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SWK 314 Human Behavior Part I

Chapters 1-7 Hutchinson Fall 2015

Rhondda Waddell

on 4 October 2017

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Transcript of SWK 314 Human Behavior Part I

What should social workers understand?
Chapter 1 A Multidimensional Approach
Hutchinson Chapter 1
The pieces of the globe come together to form a unified whole
Chapter 2 Theoretical Perspectives
Hutchinson Chapter 2
Family life is structure by meanings, values, and beliefs
Chapter 6 Culture and the Physical Environment
Hutchinson Chapter 6
Medical researcher examines data to test a hypothesis.
Chapter 3 The Biological Person
Hutchinson Chapter 3
SWK 314 Human Behavior
Saint Leo University
Information Process Theory
Chapter 4 The Psychological Person
Hutchinson Chapter 4
Hutchinson Chapter 5
Religion involves patterns of spiritual beliefs
Chapter 5 The Spiritual Person
Chapter 7 Social Structure and Social Institutions
Hutchinson Chapter 7
Essentials of Human Behavior
Integrating Person, Environment,
and the Life Course
Elizabeth D. Hutchison and Contributing Authors

Chapter 1
Setting the Stage
A Multidimensional Approach

Promote human and community well-being

Guided by person and environment, global perspective,
respect for human diversity, evidence-based knowledge

Actualized through the quest for social and economic justice – special attention to human rights issues

Elimination of poverty and enhancement of quality of life for all persons

Social Work’s Purpose and Approach

Focus on:




Is multidimensional - having several identifiable dimensions

The Complexity of Human Behavior

Overview of Dimensions


Environmental Dimensions

Environmental Dimensions

Environmental Dimensions


A feature that can be focused on separately but that cannot be understood without also considering other features.

The dimensions not only interact dynamically, but also change over time.

A Multidimensional Approach

For many years, social work scholars described the approach of social work as:
Psychosocial - giving primacy to psychological dimensions of the person.

Currently, social workers take:
Biopsychosocial approach - human behavior is considered to be the result of interactions of integrated biological, psychological, and social systems.

Personal Dimensions

A process by which the world’s people are becoming more interconnected economically, politically, environmentally, and culturally.

A process of increased connectedness and interdependence that affects people around the world

Aided by rapid advancements in communication technology.

Process of Globalization

Global perspective:
To be aware that one view of the world is not universally shared

To have a growing awareness of the diversity of ideas and cultural practices found in
human societies around the world.

To be curious about conditions in other parts of the world and how they relate to conditions in our own society.

To understand where one fits in global social institutions and social structure.

To have a growing awareness of how people in other societies view my society.

To have a growing understanding of how the world works.

Diversity, Inequality, and the Pursuit of Social Justice

Refers to patterns of group differences

Recognizes social groups, groups of people who share a range of physical, cultural, or social characteristics within a category of social identity.

Knowledge of diversity helps us to provide culturally sensitive practice.


Three types of categorizations

Used to develop hierarchical social structures that influence social identities and life chances.

These social categorizations create privilege, or unearned advantage, for some groups and disadvantage for other groups.


Where we fit in a system of social identities, such as:

ethnicity gender
social class sexual orientation
religion ability/disability
age race

How our own particular social locations shape:

how we see the world
what we notice
how we interpret what we “see.”

Social Locations

The Pursuit of Social Justice

The Pursuit of Social Justice

Five core notions of human rights:
Human dignity
Civil and political rights
Economic, social, and cultural rights
Solidarity rights

Three main barriers prevent full access to human rights:
Lack of access to education

The Pursuit of Social Justice

We know for the purpose of doing.

Four ingredients of “knowing how” to do social work:

knowledge about the case
knowledge about the self
values and ethics
scientific knowledge

Knowing and Doing

First task as social workers is to develop as good an understanding of the situation as possible.

People are likely to reveal more aspects of their situation if they are approached with:
an open mind
empathic tone
authentic responsiveness

Knowledge about the Case

Select and order the information at hand and
decide if further information is needed.

Making a series of decisions about what is relevant and what is not.

Knowledge about the Case

Six core values of the profession:

social justice
dignity and worth of the person
importance of human relationships

Values and Ethics

Values and Ethics

Hutchison - Essentials of Human Behavior Integrating Person, Environment, and the Life Course © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Three types of self-knowledge:
understanding of one’s own thinking processes
understanding of one’s own emotions
understanding of one’s own social location

Metacognition - think about our thinking
recognize what emotions get aroused in us when we hear stories.
find a way to use those emotions in ways that are helpful and avoid using them in ways that are harmful.

Knowledge about the Self

Three types of self-knowledge:
understanding of one’s own thinking processes
understanding of one’s own emotions
understanding of one’s own social location

Metacognition - think about our thinking
recognize what emotions get aroused in
us when we hear stories.

find a way to use those emotions in ways that are helpful and avoid using them in ways that are harmful.

Knowledge about the Self

Is produced by scientific inquiry.

Is a set of logical, systematic, documented methods
for answering questions about the world.

Scientific Knowledge

logically interrelated set of concepts and propositions, organized into a
deductive system, which explains relationships among aspects of our world.

Gives us a framework for interpreting person and environment and planning interventions.

Model - visual representation of the relationships between concepts.
Paradigm - a way of seeing the world.
Perspective - an emphasis or a view.



building blocks of theory

symbols, or mental images, that summarize observations, feelings, or ideas

allow us to communicate about the phenomena of interest
Theoretical concepts are put together to form propositions or assertions.


Theories are a form of deductive reasoning - they lay out general,
abstract propositions that we can use to generate specific hypotheses to test in unique situations.

Social and behavioral science theories are based on assumptions, or beliefs held to be true without testing or proof, about the nature of human social life.


Empirical - experience it through senses
The process of empirical research includes:

A careful, purposeful, and systematic observation of events with the intent to note and record them in terms of their attributes to look for patterns in those events to make our methods and observations public

Empirical Research

Critical thinking

a thoughtful and reflective judgment about alternative views and
contradictory information.

Involves thinking about your own thinking and the influences on that thinking, as well as a willingness to change your mind.
involves careful analysis of assumptions and evidence.

Bias can occur at all stages of the research process.

Critical Use of Theory and Research

Essentials of Human Behavior
Integrating Person, Environment,
and the Life Course
Elizabeth D. Hutchison and Contributing Authors

Chapter 2
Theoretical Perspectives on Human Behavior

Sees human behavior as the outcome of reciprocal interactions of persons
operating within linked social systems.
System feedback mechanisms —the processes by which information about past behaviors in a system are fed back into the system in a circular manner.
The structure of roles has been an important mechanism for maintaining system balance.
Chaos theory, and the closely related complexity theory, emphasize systems processes that produce change, even sudden, rapid, radical change.

