was murdered in a New York street in 1964.
Psychologists have identified a number of factors that influence the likelihood of pro-social behaviour occuring.
These factors include aspects of the situation in which help is required, social norms (‘social rules’) that inform us about our obligations to help, and personal factors associated with the individual who has the opportunity to help.
Latane and Darley (1968) identified three key factors associated with the specific situation that influence whether people will be pro-social and help.
These factors involve:
whether we notice the situation
whether we interpret the situation as one in which help is needed
whether we are prepared to take responsibility for helping in that situation
Only then do we consider actually doing something to help. Latane and Darley described these in a series of steps that occur one after the other.
Can we thing of an example highlighting this theory
The bystander effect is the tendency for individuals to be less likely to help another person in need when other bystanders are present, or believed to be present, as compared to when they are alone.
Furthermore, the greater the number of bystanders, the less likely any one of them is to help.
What implications does this have?
Social norms are standards, or ‘rules’, that govern what people should or should not do in different social situations (Cialdini & Trost, 1998).
Although social norms are often not written down or explicitly stated, they are known ways of behaving in particular social groups or cultures, or society in general.
The reciprocity norm is based on the reciprocity principle, an unwritten rule that we should give what we receive or expect to receive.
The word ‘reciprocal’ means to give mutually and the saying ‘Do unto others as you would have them do unto you’ reflects the reciprocity principle.
In accordance with the reciprocity principle, the reciprocity norm prescribes that we should help others who help us.
Would you be more likely to help some one who has helped you?
Social responsibility norm
The social responsibility norm prescribes that we should help those who need help because it is our responsibility or duty to do so.
For example, if you stop to assist someone who asks for directions, give up your seat on a bus to someone on crutches or help a lost child find their parents on a crowded beach, your helping behaviour is likely to have been influenced by the social responsibility norm.
Empirical evidence that suggests various personal factors can influence pro-social behaviour demonstrated through helping.
factors include our ability to empathise with others, the mood we are in when help is needed and whether we feel competent to give the help that is required.
Empathy is the ability to identify with and understand another person's feelings or difficulties.
Batson (1995) believes that empathic people may help others in distress for egoistic or ‘selfish’ motives, as well as purely helpful, ‘selfless’ motives (which he calls altruistic).
Why do you help others?
Many studies have found that people are more likely to help when they are feeling good.
These studies typically create a mood-lifting experience for participants, such as finding money, imagining a holiday in Hawaii, being successful on a specific task or reading pleasant, positive statements about themselves.
Happy people help, how would this effect charities?
Because helping makes us feel good, people sometimes help in order to stay in a good mood. People may also help in order to escape from a bad mood.
Competence example. Shut your eyes.
Research findings indicate that people with abilities or training that are relevant to a situation in which help is required are more likely to help. Furthermore, relevant training makes help not only more likely to be offered, but also more likely to be effective.
Do you think competence affects the likelihood of helping?
Altruism refers to pro-social behaviour focused on the wellbeing or benefit of others without any thought to personal gain or reward (Batson, 1998).
Fg 10.16 pg 430 Altruism. Can you think of an altruistic helping behavour?
— that an
altruistic act is one in which no conscious thought is given to one's personal well-being or interests, even placing the survival of another person ahead of one's own survival.
Consequently, ‘genuine’ altruism would be demonstrated by a passer-by who, for example, puts themself at risk by running into a blazing house to rescue a stranger trapped inside.
pg 432 LA 10.10 Class discussion Q1,2,4,5
FACTORS INFLUENCING RELUCTANCE TO HELP
When so many people failed to help directly or seek help while watching the Kitty Genovese incident,
psychologists were interested
to discover not only those factors that lead someone to help, but also those
factors that prevent someone from helping.
Among the many factors that influence someone to provide help are those to do with the
specific situation in which help is required (situational factors) and those to do with the person who has the opportunity to help (personal factors).
Example of a situational factor / personal factor?
Two factors involve
social influence; that is, the effects of the real or imagined presence or actions of others.
diffusion of responsibility
occurs, helping can be perceived as unnecessary.
We may also fail to help because we view others who are present as an audience and don't want to risk embarrassing ourselves in front of them. Psychologists refer to this effect of the presence of others as
Diffusion of responsibility
Diffusion of responsibility is the belief that, in a situation where help is required and others are present, one or more other people will or should take responsibility for helping.
When other people are present, responsibility is divided up or spread (diffused) across the whole group. This leads each individual to feel less responsible for helping than when alone because they assume that someone else will take on the responsibility of helping.
Thus, diffusion of responsibility helps explain why no-one helps when many people are present in a situation where help is required.
The fact that there are a lot of other people around, actually decreases the likelihood that any one person will help (Aronson, 2008).
The presence of others at the scene provides an audience and this increases the chance of being embarrassed or feeling foolish.
Consequently, these aspects of the situation can inhibit, or prevent, someone from helping.
This reason for failing to help is called audience inhibition — not helping another person because of a fear of appearing foolish in the presence of others.
Audience inhibition typically leads bystanders to keep calm in an emergency and check to see how others present are reacting.