Systems Perspective

Chaos theory emphasizes that all systems are made up of subsystems,
and all systems, as well as, subsystems serve in other systems.

Deep ecology has emerged with an emphasis on the notion of the total interconnectedness of all elements of the natural and physical world.

General systems theory suggests that in highly complex societies, systems tend to become fragmented and closed to each other.

Systems Perspective

Typically looks for sources of conflict, and causes of human behavior.
Oppression of non-dominant groups leads to their alienation, or a sense of indifference or hostility.

Pluralistic theory of social conflict recognizes that more than one social conflict is going on at all.

Empowerment theories focus on processes that individuals and collectivities can use to recognize patterns of inequality and injustice and take action to increase their own power.

Feminist theories focus on male domination of the major social institutions and present a vision of a just world based on gender equity.

Conflict Perspective

Sees human behavior as based on self-interest and rational choices
about effective ways to accomplish goals.

The perspective is interdisciplinary, with strong roots in utilitarian philosophy, economics, and social behaviorism.

Social exchange theory starts with the premise that social behavior is based on the desire to maximize benefits and minimize costs.

Is currently popular in sociology, health promotion, and family studies.

Rational Choice Perspective

Comparison level - a standard for evaluating the rewards and costs of
a given relationship, is based on what the evaluator expects from the relationship.

Comparison level alternative is the lowest level of outcomes a person will accept in light of alternative opportunities.

Rational Choice Perspective

Focuses on how people learn, through their interactions with each other, to
classify the world and their place in the world.

People are seen as social beings who interact with each other and the physical world based on shared meanings, or shared understandings about the world.

Social Constructionist Perspective

Constructionists emphasize the existence of multiple social and cultural realities.
Both persons and environments are dynamic processes, not static structures.
Social constructionists also disagree about how constraining the environment is.

Social Constructionist Perspective

Phenomenological sociology - individuals and groups are constrained
by the preexisting social and cultural arrangements created by their predecessors.

The social constructionist perspective sees human understanding, or human consciousness, as both the product and the driving force of social interaction.

Social Constructionist Perspective

Concerned with how internal processes such as needs, drives,
and emotions motivate human behavior.

Sigmund Freud looked at the human personality from a number of interrelated points of view; the most notable are his:

drive or instinct theory
topographical theory
structural theory
psychosexual stage theory

Psychodynamic Perspective

Ego psychology
Gives primary attention to the rational part of the mind and the
human capacity for adaptation.

It recognizes conscious as well as unconscious attempts to cope, and the importance of both past and present experiences.

Defense mechanisms, unconscious processes that keep intolerable threats from conscious awareness, play an important role.

Psychodynamic Perspective con’t

Object relations theory
How people develop attitudes toward others in the context of early nurturing relationships.

How those attitudes affect the view of the self as well as social relationships

Psychodynamic Perspective con’t

Self psychology
focuses on the individual need to organize the personality into a cohesive
sense of self and to build relationships that support this cohesive sense of self.

Relational-cultural theory
proposes that the basic human drive is for relationships with others.

Psychodynamic Perspective con’t

Developmental perspective
how human behavior unfolds across the life course
how people change and stay the same over time
Human development is seen to occur in clearly defined stages based on a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social processes .

Life span or life cycle theory
based in psychology, focuses on the inner life during age-related stages

Epigenetic model of human development
the psychological unfolding of personality takes place in sequences

Developmental Perspective

Erikson divided the life cycle into eight stages, each with a special psychosocial crisis:
Stage 1 (birth–1 year): basic trust versus mistrust
Stage 2 (ages 2–3): autonomy versus shame, doubt
Stage 3 (ages 3–5): initiative versus guilt
Stage 4 (ages 6–12): industry versus inferiority
Stage 5 (ages 12–18 or so): identity versus role confusion
Stage 6 (early–late 20s): intimacy versus isolation
Stage 7 (late 20s–50s): generativity versus stagnation
Stage 8 (late adulthood): integrity versus despair

Developmental Perspective

Life course perspective

Conceptualizes the life course as a social, rather than psychological, phenomenon that is unique for each individual, with
some common life course markers, or transitions, related to shared social and historical contexts.

Developmental Perspective

There are six major themes:
interplay of human lives and historical time
biological, psychological, and social timing of human lives
linked or interdependent lives
human capacity for choice-making
diversity in life course trajectories
developmental risk and protection

Developmental Perspective

Human behavior is learned as individuals interact with their environments.

Three major versions of behavioral theory:
Classical conditioning theory
Operant conditioning theory
Cognitive social learning theory

Social Behavioral Perspective

Self-efficacy - a sense of personal competence

Efficacy expectation - an expectation that one can personally accomplish a goal

All human problems of living can be defined in terms of undesirable behaviors, and all
behaviors can be defined, measured, and changed.

Social Behavioral Perspective

Called the Third Force of psychology
Includes humanistic psychology and existential psychology
Includes transpersonal theory, which focuses on the spiritual aspects of human experience

The existential sociology tradition presents as a dominant theme the idea that people are simultaneously:

free and constrained
both active and passive agents
the growing movement of positive psychology

Humanistic Perspective

Existential psychology presented four primary themes:
Each person is unique and has value.
Suffering is a necessary part of human growth.
Personal growth results from staying in the immediate moment.
Personal growth takes a sense of commitment.

It is the emphasis on the necessity for suffering that sets existentialism apart from humanism.

Humanistic Perspective

Maslow developed a theory of hierarchy of needs.
Higher needs cannot emerge in full motivational force until lower
needs have been at least partially satisfied.

Physiological needs: hunger, thirst, sex

Safety needs: avoidance of pain and anxiety; desire for security

Belongingness and love needs: affection, intimacy

Esteem needs: self-respect, adequacy, mastery

Self-actualization: to be fully what one can be; altruism, beauty, creativity, justice

Humanistic Perspective

Positive psychology

A relatively recent branch of psychology that
undertakes the scientific study of people’s
strengths and virtues and promotes optimal
functioning of individuals and communities.

Humanistic Perspective

Criteria for evaluating theory:
Coherence and conceptual clarity
Testability and evidence of empirical support
Diversity and power
Usefulness for social work practice

Evaluating Theories

The fields of psychology and sociology offer a variety of patterned ways of thinking
about changing person-environment configurations, ways that have been worked out over time to assist in understanding human behavior.

They are tools that can help us make sense of the situations we encounter.