The problem is that if people observe that everyone else is keeping calm they will conclude that no-one else is concerned or upset and therefore help is not needed (Smith & Mackie, 2000).
Smoke filled room exp vid
Example helping. Reasons.
Another factor that influences our decision to help, regardless of whether others are present, is called cost–benefit analysis.
In making the decision about whether to help, you might weigh up the
of donating (considerations about your own health, risks of an operation, time, disruption to your own life) against those of not donating (guilt, disapproval from others).
You may also consider the
of donating (feeling good about helping someone, time off school), compared with not donating (no interruptions to your own life, no pain or anxiety).
Benefits of helping are like rewards. Costs include time/effort (e.g. personal injury etc)
ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN STUDIES OF PRO-SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
Many experiments on pro-social behaviour raise ethical questions and issues.
For example, are participants in these experiments subjected to psychological harm by witnessing someone else's suffering while researchers attempt to understand what leads people to behave as they do under different circumstances?
Is it appropriate to deceive unsuspecting research participants in order to control variables such as participant expectation or a placebo effect?
In most of the experiments on pro-social behaviour, obtaining informed consent from participants prior to conducting the research would have resulted in the purpose of the experiment being revealed
Researchers are required to fully debrief participants after the experiment, explaining the purpose of the experiment, providing the opportunity for the participants to discuss their responses to it, and providing support to participants who experienced stress or negative personal responses to experimental procedures.
Anti-social behaviour is any behaviour that is disruptive or harmful to the wellbeing or property of another person or to the functioning of a group or society.
What are some examples of anti-social behaviour?
Anti-social behaviour typically involves actions that break laws, rules or social norms concerning personal and property rights of others.
aggression is often defined as any behaviour intended to cause physical or psychological harm to a person (including self), animal or object.
The action might be physical, verbal or a combination of both. It may also involve subtle actions, such as ignoring or leaving someone out, which can cause psychological harm.
behaviour to be considered aggressive, there must be an intention to harm
, regardless of whether or not harm is actually done.
TTT pg 438 Q 4 Eyes closed....Aggression or not?
Explanations of aggression
There is no single, commonly agreed-upon explanation of the cause of aggression. Although many theories have been proposed to explain aggression, not all of these are strongly supported by scientific research evidence. Most of the different theories can be organised into one of four perspectives or approaches to explaining aggression:
: aggression is an inner urge or ‘force’ that builds up within us until it needs to be released
aggression is instinctive and has adaptive and survival functions
aggression has a biological basis and is therefore influenced by our genes, biochemistry, brain and nervous system
Biochemical influences (natural and introduces)
social learning perspective:
aggression is a learned behaviour and most of the learning occurs through observing aggressive behaviour and copying what we see.
Social Learning Theory - Albert Bandura
social learning theory, one of the main ways in which we learn aggression is from watching other people being aggressive and then copying their aggressive behaviour.
The most common form of social learning is called
observational learning or modelling.
Canadian-born psychologist Albert Bandura (1977, 1973) has applied social learning theory and observational learning in explaining human aggression.
Bandura has identified four conditions that are necessary for observational learning to occur:
1. you must pay attention to the model's behaviour
2. you must remember the model's behaviour
3. you must have the ability to reproduce, or imitate, the behaviour that you observed
4. you must be motivated to perform the behaviour.
According to Bandura, if you observe the model's behaviour being reinforced (e.g. rewarded) then you will be more likely to be motivated to reproduce the behaviour. If you observe the behaviour not being reinforced or being punished, then you will be less likely to be motivated to reproduce the behaviour.
Pg 446. Bundura (1965) read as a class
Chapter 11 - Intelligence
Not all psychologists agree on what intelligence is.
Please write down what you think intelligence is?
As shown in box 11.1 pg 459, over the last 100 years or so, intelligence has been described in a variety of ways.
A major reason for the variety of descriptions of intelligence is that intelligence cannot be directly observed.
Unlike behaviours such as walking and talking, it is not possible to actually ‘see’ intelligence. Never mind even pinning the idea down to one definition.
Consequently, psychologists rely on observations of behaviour which they believe to be associated with intelligence.
For example, psychologists watch what people (and animals) do in situations which they assume require the use of intelligence. In most cases, this has involved giving people tasks to complete under test conditions and making judgements about underlying intelligence on the basis of performance on these tasks.
Consequently, a widely accepted definition of intelligence is that it involves the ability to learn from experience, to acquire knowledge, to reason and to solve problems, to deal with people and objects, and to adapt effectively to the environment.
There is also agreement among psychologists that
intelligence is socially and culturally determined
; that is, what is considered to be intelligence (and intelligent behaviour) can differ according to the society and/or culture in which it is observed.
Do you think our definitions or intelligence would be the same as those in the amazon tribes?
WAYS OF DESCRIBING INTELLIGENCE
Peer Teaching - Present on of the following
Binet - Intelligence as an age related set of abilities
Wechsler - Intelligence as verbal and performance abilities
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences
Sternberg's triachic theory of intelligence
Cattell-Horn-Carroll model of psychometric abilities-
Salovy and Mayer's ability based model of intelligence
Please summarise your section.