Each of these perspectives will be useful in some situations that you encounter as a social worker, and therefore should be in your general knowledge base.

The Merits of Multiple Perspectives

Essentials of Human Behavior
Integrating Person, Environment,
and the Life Course
Elizabeth D. Hutchison and Contributing Authors

Chapter 3
The Biological Person

Chapter Review 1
Prezi Discussion
Active Learning Exercises
SLU Core Values: Community & Respect
Chapter 2 Review
Prezi Discussion
Active Learning Exercises
SLU Core Values: Community & Respect
Chapter 3 Review
Prezi Discussion
Active Learning Exercises
Sly Core Values: Community & Respect
Chapter 4 Review
Prezi Discussion
Active Learning Exercises
SLU Core Values: Community & Respect
Chapter 5 Review
Prezi Discussion
Active Learning Exercises
SLU Core Values: Community & Respect
Chapter 6 Review
Prezi Discussion
Active Learning Exercises
SLU Core Values: Community & Respect
Chapter 7 Review
Prezi Discussion
Active Learning Exercises
SLU Core Values: Community & Respect
Learning Objectives Chapter 1:
1. Discuss social work's purpose
2. Explore Multidimensional Approaches to Practice
3. Identify relevant issues to practice Behavior 2.1.4 on Diversity
Learning Objective Chapter 2:
1. Discuss Multiple Theoretical Perspectives
2. Explore their Merits
3. Identify the Implications to SWK Practice 2.1.7 Applied knowledge to human behavior
Learning Objectives Chapter 3:
1. Discuss the biological person
2. Explore interior & exterior environment systems
3. Identify Implications to SWK Practice Behavior 2.1.7 human behavior & the social environment
Learning Objectives chapter 4:
1.Discuss Cognition & Emotion Theories
2. Explore The Self
3. Identify the concept of stress and Practice Behavior2.1.5 human rights and social & economic justice

Learning Objective Chapter 5:
1. Discuss the meaning of spirituality
2. Explore Transpersonal Theories of human development
Identify the role of spirituality of practice using practice behavior 2.1.5 human rights
Learning Object Chapter 6:
1. Discuss challenges of defining culture
2. Explore Postmodern Cultural Views
3. Identify Environmental Theories related to Culture & Practice Behavior 2.1.7 human behavior & the environment
Learning Objectives chapter 7:
1. Discuss Global & US Trends in Social Institutions
2. Explore theories of social inequity
3. Identify implication to social work practice related to Practice Behavior 2.1.9 contexts that shape practice
Biopsychosocial-spiritual and legitimacy require depth of knowledge not only of interior parts,
but also of their complex, context-embedded interaction

Systems frameworks describe and explain human phenomena as a set of interrelated parts.

The social constructionist perspective suggests that human phenomena are pluralistic in meaning.

Legitimate communities are defined as those that practice acceptance of ideas and appreciate and respond to the full range of human diversity.

An Integrative Approach for Understanding the Intersection of Interior Biological Health and Illness and Exterior Environmental Factors

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) - an insult to the brain caused by an external physical force that may result in a diminished or altered state of consciousness.

Approximately 1.4 million individuals sustain traumatic brain injury in the United States each year.

For children and young adults, TBI is the type of injury most often associated with deaths due to unintended injuries.

Nervous System

Acquired brain injury (ABI) - does not result from traumatic injury to the head, is hereditary, congenital, or degenerative, and occurs after birth.

Brain injury can affect cognitive, physical, psychological skills.

A typical psychological changes may come from two different sources:

Nervous System

The nervous system provides the structure and processes for communicating sensory,
perceptual, and autonomically generated information throughout the body.

Three major subsystems compose the nervous system:
1. Central nervous system (CNS)
2. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
3. Autonomic nervous system (ANS)

Nervous System

The human brain:

constitutes only about 2% of total body weight
may contain as many as 10 million neurons
Its three major internal regions are referred to as:


The hemispheres are thought to be specialized:
one side for language
one side for processing of spatial information
Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body

Nervous System

The cerebral cortex has four lobes. The frontal lobe is the largest, making up nearly one-third of the surface of the cerebral cortex.

The midbrain is a small area, but it contains important centers for sleep and pain as well as relay centers for sensory information and control of movement.

The cerebellum controls complex motor programming.
Basic working unit of all the nervous systems is the neuron, or nerve cell.

Nervous System

Biologically, behavior is affected by not only the levels of a neurotransmitter but also the balance between two or more neurotransmitters.

Psychotropic medications impact behaviors and symptoms associated with diagnoses of mental illness by affecting the levels of specific neurotransmitters and altering the balance among neurotransmitters.

Nervous System

Plays a crucial role in our growth, metabolism, development, learning, and memory.

Is made up of glands that secrete hormones into the blood system.

Regulates the secretion of hormones through a feedback control mechanism.

Is self-regulating.

Endocrine System

Nearly 1 out of every 250, or about 1 million Americans, is infected with the human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS—acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009a) has reported that the six common transmission categories for HIV:

male-to-male sexual contact
injection drug use
male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use
high-risk heterosexual (male-female) contact
mother-to-child (perinatal) transmission
other (includes blood transfusions and unknown causes)

Immune System

Organs of the immune system are located throughout the body.

They have primary involvement in the development of lymphocytes,
or white blood cells.

The main lymphatic organs include the following:
Bone marrow:
Lymph nodes

Immune System

Nonspecific immunity is more general.
“Scavenger” cells, or phagocytes, circulate in the blood and lymph, being attracted by biochemical signals to congregate at the site of a wound and ingest antigens (antigens include bacteria, fungi, protozoa, & viruses).

Specific immunity, or acquired immunity, involves the lymphocytes.
They not only respond to an infection, but they develop a memory of that infection and allow the body to make rapid defense against it in subsequent exposure.

Immune System

80 million people in the United States, or more than one in five, have one or more types of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the most common cause of death in this country.

Cardiovascular system, which is made up of the heart and the blood circulatory system:
1. Arteries
2. Capillaries
3. Veins
Parasympathetic activities of the nervous system slow the heart rate.
Sympathetic activities increase the heart rate.

Cardiovascular System

Blood pressure is the measure of the pressure of the blood against the wall of a blood vessel.
High blood pressure has been called the silent killer.
It is the leading cause of strokes and is a major risk factor for heart attacks and kidney failure.
High blood pressure has been shown to run in families.

Cardiovascular System

Musculoskeletal system - supports and protects the body and provides motion.

The contraction and relaxation of muscles attached to the skeleton is the basis for all voluntary movements.