Create a poster...or Prezi....or PowerPoint to present. Make sure you add appropriate graphs, figures, images. You have 60 minutes.
Presentation should take 10 minutes. Can have discussions based around the learning activities - or videos! If struggling use the LA as dot points for explaining.
When watching please fill out your tables!
Read Box 11.11 pg 490
Intelligence Tests bias!!!
Intelligence Test Powerpoint
Mensa Intelligence Test
Emotional intelligence, or EI as it is sometimes called, has been the topic of considerable scientific research interest throughout the world over the past 20 years, as well as the topic of numerous books, magazine and newspaper articles written for the general public (Mayer, Ciarrochi & Forgas, 2001).
What do you thin EI is? Mindmap on board
The emotion part of the term emotional intelligence refers
to a feeling with accompanying thoughts and physiological responses that communicates information about relationships. For example, happiness is a feeling that communicates information about relationships.
The intelligence part of the term emotional intelligence refers
to the cognitive ability to reason in appropriate ways when using and interpreting emotional information (Mayer, 2009).
Salovey and Mayer define emotional intelligence as the ability to recognise the meanings of emotions and their relationships, and to reason and problem solve on the basis of emotions (Mayer, 2009).
Please write in the definition
Salovey and Mayer believe that
emotional intelligence involves four ‘branches’, or areas, of abilities (as shown in figure 11.16).
The four branches are described in their four branch model of emotional intelligence.
the ability to
accurately perceive emotions
in oneself and others
the ability to use emotions
to facilitate (assist) thinking
the ability to
the ability to
Singing the 4 stages. In pairs you will read/sing one stage each
Complete Box 11.4 Example of a EI test
Review questions to UN
pg 476 L.A. 11.13 Q1 and 2
each intelligence test approaches the measurement of intelligence from a slightly different perspective
, usually reflecting the way in which intelligence has been described by the test developer.
However, most conventional, or traditional, tests are linked to school performance, often assessing abilities dependent on literacy and numeracy.
Binet's test of intelligence
Intelligence tests in the form in which they are used today evolved from the work of Alfred Binet.
Binet's tests were specifically prepared for use with school children and were
based on the assumption that intelligence is a quality that is age-related.
What type intelligence is fairly age predictable (that is increases with age)?
What type intelligence is not predictable?
Binet and his colleague Theophile Simon first developed items (tasks and questions) designed to measure ‘mental functions’.
The items were then trialled with a large number of children of different ages. This was done to find out how many children at each age level could successfully complete each item.
An item was viewed as a fair test of a particular age if most children (65 to 75%) in that age group could answer it correctly.
In 1905, Binet and Simon published their test. It consisted of sets of questions arranged in increasing order of difficulty.
In simplified terms, the score obtained was determined by the number of items correctly answered. However, the score was expressed in terms of the age of the child for which the score was average.
For example, if a child correctly answered eight items, and the average number of items answered by children aged three years and six months was eight, then the score was expressed as
‘three years six months'.
Binet and Simon called this score mental level (of functioning).
This is now called mental age (MA).
Whether the mental age was judged as advanced, average, or slow depended on the child's age in years and months; that is,
their actual or chronological age (CA
Mental age examples.
Stanford - Binet's test of intelligence
After Binet died in 1911, his test was translated into English and adapted for use in the United States. The test was adapted by the American psychologist Lewis Terman who was lecturing at Stanford University.
He published the test in 1916, but with a new name — the Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scale.
The Stanford–Binet, as it is commonly called, has been revised five times since it was first developed. The most recent revision was in 2003.
Why would you revise an intelligence test?
The current version of the Stanford–Binet (or SB-5) is designed to measure the intelligence of people who are aged between two and 85+ years.
The test is administered to one person at a time and takes about 45–60 minutes to complete.
Five cognitive abilities are assessed
. These are called
Fluid Reasoning Knowledge, Quantitative Reasoning, Visual–Spatial Processing and Working Memory.
Based on the Standford-Binet test of intelligence.
Wechsler's tests of intelligence
most widely used and respected individual intelligence tests are the intelligence tests first developed by David Wechsler in 1939.
The best known of the Wechsler scales are the WAIS–IV (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), the WISC–IV (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) and the WPPSI–III (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence).
The current version of the WAIS, which was released in 2008, has 10 core (‘compulsory’) tests.
The tests are organised in four categories called Verbal Comprehension, Perpetual Reasoning, Verbal Memory and Processing Speed.
These four categories r
epresent what the contemporary test developers believe to be the major components of adult intelligence.
Some of the tests, such as Information and Arithmentic, are dependent on language and numerical knowledge and skills. They also depend on knowledge and skills
acquired through socio-cultural experiences.
Other tests, such as Matrix Reasoning and Visual Puzzles, a
re less dependent on socio-cultural background.
pg 479-480 read Box 11.5 ITshows examples of the kinds of items in the tests within the WAIS–IV.
The WAIS is the most widely used individual test of adult intelligence in Australia and throughout the world.
It has been found to be a valid and reliable intelligence test. The WAIS has also been found to be a good measure of both fluid and crystallised intelligence (McGrew & Flanagan, 1998).
One problem with the WAIS–IV (and WISC–IV) is that it can take up to 90 minutes or more to complete. Consequently, a shorter version that takes about 15 to 30 minutes to complete has been developed.
Educational and developmental psychologists
find the Wechsler scales
useful for diagnosing specific learning difficulties
and devising learning recovery programs.
also use the Wechsler scales, to help d
iagnose problems that may be experienced by people with brain damage.
IQ and its caculation
German psychologist William Stern developed the concept of IQ and published his description of it in 1914.
An IQ, or intelligence quotient, is a numerical score on an intelligence test.
IQ was originally calculated in a relatively simple manner. To determine your IQ, the MA (mental age) is divided by the CA (chronological age). The result is then multiplied by 100 to get rid of decimal points created by the months.
A score of 100 would indicate that, on the basis of the intelligence test taken, the person's intelligence is the same as that of the ‘average’ person of the same age.
Over/under 100 is considered above/below average.
This procedure is based on an assumption about all kinds of characteristics, and it is supported by empirical research evidence: that most people's scores will tend to fall in the middle of the range of all the possible scores, creating a normal distribution curve, as shown in figure 11.20.
pg 483 L.A. 11.17 Q1-3
Check unit outline and L.A.'s due
pg 481 Box 11.7 Sternbergss test of intelligence
Does IQ = intelligence?
While an ‘IQ score’ gives a measure of intelligence, care must be taken not to equate IQ with intelligence.
Nor does an IQ score show the ‘amount’ of intelligence someone has.
Eg. Someone with an IQ of 105 does not have 105 units of intelligence.
What conclusions can be made and not be made about someone's intelligence on the basis of their overall score on an intelligence test?
Explain your answer.
Variability of intelligence test scores
The variability, or spread, of intelligence test scores in the general population is represented by the normal distribution curve shown in figure 11.20.
In a normal distribution, standard deviations are used to indicate the spread of the scores in relation to the mean.
As shown in figure 11.20, about 68% of individuals achieve an IQ score that falls within one standard deviation either side of the mean. IQ scores within one standard deviation fall between 85 (a standard deviation of −1) and 115 (a standard deviation of +1).
About 95% of individuals achieve a score that falls within two standard deviations either side of the mean. IQ scores within two standard deviations fall between 70 (a standard deviation of −2) and 130 (a standard deviation of +2).
Only about 2% of the general population achieve an IQ score more than two standard deviations below the mean (an IQ score below 70). Similarly, only about 2% of the population achieve an IQ score more than two standard deviations above the mean (above 130).
pg 485 Read box 11.8
L.A. 11.21 1-3 15 minutes IN class.
Complete on board
Test validity and test reliability
For something that can be defined in many different ways, such as intelligence, it makes good sense to question the accuracy of the measuring instrument.
To be useful, an intelligence test must be valid; that is, it must actually measure what it is supposed to measure.
means that the content of the test, including all its subtests and items, adequately measures what it is designed to measure.
For example, a test of fluid intelligence should contain items which match a widely accepted definition of fluid intelligence and all the abilities associated with fluid intelligence.
validity means that the test can adequately predict performance on other tasks that most people agree require intelligence.
For most intelligence tests, this typically involves academic achievement.
For example, we might expect an intelligence test to be a good predictor of success in school.
Construct validity means that the test provides a good reflection of the theory on which it is based and that there is empirical evidence supporting the theory.
For example, if an intelligence test is based on a theory that intelligence is biologically based and therefore inherited, then scores on a large, representative sample who are given the test would show a normal distribution if graphed in a frequency distribution
Reliability refers to the ability of a test to consistently measure what it is supposed to measure each time it is given.
When would a test not be reliable?
reliability involves giving the intelligence test to the same group of people on two different occasions and then comparing the two sets of scores.
If the test is reliable, then each person should achieve similar scores on the subtests and the test overall each time they do it.
What could be one extraneous variable of giving a test more than once?
reliability involves giving another version of the same test instead of using exactly the same test twice. If scores on the two tests are similar, it suggests that they measure the same thing.
involves dividing the original test into halves and examining the correlation between scores on each half.
For example, scores on the odd-numbered items might be compared with scores on the even numbered items.
involves using correlations between different items in the same test to determine whether the items produce similar scores. For example, if a test has 10 items of about the same difficulty to measure a specific cognitive ability that all 10 items have been designed to assess, then a test-taker should achieve similar scores on the items
involves checking that different test administrators (i.e. those ‘rating’ the test-taker's performance) get similar results from it. For example, two similarly qualified and experienced psychologists should be able to administer the same test to the same individuals at different times and get consistent scores from them.
pg 488 L.A. 11.22 Q 1 and 2
Test standardisation and test norms
If scores on an intelligence test are to have meaning, the test must have been
That is, it must first be administered to a
large sample who are representative of the population
(larger group, for whom the test is developed).
For example, the sample for an intelligence test intended for children should represent children of different ages, sex, family backgrounds, cultural backgrounds, and so on in the same proportions they occur in the population.
show the mean score on the test by particular groups of people. They allow a valid comparison for anyone taking the test.