Over 600 skeletal muscles in the body account for about 40% of our body weight.

The musculoskeletal system both supports the body and allows it to move.

Musculoskeletal System

The skeleton, particularly the large heavy bones of the legs, supports the body
against the pull of gravity and protects soft body parts.

The skull protects the brain, the rib cage protects the heart and lungs, and the vertebrae protect and support the spinal cord.

Bones serve as sites for the attachment of muscles.

Bone is a very active tissue, supplied with nerves and blood vessels.

Musculoskeletal System

Contraception use has been increasing among sexually active teens in the United States. Sex education is very much related to these statistics.

In humans, the reproductive system comprises internal and external structures.

After conception, the sex-determining chromosome produced by the father unites with the mother’s egg, and it is this configuration that determines the child’s sex.

Reproductive System

Public health experts have long noted the association of poor health outcomes, in all body systems, with:

low income
low education
unsanitary housing
inadequate health care
unstable employment
unsafe physical environments

Exterior Socioeconomic Environment/Interior Health Environment

Persons with lower incomes:
engage in disproportionately high-risk health behaviors and lifestyles.

They are more likely than those with more substantial incomes to be exposed to carcinogens, pathogens, and other hazards in the physical environment.

Als they are exposed to more stressors, and have fewer resources for coping with stress.

Exterior Socioeconomic Environment/Interior Health Environment

The health care system alone cannot offset the effects of other external environment forces on health.

An additional critical factor in health status (positive and negative) involves health literacy.

Exterior Socioeconomic Environment/Interior Health Environment

Essentials of Human Behavior
Integrating Person, Environment,
and the Life Course
Elizabeth D. Hutchison and Contributing Authors

Chapter 4
The Psychological Person

Normalization - helping clients realize that their thoughts and feelings are shared by many other individuals in similar circumstances.

Three types of situations are most likely to produce problems in social functioning:

stressful life transitions
relationship difficulties
environmental unresponsiveness

The Social Work Perspective: Social Functioning

Deviance - a negative labeling that is assigned when one is considered by a majority of significant others to be in violation of the prescribed social order.

We are unable to grasp the perspective from which the deviant person thinks and acts; the person’s behavior does not make sense to us.

We conclude that our inability to understand the other person’s perspective is due to that person’s shortcomings rather than to our own rigidity, and we label the behavior as deviant.

The Sociological Approach: Deviance

Psychological Perspectives
Emphasizes various cognitive, behavioral, or reflective interventions for individuals, families, or small groups.

People normally progress through a sequence of life stages.

Each new stage of personality development builds on previous stages, and any unsuccessful transitions can result in abnormality.

An unsuccessful struggle through one stage implies that the person will experience difficulties in mastering subsequent stages.

Normal and Abnormal Coping

Three social support indicators :
1. Listing of social network resources-the client lists all the people with whom he/she regularly interacts

2. Accounts of supportive behavior -The client identifies specific episodes of receiving support from others in the recent past

3. Perceptions of support -The client subjectively assesses the adequacy of the support received from various sources.

How Social Workers Evaluate
Social Support

Our social support compensates for our perceptual deficits, reminds us of our sense of self,
and monitors the adequacy of our functioning.

Ten characteristics of effective support:
1. Nurtures and promotes an ordered worldview
2 .Promotes hope
3 .Promotes timely withdrawal and initiative
4 .Provides guidance
5. Provides a communication channel with the social world
6. Affirms one’s personal identity
7. Provides material help
8. Contains distress through reassurance and affirmation
9. Ensures adequate rest
10.Mobilizes other personal supports

How Social Support Aids Coping

Our social network includes not just our social support but all the people with
whom we regularly interact and the patterns of interaction that result from exchanging resources with them.

Network relationships often occur in clusters.

Our personal network includes those from the social network who provide us with our most essential supports.

Coping and Adaptation

Social support - the interpersonal interactions and relationships that provide us with assistance or feelings of attachment to persons we perceive as caring.

Three types of social support resources are available:

material support -food, clothing, shelter
emotional -interpersonal support
instrumental support-services provided by casual contacts, hairstylist, grocers, landlords

Coping and Adaptation

Coping with traumatic stress differs from coping with everyday stress in several ways:
People have much less control in traumatic situations.

Their primary emotion-focused coping strategy is emotional numbing, or the constriction
of emotional expression.

They also make greater use of the defense mechanism of denial.

Confiding in others takes on greater importance.
The process of coping tends to take a much longer time.

A search for meaning takes on greater importance.
Transformation in personal identity is more common.

Coping and Adaptation

Coping – efforts of thoughts, feelings, and actions to master the demands of stress.

Can be biological or psychological.

Adaptation - adjustments in our biological responses, in our perceptions, or in our lifestyle.

General adaptation syndrome - the body’s response to a stressor .

It occurs in three stages:
1. Alarm-the body first becomes aware of a threat
2. Resistance-The body attempts to restore homeostasis
3. Exhaustion-The body terminates coping efforts because of its inability to physically sustain the state of disequilibrium

Coping and Adaptation

Vulnerability to Stress con’t
The stress/diathesis view highlights that a single event may pose a crisis for one person but not another.

Vulnerability to stress is related to one’s position in the social structure, with some social positions exposed to a greater number of adverse situations

The Concept of Stress

Vulnerability to Stress

Stress/diathesis (vulnerabilities) models suggest that all persons do not have an equal chance of developing mental disorders, because it depends in part on one’s chemical makeup.

A person at risk may have an innate inability to manage high levels of stimulation from the outside world.

May depend on the interaction between constitutional and environmental factors in our experiences and tolerance of stress.

The Concept of Stress

Traumatic stress - events that involve actual or threatened severe injury or death, of oneself or significant others.

Three types of traumatic stress have been identified:

natural and technological disasters
war and related problems
individual trauma

People respond to traumatic stress with helplessness, terror, and horror.

The Concept of Stress

Crisis episodes occur in three stages:

Our level of tension increases sharply.

We try and fail to cope with the stress.

The crisis episode ends.

Crises can be classified into three types:
Developmental- event in stages like going off to college, birth of a child, midlife career crisis

Situational-uncommon event with no control like injuries, sexual assault, loss of job, illness, death

Existential- inner conflicts like questions about freedom, interdependence, questions about purpose in life, responsibility, commitment

The Concept of Stress

A crisis is a major upset in our psychological equilibrium due to some harm, threat, or challenge with which we cannot cope.

A crisis episode often results when we face a serious stress or with which we have had no prior experience.