For example, a standardisation sample that did not contain Aboriginal children could not be validly used to evaluate intelligence of young Aborigines.
Most ‘intelligence tests’ published in popular magazines or available on the internet are not standardised. Therefore scores obtained are of little value (other than entertainment).
For IQ scores to remain accurate indicators of levels of intelligence, intelligence tests must be
at periodic intervals.
Why do you think this is the case?
Culture-biased and culture-fair tests
In psychological testing,
cultural bias refers to the tendency of a test to give a lower score to a person from a culture different from that on which the test was standardised.
E.g. Example we complete of the Aborigional test
Culture-fair tests attempt to provide items that will not disadvantage or penalise a test-taker on the basis of their cultural or ethnic background.
pg 492 In pairs complete L.A. 11.25
Strengths and limitations of intelligence tests and IQ scores
In Australia, intelligence tests are mainly used to help diagnose specific learning difficulties of individuals and to recommend special assistance to help overcome these difficulties.
In most cases, intelligence tests are not the only source of information or measure used to make a diagnosis.
Why would this be the case?
Intelligence tests are useful diagnostic devices when used in conjunction with other relevant information and tests designed to assess specific abilities.
be the sole basis for a judgement about intellectual functioning.
Finally, caution must also be shown when using intelligence tests to predict an individual's potential.
For example, many school systems in the United States...
pg 493 L.A 11.27 Q 1 on board
Ethical standards for intelligence testing
Standardised intelligence tests can be obtained and administered only by registered psychologists.
The Australian Psychological Society's Code of Ethics (2007) includes the following ethical standards when intelligence testing:
The test must be chosen, administered, and interpreted appropriately and accurately by the psychologist.
The test-taker must be fully informed about the nature and purpose of the testing procedures to be used (including the limitations), and be fully informed of the results of the assessment.
The psychologist must support the proper use of intelligence tests in the community by not allowing them to be misused by people who are unauthorised or unqualified to use these tests.
Factors that influence Intelligence
pg 495 L.A. 11.28 Q 1,2,3 (and why!)
There are many factors that influence intelligence and performance on intelligence tests.
For example, it is clear that intelligence is affected by age related and cultural related factors, and the theory it is based on.
What factors do you think influence intelligence tests?
A major controversial issue about intelligence has involved the
; that is,
which of the two factors has the greater influence on intelligence — heredity or environment.
Interaction of genetic and environmental factors
It is i
mpossible to completely separate the effects of heredity and environment on intelligence
, since they interact constantly from the time of conception throughout the entire lifespan.
There is general agreement that inherited genes probably set the
upper and lower limits
of an individual's intellectual capabilities and environmental factors play a significant role in determining whether an individual will reach their genetically determined potential.
The graph, which is based on the results of 111 correlational studies, shows that there is a very high positive correlation (0.86) between identical twins reared together (that is, two genetically identical people raised in the same home) and IQ score. In the case of two individuals who are so closely related in terms of their genetic inheritance and environment (that is, reared together), it can be said that if one such identical twin has a high IQ score, then the other twin is likely to have a high IQ score too.
Note that the correlation co-efficients in figure 11.29 are all positive but some are not as strong as others.
Importantly, the correlational data also provide evidence for the role of the environment, such as where and how the children are raised. This is evident in the different correlation coefficients for identical twins reared together (0.86) and identical twins reared apart (0.72).
Since genes are unlikely to have changed much during this 50 year period, the increase in IQ scores is probably due to environmental factors.
Some possible explanations for the Flynn effect include students staying at school for more years, improved
educational methods, smaller families with more intensive parenting, increased exposure to technology and computers, and better nutrition and health care (Gazzaniga & Heatherton, 2006).
pg 498 L.A. 11.29 1-4 in class.
Chapter 12 - Personality
WAYS OF DESCRIBING PERSONALITY
Please write down what you think intelligence is?
Like intelligence, our personality is not directly observable. However, in everyday life, we often make assumptions and judgements about the underlying personality characteristics of our friends, family members and others with whom we interact, on the basis of observations of their behaviour.
Most current definitions refer to personality as an individual's unique pattern of thoughts, feelings and behaviour that are relatively stable over time and across situations.
Learning activity 12.1 Complete individually
MODELS OF PERSONALITY
A variety of theories have been developed to describe and explain how personality develops, why personalities differ and how personality is best measured or assessed.
Similarly, models have been developed to mainly describe the structure of personality and the elements that make up personality.
Models differ from theories in that they tend to be less comprehensive.
A personality theory is an approach to describing and explaining the origins and development of personality, focusing on how people are similar, how they differ and why every individual is unique.
The underlying belief of
psychodynamic theories of personality is that personality is a result of unconscious psychological conflicts and how effectively these are resolved by the individual.
Freud's psychodynamic theory is considered to be the first developmental theory of personality in psychology. It not only describes and explains how personality ‘develops’, but also describes and explains the development of personality throughout the entire lifespan.
According to Freud, the
human mind is organised on three different levels — the conscious level, the preconscious level and the unconscious level.
Freud believed that an individual's personality is fully formed by about five or six years of age and that what happens for the rest of their life is an expansion and refinement of this basic structure. According to Freud, personality consists of three basic parts, each pulling the individual in a different direction.
Freud used the terms id, ego and superego to describe the three parts, or systems, that make up personality
. At times, these operate cooperatively but most times they are in conflict within each of us!!!
the id represents innate, biological needs which all of us are born with — those needs which help us survive. These include such needs as hunger, thirst, sleep and sex.
Not a part of the brain - a concept
-Babys only operate with thier ID. Pleasure, food, pain
The ego develops gradually as the infant moves into childhood and begins to understand more about how the real world operates;
The ego operates on the reality principle — it tries to ensure the needs of the id are met, but in a socially acceptable way and at appropriate times.
The ego is the part of our personality which is realistic, logical and orderly.
the superego is our conscience, always looking over us, judging our thoughts, feelings and actions according to the morals and ideals of the society in which we live.
It operates by the moral principle, providing us with our ideas of what is right and wrong.
It developes as we grow into adults.
Freud believed that id, ego and superego forces are constantly in conflict within us and almost all our behaviour is a result of the interaction between them.
the id is the instinctive and impulsive part of our personality; the ego is realistic and sensible, and the superego is the idealistic and judgemental part of our personality.
L.A. 12.4 Role play
According to Freud, an important role of the ego is to protect itself against anxiety.
Freud used the term defence mechanism to describe the unconscious process by which the ego defends or protects itself against anxiety arising from unresolved internal conflicts.
Read tbl 12.1
L.A. 12.7 Class discussion
Development of personality
From about two to three years of age the young child goes through the anal stage, when the focus of pleasure relates to the anus, particularly when passing stools.
Personality characteristics which develop from an anal fixation (if toilet training is harsh, it begins too early or too late, or if passing stools is excessively pleasurable) fall into two categories.
Anal-retentive (‘holding in’) personality characterstics include being excessively clean, orderly, organised, a hoarder, stubborn and stingy. These people are often said to resent others who do not demonstrate similar characteristics.
Anal-expulsive (special pleasure from ‘letting go’) personality characteristics include untidiness, impulsivity, destructiveness, disorderliness and cruelty.
The phallic stage, which a child passes through at the age of about four to five years, is the stage when the child's attention is often focused on the sex organs.
At this time the child is said to seek genital stimulation and develop an unconsicous attraction to the parent of the opposite sex, while at the same time developing unconscious feelings of jealousy and hatred toward the parent of the same sex.
In girls, Freud calls this the Electra complex, when the girl loves her father and competes with her mother for the father's affection and attention. In boys, this is called the Oedipus complex, when the boy is attracted to his mother and envies his father.
During the latency stage, attention is focused away from the bodily zones and pleasure seeking.
It is a period or time when psychosexual development is dormant (‘on hold’). Previous sexual feelings are forgotten and the child focuses on developing close relationships with others of the same sex.
Freud viewed this as a relatively quiet and stable time in development in which the child is preoccupied with developing their social skills.
During the genital stage, sexual energies are focused on the genitals as they mature and the ability to reproduce occurs. This stage is characterised by the growing need for mature social and sexual relationships with others.
Freud did not identify this stage as causing problems in the development of a ‘normal’ personality as much as he did for the oral, anal and phallic stages.
Personality development depended on the way in which the individual had dealt with crucial developmental conflicts of previous stages and whether they had developed fixations.
Strengths and limitations of
His theory is important because psychology has gained some useful insights into personality development from some of his proposals.
Freud's psychodynamic theory describes and explains how personality develops throughout the lifespan.
The development of human personality tends to be overlooked by many other approaches to describing personality.
He was also the first psychologist to refer to the unconcious mind (desires).
- Has built into the biological model.....explain.
- Experiment method was not used. Only case studies.
- Participants were know to him and not waht you would consider average people. They were his patients.
-Relatively few contemporary psychologists believe that personality development proceeds in age-related stages.
Generally, most contemporary psychologists do not support Freud's theory of personality development or any of the other psychodynamic theories.
Trait theories of personality
UN pg 522 L.A. 12.9 1-6
trait is a personality characteristic that endures (lasts) over time and across different situations.
Trait theories of personality focus on measuring, identifying and describing individual differences in personality in terms of traits.
Please note: All information has been transferred from the year 11 student/teacher text book for the purpose of private study.
Grivas, J. & Carter, L. (2010). Psychology for the VCE student Unit 1 and 2. Wiley, 5th ed
The trait approach to personality is based on four main assumptions.
First that personality traits are relatively stable and therefore predictable over time.
Second, personality traits are relatively stable across different situations.
Third, trait theories take into account that personality consists of a number of different traits, and that some people have ‘more’ or ‘less’ of each trait than others.
No two people are exactly alike on all traits.
Finally, some traits are more closely interrelated than other traits and tend to occur together.
Statistical procedures based on correlations can be used to identify ‘co-relationships’ between traits.
These sets, or clusters, of traits which are identified as being co-related in a significant way are called dimensions or factors.
Trait theorists typically describe each personality trait or dimension on a continuum, or scale, which shows the trait or dimension in terms of its two extremities, or ‘opposites’
Most people fall in the center with fewer on the outside.