It may be:

The Concept of Stress

Three categories of psychological stress: (pg. 136)
1. harm- a damaging event has occurred

2. threat- a perceived potential for harm that has not occurred yet

3. challenge- An event we appraise as an opportunity rather than an occasion for harm.

Stress has been measured in several ways :
a list of life events- death of a loved one, getting married, becoming a parent

daily hassles - common taxing occurrences losing things, standing in line, money worries

role strain- problems in specific roles, romantic partner, caregiver, worker

The Concept of Stress

Stress - any event in which environmental or internal demands tax the adaptive resources of an individual.

Stress may be:

The Concept of Stress

Social Identity Theory
Articulates the process by which we come to identify with some social groups and develop a sense of difference from other social groups.

Social identity development proceeds in five stages. people often experience several stages simultaneously.
1. Naïveté
2. Acceptance
3. Resistance
4. Redefinition
5. Internalization

Theories of the Self in Relationships

Afrocentric Relational Theory
Values cultural pluralism and difference in all of its forms.

The three major objectives are:

to provide an alternative perspective that reflects African cultures

to dispel negative distortions about African people held by other cultures

to promote social transformations that are spiritual, moral, and humanistic

Theories of the Self in Relationships

Feminist Theories of Relationships

A wide-ranging system of ideas about human experience developed from a woman-centered perspective.

May be classified as: liberal, radical, Marxist, socialist, existential, postmodern, multicultural, and ecofeminist.

Theories of the Self in Relationships

Object Relations Theory-
Human development theory that considers our ability to form lasting attachments with others based on early experinces of separation from our primary caregivers.

All people naturally seek relationships with other people.

An “object” is another person but may also be the mental image of a person that we have incorporated into our psychological selves.

We internalize our early relationship patterns.

Theories of the Self in Relationships

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV- TR)
Includes five categories, or “axes” for each client:

Axis I includes clinical or mental disorders
Axis II includes personality disorders and mental retardation
Axis III lists any medical conditions the client may have
Axis IV pertains to psychosocial and environmental problems
Axis V includes a global assessment of functioning

Cognitive/Emotional “Disorders”

Social Theories of Emotion
Emotions originate in our appraisals of situations. They are transitory in that they are time limited.

Emotions include a range of socially acceptable actions that may be performed in a certain social context.

Symbolic interaction theory
Emotions develop as symbols for communication.

Humans are by nature more sensitive to visual than to verbal cues.

Psychological Theories of Emotion

Theory of Emotional Intelligence

A person’s ability to process information about emotions accurately and effectively and consequently to regulate emotions in an optimal manner.

Requires an integration of intellectual and emotional abilities.

Psychological Theories of Emotion

Attribution Theory-First theory to give primacy to cognition as a producer of emotions.

Our experience of emotion is based on conscious evaluations we
make about physiological sensations in particular social settings.

Our initial reactions to any stimulus are limited to the sense of whether it will have positive or negative consequences for us.

Psychological Theories of Emotion

Ego Psychology-Represents an effort to build a holistic psychology of normal development.

The ego is the source of our attention, concentration, learning, memory,
will, and perception.

The ego moderates internal conflicts.

Psychological Theories of Emotion

Psychoanalytic Theory- The basis is the primacy of internal drives and unconscious mental activity in human behavior.

We experience positive emotions when our drives are gratified and negative emotions when they are frustrated.

Thoughts are our means of deciding how to gratify our drives.

Defense mechanisms result from our need to indirectly manage drives when we become frustrated.

Psychological Theories of Emotion

Emotion is physiologically programmed into the human brain and involves a cognitive labeling of these programmed feelings, which is at least partially a learned process.

The primary emotions - mobilize us, focus our attention, and signal our state of mind to others.

The secondary emotions - learning, controlling, and managing emotions to promote flexible cohesion in social groups. May result from combinations of the primary emotions.

The autonomic nervous system is central to our processing of emotion.

Theories of Emotion

Theories of Moral Reasoning-Morality is our knowledge of right and wrong

Intelligence - defined as a “biopsychosocial potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture”.

The brain is understood not as a single cognitive system but as a central unit of neurological functioning that houses relatively separate cognitive faculties.

Two intelligences:
the linguistic -related to spoken and written language

the logical-mathematical-analytic

Theory of Multiple Intelligences

Social learning theory - we are motivated by nature to experience pleasure and avoid pain.

Thoughts and emotions exist - understand them as behaviors in need of explaining rather than as primary motivating factors.

Relies on social behavioral principles of conditioning.

Principle of vicarious learning, or modeling - asserts that behavior is also acquired by witnessing how the actions of others are reinforced.

Thinking takes place between the occurrence of a stimulus and our response.

Social Learning Theory

Our schemata develop through:
social learning -watching and obsorbing the experiences of others

direct learning-our own experiences

Cognitive development unfolds sequentially.

Theories of Cognition

Thoughts produce emotions.
Piaget identified four stages which he saw as sequential and interdependent, evolving from:

activity without thought
thought with less emphasis on activity
from doing, to doing knowingly
finally to conceptualizing

Schema - an internalized representation of the world or an ingrained and systematic pattern of thought, action, and problem solving. (Piaget's theory)

Cognitive Theory-Our capacity for reasoning develops in stages

The Medical (Psychiatric) Perspective
Normality is characterized by conformity with our community and culture.

Mental disorder is a “significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with:

present distress
significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom”

Normal and Abnormal Coping

Symptoms known as post traumatic stress disorder:

Persistent reliving of the traumatic event

Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event

Persistent high state of arousal

A strong system of social support helps to prevent or to foster recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder.

Coping and Adaptation

Defense mechanisms - unconscious, automatic responses that enable us to minimize perceived threats or keep them out of our awareness entirely.

Coping efforts may be:
Relational coping takes into account actions that maximize the survival of others.

List of defense mechanisms page 141 Exhibit 4. 10
Coping and Adaptation

Neural plasticity - the capacity of the nervous system to be modified by experience.

Secure attachments play a critical role in shaping the systems that underlie our reactivity to stressful situations.

Insecure relationships are associated with higher levels of stress hormones in potentially threatening situations.

Secure emotional relationships with adults appear to be at least as critical as individual differences in temperament in determining stress reactivity and regulation.

Research on the Impact of Early Nurturing

Assumes a collective identity for people rather than valuing individuality.

Places great value on the spiritual or nonmaterial aspects of life.
Values an affective approach to knowledge, conceptualizing emotion as the most direct experience of the self.

Sees all social problems as related to practices of oppression and alienation.

Theories of the Self in Relationships con’t

Relational Theory- the basic human tendency or drive is relationships with others in the social environment.

An integration of the psychoanalytic, object relations, and interpersonal theoretical perspectives.

The basic human tendency (or drive) is relationships with others, and our personalities are structured through ongoing interactions with others in the social environment.

Theories of the Self in Relationships

The essence of the self as:

soul- A constant unchanging self transcending the life of the physical body

organizing activity- The initiator of activity mediator of the internal and P.I.E. conflicts

cognitive structure - The thinker and definer of reality

verbal activity- The product of internal monologue (self-talk)

experience of cohesion (self psychology)-The sense of cohesion achieved thru 3 parts: grandiose self, idealized parent image, connected self

flow of experience-The changing self

Theories of the Self in Relationships

Emotion derives from the associations we make based on prior attempts to understand the sensation of arousal.

Differential emotions theory - emotions originate in our neurophysiology and our personalities are organized around “affective biases.” (physiological manifestations of feelings)

All of us possess five primary human emotions:

Physiological Theories of Emotion

Sensory theory - depicts information as flowing passively from the external world inward through the senses to the mind.

Views the mind as having distinct parts—including the sensory register, short-term memory, and long-term memory—that make unique contributions to thinking in a specific sequence.

Motor theory - sees the mind as playing an active role in processing—not merely recording but actually constructing the nature of the input it receives.

Information Processing Theory

Cognition -our conscious or preconscious thinking.
Cognition includes taking in relevant information from the environment,

synthesizing that information, and formulating a plan of action based on that synthesis.

Beliefs - ideas that we hold to be true.

Emotion - a feeling state characterized by our appraisal of a stimulus, by changes in bodily sensations, and by displays of expressive gestures.

Cognition and Emotion

Essentials of Human Behavior
Integrating Person, Environment,
and the Life Course
Elizabeth D. Hutchison and Contributing Authors

Chapter 5
The Spiritual Person

The specific benefits of spiritually-based coping include:

relieving stress retaining a sense of control maintaining hope
providing a sense of meaning and purpose in life helpful to persons coping
with care giving demands related to health problems of family members
homelessness in recovery from substance abuse
understanding and dealing with the effects of various types of trauma

Spirituality and the Human Experience

Various indicators of spirituality have been shown to have an inverse relationship with:
other mental health problems
while showing a positive relationship with:
 self-esteem  optimism
 self-efficacy  life satisfaction
 Hope  general well-being

Spirituality and the Human Experience

Both religious and nonreligious forms of spirituality are an important source of social support for older persons and a pathway for coping, ongoing development, and successful aging.

Spirituality can be a significant protective factor against substance abuse, premature sexual activity, and delinquency for children and adolescents.

Other Aspects of Diversity

Four alternative ideological responses that are evident within Christianity,

but are also applicable to other faiths as well:

Condemn homosexuality and homosexual persons.
Accept homosexual persons but reject homosexual behavior.
Affirmation and acceptance of GLBT persons at every level.
Reject the faith’s position relative to GLBT persons and depart from the faith.

Sexual Orientation

Every major religious and spiritual tradition has
LBGT adherents.

There are also associations within every major religion that go beyond tolerance to work for full inclusion of LBGT persons.

LBGT persons who grow up in less tolerant religious communities experience considerable tension between their faith and their sexuality.

Sexual Orientation

GLBT community (gay men, lesbian women, bisexual persons, and transgendered persons).

GLBT persons have suffered greatly at the hands of some groups affiliated with organized religion.

Many GLBT members of various faiths have had to struggle with religious teachings that tell them their feelings and behaviors are immoral or sinful.

Sexual Orientation

Women are the majority of members in most religious bodies in the United States and play important roles in the life of many religious communities.

In several denominations, women’s participation has been significantly restricted, prohibiting them from holding leadership positions or performing certain religious rites and ceremonies.

Sex and Gender

Native Americans Indigenous spiritual traditions have persisted and currently are being restored and revitalized:

The inseparability of spirituality from the rest of life
Connection to and responsibility for the Earth and all her creatures

The sacredness of all things, including animals, plants, minerals, and natural forces

The values of balance, harmony, and connectedness
The importance of extended family and community
The use of myth, ritual, and storytelling as spiritual practices

Spirituality and Human Diversity

These various expressions of spirituality serve as important sources for:
social support
coping strategies
means of healing
socialization and maintenance of culture
resources for human services and social justice efforts

Spirituality and Human Diversity

African Americans
Religious affiliation for African Americans is generally high, and this racial group is most likely to report a specific affiliation.

Black churches have historically been a safe haven for African Americans facing racism and oppression, as well as an important source of social support, race consciousness and inspiration, leadership training, human services, and empowerment and social change.

Afrocentric spirituality stresses the interdependence among God, community, family, and the individual.

Its central virtues include beneficence to the community, forbearance through tragedy, wisdom applied to action, creative improvisation, forgiveness of wrongs and oppression, and social justice.

Spirituality and Human Diversity

Five broad historical phases that trace the development of linkages between spirituality and social work in the United States:

1. Indigenous Pre-colonial Period-Indigenous North American cultural beliefs and practices.
2. Sectarian Origins-Colonial religious practices Judeo-Christianity.
3. Professionalization and Secularization-1920s to 1970s replacement of moral explanations with scientific explanations.
4. Resurgence of Interest in Spirituality-1980s to 1995 renewed interest in spiritual dimensions Buddhism, Confucianism, Hinduisim, Shamanisism, Taoisim,and transpersonal theory.
5. Transcending Boundaries-1995 to present elaboration and expansion of prior trends , belief that spirituality is part of multicultural beliefs and diversity with biopsychosocial framework

The Role of Spirituality in Social Work

Proposes a Level 10 (Nondual) - characterized by dis-identification with even the Witness. The interior sense of being a Witness disappears there is only a sense on ONE.

The interior sense of being a Witness disappears, and the Witness turns out to be everything that is witnessed.

At this level, Emptiness becomes pure Consciousness itself.

The approaches that Wilber proposes for Transpersonal phase disorders: (Used in non-western cultures for centuries).
nature mysticism-
deity mysticism
formless mysticism

(prayer and meditation, yoga, visualization and spiritual imagery, focusing, dreamwork, dis-identification techniques, bodywork, acupuncture, journaling, intuition techniques).

Wilber’s Integral Theory of Consciousness

Spectrum of consciousness can be further categorized into the three phases of development:

the Pre-personal (Pre-egoic) phase-Early human development
the Personal (Egoic) phase -Egocentric phase
the Transpersonal (Trans-egoic) phase -world and life are perceived in more holistic and interconnected terms.