Allport's hierarchy of traits
Gordon Allport (1897–1967) spent over 30 years searching for the traits which combine to form human personality.
Allport (1961) organised over 17 953 words that were relevant to personality or ‘trait words’ into three groups which he called cardinal traits, central traits and secondary traits.
A cardinal trait is a personality trait which is a motivator (driving force) and determinant of behaviour.
For example, a person may have an overwhelming need to be powerful and this need for power can be seen in virtually all their behaviour.
A secondary trait is a personality trait which is present in varying degrees in all people. It can influence behaviour, but is dependent on the specific situation in which a person finds themself.
Examples of secondary traits include ‘liking a style of clothing’, ‘disliking crowds’, ‘liking a type of music’ and ‘disliking a kind of food’.
A central trait is a personality trait which is present in varying degrees in all people within a culture or society.
Examples of central traits include independence, trust-worthiness, competitiveness, possessiveness, generosity, kindness, sensitivity and fearfulness.
Using Allport's hierarchy and descriptions of the trait types, an individual's personality profile may resemble the following:
Cardinal trait:To be accepted by others
Central traits:Self-centred, possessive, outgoing, sociable, conformist, ambitious
Secondary traits:Dresses in the latest fashion, loves classical music, prides himself on his physical fitness
In class (using google) L.A. 12.13
Cattell's 16 personality factor model
Raymond Cattell (1905-98) also set out to identify personality traits but was dissatisfied with the qualitative method used by Allport and approached the task differently.
Using statistical procedures,
Cattell (1965) developed a model of personality with a method that has since been adopted by many other personality theorists and researchers.
Cattell's research also enabled him to identify two levels of traits which he called surface traits and source traits.
A surface trait is a trait that lies on the ‘surface’ of personality and can be observed indirectly through the behaviour of a person.
A source trait is an underlying trait that can be observed in behaviour through the traits which reflect it.
Read Figure 12.25 ...what page Tom?
Eysenck's PEN model
Hans Eysenck (1916-97) used factor analysis to reduce Cattell's 16 personality factors to three.
However, he preferred to call the factors ‘dimensions of personality’.
Eysenck called the first dimension introversion–extraversion, with introversion at one end of a continuum and extra-version at the other end.
Eysenck called the second dimension of personality neuroticism–emotional stability.
The various combinations are called introverted-neurotic, introverted-stable, extraverted-neurotic and extraverted-stable.
Eysenck identified a third dimension which he called psychoticism.
This led some psychologists to refer to Eysenck's theory as the PEN model — each of the three letters of the word PEN is the first letter of each dimension described by Eysenck.
L.A. 12.17 Complete individually. Discuss as class
Costa and McCrae Five-Factor Model
A number of ‘five factor’ models have been developed by trait theorists.
Paul Costa and Robert McCrae's Five-Factor Model was also developed in this way. As indicated by the name, their Five-Factor Model describes five factors, or broad dimensions, of personality traits. The five factors are:
1. openness to experience
(sometimes called intellect or intellect/imagination stability): includes traits such as imaginative, curious, artistic, excitable, insightful and unconventional, and traits associated with having wide interests
: includes traits such as organised, thorough, efficient, competent, reliable, self-disciplined (not lazy), dutiful (not careless) and deliberate (not impulsive)
(sometimes called surgency): includes more specific traits such as outgoing, sociable, talkative, energetic, assertive and adventurous
includes traits such as cooperative, compliance (not stubborn), sympathetic, kind,
affectionate, forgiving, modest (not a show off) and straightforwardness (not demanding)
(sometimes reversed and called emotional stability): includes traits such as tense, anxious, moody, irritable, impulsive, self-conscious and vulnerability (not self-confident).
Costa and McCrae's five factors are sometimes referred to by the acronym OCEAN, which is a word formed using the first letter of each factor.
Complete box 12.6 by your self
Read box 12.8
Strengths and limitations of trait theories
Trait theories and models provide useful descriptions of personality and its structure.
They have also provided the foundation for the development of valid and reliable personality assessment devices which can be used for a variety of purposes, ranging from vocational selection to diagnostic testing for personality or neuropsychological disorders.
A potential weakness of trait theories is that they can lead people to accept and use oversimplified classifications and descriptions of people; for example, as having a specific ‘type’ of personality described by a single label.
Humanistic theories of personality
Humanistic theories of personality emphasise the uniqueness of each individual and the positive qualities and potential of all human beings to fulfil their lives.
They are based on the assumption that all people are born good and that all individuals strive to reach their full potential throughout their lives.
Rogers’ person-centred theory
In describing the development of personality, Rogers (1967) likened each person to the seed of an enormous tree.
He believed that each of us contains within ourselves an enormous potential to grow and develop for the rest of our lives, unless something in the environment prevents this from happening.
Rogers and other humanistic theorists believe that you cannot ‘score’ or ‘rate’ personality, nor can you accurately measure personality in order to develop a personality profile
Strengths and limitations of humanistic theories
In contrast to other kinds of personality theories, they have focused on the positive dimensions of personality. The humanistic theories give a complete (but not necessarily accurate) picture of how the healthy personality develops and provide an explanation for the development of an unhealthy personality.