The three Transpersonal levels are:
Level 7 (Psychic) -characterized by continuous evolution of conciousness self development
Level 8 (Subtle) -characterized by awareness of more subtle processes than found in the normal waking process such as bliss, love, and compassion.
Level 9 (Causal) -transcends all distinctions between subject and object (self and God).

Wilber’s Integral Theory of Consciousness

There are five major components relative to the development of interior individual consciousness:

levels (or waves) of consciousness -refers to various developmental milestones within the human psyche such as regressions to peak experiences.

multiple lines (or streams) of consciousness states of consciousness morals, affects, self-identity, psychosexuality, creativity, altruism joy needs, world views.

States of consciousness are all navigated by the self or self-system altered states of consciousness meditative or contemplative states.

The self goes though a fulcrum, or switch point each time the self moves to a differnet level of the three step process.

Wilber’s Integral Theory of Consciousness

Ken Wilbur his works is also based on developmental perspective and reflects a unique integration of biology, history, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and religion. His approach is considered an "Integral Theory of Consciousness".

Three levels of consciousness: Refers to various developmental milestones that unfold within the human psyche.
pre-personal-personal meaning and a sense of self (the interior of individuals)
personal-objective knowledge the physical body and observable behaviors (the external part of individuals)
transpersonal-sociocultural values and shared meanings (the interiior collectives, and inter onjective knowledge of institutional structures and systemic forces (the external part of collectives)

Goal of human development as being to evolve to a higher,
non-dual level of consciousness that is well-integrated into personal and societal functioning.

Wilber’s Integral Theory of Consciousness

Rooted in both:

conventional Western knowledge
contemplative/ mystical traditions of Eastern religions and other spiritual perspectives

Explores human development across four quadrants:

Wilber’s Integral Theory of Consciousness

identification with the entire global human family

identification with the whole ecosphere, of which humans are only one part

Fowler’s Stages of Faith Development

Fowler’s faith stages: pg. 167-171

Pre-stage: Primal Faith (infancy): If consistent nurturance is experienced, the infant develops a sense of trust and safety about the universe and the divine. Negative experiences produce images of the ultimate as untrustworthy, punitive, or arbitrary.
Stage 1: Intuitive-Projective Faith- Early childhood beginning about age 2 Speech give rise to symbols and magical thoughts, based on intuition and imagination.
Stage 2: Mythic-Literal Faith-middle childhood beginning around age 6 the child begins to take on stories, beliefs and practices.
Stage 3: Synthetic-Conventional Faith- adolescence and beyond the person develops abstract thinking and can manipulate concepts of faith and identity.
Stage 4: Individuated-Reflective Faith- young adulthood people experience an increased since of responsibility for their own commitments and lifestyle, beliefs and attitudes.
Stage 5: Conjunctive Faith -midlife is when the adult begins to rework the past and become open to the voices of the deeper self looking for balance in polarities of free will.
Stage 6: Universalizing Faith- midlife and beyond a few adults develop the capacity to truly embrace paradox. They develop awareness for justice and injustice. They lead selfless lives of service and action for justice. They aim to transform humankind.

Fowler’s Stages of Faith Development

Reveal increasing capacity in terms of:
cognitive functioning
moral reasoning
perspective taking
critical reflection and dialectical thought
understanding of symbols, myths, and rituals
deeper faith commitments
openness and acceptance of difference

Fowler’s Stages of Faith Development

Ultimate environment - the highest level of reality.
Your view of the ultimate environment and your relationship with it,

is an evolving, dynamic process that is strongly influenced by your experiences throughout the life course.

Help us understand a person’s values, beliefs, and sense of meaning and help us better appreciate the tasks, tensions, and challenges at various points in life.

Fowler’s Stages of Faith Development

Faith - an integral, centering process, underlying the formation of beliefs, values, and meanings that:

(1) gives coherence and direction to people’s lives
(2) links them in shared trusts and loyalties with others
(3) grounds their personal stances and communal loyalties in a sense of relatedness to a larger frame of reference
(4) enables them to face and deal with the limited conditions of life, relying upon that which has the quality of ultimacy in their lives

Fowler’s Stages of Faith Development

Four major therapeutic approaches that have emerged over the past century:

First Force therapies are based on dynamic theories of human behavior. Deals with repression and resolving conflicts. (Psychodynamic perspective)

Second Force therapies evolved from behavioral theories. Focuses on learned habits and direct learning. (Social behavioral perspective)

Third Force therapies are rooted in existential/humanistic/experiential theories. Focuses on helping the person deal with dispair and to seek actualization of the person's potential (Humanistic perspective)

Fourth Force therapies, based on transpersonal theories, specifically target the spiritual dimension. (Transpersonal perspective).

Transpersonal Theories of Human Development

Three factors that are significant in understanding religious conflict today:

modernism-based on scientific, industrial, and technological revolutions has had contentious relationships with religious perspectives and institutions such as debates about evolution and intelligent design.
multiculturalism- requires us to recognize a myriad of world views and ways of life, within the US and globally.
modern technologies of warfare- Violent conflict, often intertwined with religious issues, has been a part of human history but continues to grow with nuclear capabilities and weapons of mass destruction and chemical warfare.

“‘Spiritual’ refers not only to experiences traditionally considered religious but to all the states of awareness, all the human functions and activities which have as their common denominator the possession of values higher than average”.

Transpersonal Theories of Human Development

There appears to be increasing fluidity in religious affiliation.
The overall proportion of the U.S. population that is Catholic is
roughly the same as it was in the early 1970s.

It is apparent that this interest in spiritual growth may or may not be expressed within traditional religious institutions and is increasingly focused on a spirituality that is more subjective, experiential, and personalized.

Spirituality in the United States
and Globally

Spirituality in the United States and Globally

Religion - “an institutionalized pattern of values, beliefs, symbols, behaviors, and experiences that involves:

A community of adherents
Transmission of traditions over time
Community support functions that are directly or indirectly related to spirituality”

The Meaning of Spirituality

Focusing on the search for a sense of meaning, purpose, morality, and well-being:

In relationship with oneself, other people, other beings, the universe, and ultimate reality however understood

Orienting around centrally significant priorities
Engaging a sense of the transcendence

The Meaning of Spirituality

Types of religious problems under this category include:
difficulties resulting from a change in one’s denomination or conversion to a new religion intensified adherence to beliefs or practices loss or questioning of faith, guilt, or involvement in destructive religious groups

Spiritual problems may include
distress due to mystical experiences
near-death experiences, spiritual emergence
separation from a spiritual teacher

Spiritual Assessment

Gathering information about a client’s religious or spiritual history and assessing spiritual development and current interests are as important as learning about biopsychosocial factors.