Humanistic theories are often criticised, however, for their simplistic, idealistic and vague ideas about personality, few of which can be tested scientifically.
The humanistic approach is also often criticised for being unrealistic in its view of the world in that it does not recognise human beings’ capacity for pessimism or evil.
INFLUENCE OF GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
It is well established in
psychology that both genetic and environmental factors affect the nature and development of all psychological abilities and characteristics.
Nature V Nuture? What do you think?
Psychologists have approached the study of genetic and environmental influences on personality in much the same way as they have studied their influences on intelligence and other psychological characteristics.
Some psychologists have investigated influences on personality through longitudinal or ‘long-term’ studies.
Many studies of temperament have been based on this principle. Temperament is our tendency to emotionally respond in certain ways; for example, how easily we become aroused or upset; whether we are moody; how sensitive we are to different types of stimulation; and whether we are intense and fidgety or reserved, quiet and placid. Some psychologists believe temperament is a broad personality trait which is biologically inherited and therefore present at birth, and that it provides the basis of personality development throughout our lifespan (Gazzaniga & Heatherton, 2006; Buss, 1999).
Identical twins have the same genetic make-up.
If personality is entirely inherited, identical twins should have very similar personalities, regardless of whether they grow up in the same or different environments.
Adoption studies are used to investigate the degree to which an
adopted person's personality characteristics resemble those of both their biological parents and their adoptive parents.
Generally, the results of adoption studies have obtained similar results to those of twin studies, but the results are not as strong. Studies typically find only very small correlations in personality characteristics between children and their adoptive parents and small correlations between the personality characteristics of adopted siblings.
Neurobiological factors and personality
Eysenck proposed that we each inherit a unique brain and nervous system, and individual differences in personality are linked to this neurobiological factor.
Furthermore, the brains of introverts and extraverts tend to be different in their functioning and this underlies differences in behaviours associated with personality.
For instance, the brains of introverts have a brain structure called the reticular activation system that is more sensitive to stimulation. Consequently, their brain is ‘highly active’ and they seek to lower their levels of arousal and excitement by avoiding external sources of excitement and social contact.
In contrast, the brains of extraverts function at a lower level of activity, which leads them to seek out higher levels of excitement and social stimulation. The findings of several research studies support this view.
For example, in one study, introverts were found to be more easily aroused by caffeine and other stimulant drugs (‘uppers’) and were less easily relaxed by alcohol and depressant drugs known to ‘slow down’ the functioning of this part of the brain (Stelmack, 1990).
Read box 12.9
The measurement, or assessment, of personality provides useful information about an individual's personality. Psychologists measure and interpret the results of personality assessment devices for a variety of reasons.
For example, Read Page TOM...
A personality test is an assessment device used to evaluate or measure aspects of personality, such as factors (dimensions) and specific traits.
The 16PF, EPQ and NEO-PI-R are all examples of personality tests. However, there are also other types of personality tests which we consider.
A personality inventory is a self-report, ‘paper and pencil’ or online test which has a list of questions designed to assess various aspects of personality.
A personality profile is an overall pictorial representation and summary of personality, based on an individual's responses to specific questions.
A projective test attempts to uncover an individual's unconscious wishes, desires, fears, thoughts, needs and other ‘hidden’ aspects of personality by asking them to describe what they see or to make up a story from an ambiguous stimulus.
The two most widely used projective tests are the Rorschach inkblot test and the Thematic Apperception Test.
The Roschach inkblot test consists of 10 stimulus cards, initially constructed by dropping ink onto a piece of paper and then folding the paper in half.
The Rorschach test is seldom used in contemporary psychology!!!!
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) was first introduced in 1935 by American psychologists Christina Morgan and Henry Murray and was adopted by other psychologists as a means of assessing personality.
Each card is designed to generate its own themes, needs and conflicts.
L.A. 12.35 In class
Strengths and limitations of projective tests
One advantage of projective tests is that because there are no ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ answers and the purpose and scoring of the test is not obvious, individuals may be less likely to manipulate or ‘fake’ their responses to the stimuli.
Some of the strengths of projective tests are also their limitations. For example, having no ‘correct’ answer makes them difficult to interpret, and makes the interpretations subjective and more prone to inaccuracies.
VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF PERSONALITY TESTS
To be useful, a personality test must be valid; that is, it must actually measure what it is supposed to measure
. For instance, it must measure those traits, factors (dimensions) or other aspects of personality it has been designed to measure and not some other characteristics.
For the exam you need to know Content validity, criterion-related validity, construct validity
Reliability refers to the ability of a test to consistently measure what it is supposed to measure each time it is given
. A personality test is not reliable if it does not consistently produce similar personality profiles when the same test is given to the same individual on different occasions.
For the exam you need to know test-retest reliability, parallel forms reliability, internal consistency, inter-rater reliability.
ETHICAL GUIDELINES FOR PERSONALITY TESTING
The code of ethics that applies to psychologists includes specific ethical guidelines that must be considered and strictly followed when testing personality.
Read: Australian Psychological Society's code of ethics...page TOM?