Assessment needs to go beyond the surface features of faith affiliation to include deeper facets of a person’s spiritual life.

Need to assess both the positive and negative aspects of clients’ religious or spiritual beliefs and practices.

Assessment must also be able to distinguish between a religious/spiritual problem and a mental disorder.

Spiritual Assessment

The Pew Forum has identified four arenas where religion plays a role in public life, often creating controversy and debate due to differing visions of the common good:

Religion and politics
Religion and the law
Religion and domestic policy
Religion and world affairs

Spirituality and the Human Experience

Emerging principles of a spiritual framework for activism include:
mindfulness and presence
paradox and mystery
seeking balance
living our values

Spirituality and the Human Experience

Engaging in the creative process seems to facilitate spiritual growth and well-being by encouraging the person to:

go beyond ego limitations
surrender to process
tap into spiritual sources of strength and self-expression
Paying attention to the spiritual dimension of family life has been identified as an important component in working with couples and families relative to a wide-range of problems including:

 discord  health issues  death and loss
 other issues that arise as part of family functioning

Spirituality and the Human Experience

viewed as more relevant than in the area of death and dying.
supporting and enhancing optimal human functioning and quality of life.

At the individual level, interest in wellness, holistic health, and the mind-body connection has exploded in recent years.

Many of our core mental and emotional processes are not only pivotal in maintaining optimal health, but also affect our capacity for personal happiness and compassion for others.

Spirituality and the Human Experience

Similar influences are found between spirituality and physical health, with spirituality linked to a variety of better health outcomes.

Religion and spirituality benefit physical health through their support of health-promoting behaviors and discouragement of risk behaviors,
while others indicate possible biological processes that mediate the negative impacts of stress and support healthy immune functioning.

For both mental and physical health problems, religion and spirituality have been noted as major means of coping.

Spirituality and the Human Experience

Women are more likely than men:
to report that they are religious, church-affiliated, and frequent users of prayer
are certain in their belief of God
feel close to God
hold a positive view of their church
are more religiously engaged

Sex and Gender

Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders
The connection between and the divinity of all beings
The need to transcend suffering and the material world
The importance of displaying compassion, selflessness, and cooperation
The honoring of ancestors
A disciplined approach to life and spiritual development
A holistic understanding of existence

Spirituality and Human Diversity

Latino(a) Americans Spirituality has been strongly affected by factors related to colonialism.

Latinos have a personal relationship with God that encompasses love and reverence as well as fear and dread an emphasis on both faith and ritual behavior belief in the holiness of Jesus Christ as savior, king, and infant God special reverence shown to Mary as the mother of God recognition of saints as models of behavior and as benefactors significance of sacred objects as both symbols of faith and transmitters of luck or magic special events and celebrations

Spirituality and Human Diversity

Transpersonal - going beyond identity tied to the individual body, ego, or
social roles to include spiritual experience or higher levels of consciousness.

A major focus of transpersonal theory is on “…humanity’s highest potential”.

Transpersonal practice approaches must “include the whole – not just the high end of human experience but the very personal realm of ordinary consciousness as well”.

Transpersonal Theories of Human Development

Globalization - “the worldwide diffusion of practices, expansion of relations across continents, reorganization of social life on a global scale, and a growth of a shared global consciousness”.

Globalization is increasing our awareness of the many different religious and spiritual traditions in the world and the role they play in various conflicts, both between and within countries.

Spirituality in the United States
and Globally

Title III requires all public accommodations and services operated by private organizations to be accessible to persons with disabilities.

Title IV requires all intrastate and interstate phone companies to develop telecommunication relay services and devices for persons with speech or hearing impairments to allow them to communicate in a manner similar to that of persons without impairments.

Title V covers technical guidelines for enforcing the ADA.

Accessible Environments for Persons With Disabilities

Environments, particularly built environments, can be disabling because of their inaccessibility to many persons, including most people with disabilities.

The social model of disability emphasizes the barriers that people with impairments face as they interact with the physical and social world, arguing that disability is a result of the relationship between the individual and the environment .

Social workers need to keep in mind the high prevalence of disabilities among older persons, the fastest growing group in the United States.

Accessible Environments for Persons With Disabilities

Place attachment—the process in which people and groups form bonds with places.

Place is defined as a “space that has been given meaning through personal, group, or cultural processes”.

When a strong place attachment develops, the place has become an important part of the self, that we can’t think of who we are without some reference to the place.

When a particular place becomes an important part of our self-identity, this merger of place and self is known as place identity. Place identity can develop where there is strong negative, as well as positive, place attachment.

Place attachment can also play a strong role in group and cultural identity.

Place Attachment

Tolerance — the ability to take increasing amounts of the drug without feeling increased effects — is embedded in the environment in which the drug is usually taken.

Behavior settings stimulate craving, even when the person has been in recovery for some time.

Behavior Settings and Addictions

Obesity is associated with urban sprawl.

Inner city populations have higher rates of obesity and inactivity than suburban dwellers.

Urban Design and Health

Hospital design began to focus more on care of the equipment than on care of the patient.

Calling attention to biomedical research that links physical environments and human health.

A field called evidence-based design uses physiological and health-outcome measures to evaluate the health benefits of hospital design features.

Hospital noise as an impediment to healing.

Healing Environments

Built environment — the portion of the physical environment attributable solely to human effort.

Physical designs that encourage social interaction
sociopetal spaces

Designs that discourage social interaction
sociofugal spaces.

The Built Environment

Natural environment — the portion of the environment influenced primarily by geological and nonhuman biological forces.

Biophilia - a genetic-based human need to affiliate with nature.

Three features of the natural environment have been found to be particularly influential on emotional states:
water trees sunlight

These features of the natural environment have been found, across cultures, to have positive impact on emotional states.

Ecotherapy - exposure to nature and the outdoors as a component of psychotherapy, as a major agenda for mental health promotion and treatment.

The Natural Environment

Patterns of behavior are specific to a setting and we must assess settings
as well as individuals when problematic behavior occurs.

Level of staffing - Different behavior settings attract different numbers of participants, or staff.

Overstaffing occurs when there are too many participants for the behavioral program of a given setting.

Understaffing occurs when there are too few participant

Control Theories

Behavior Settings Theories - consistent, uniform patterns of behavior occur in particular places, or behavior settings. (Ex: music festival different from library)

Programs—consistent, prescribed patterns of behavior— develop and are maintained in many specific settings.

The social situation influences people’s behavior, the physical environment that provides the cues.

Behavior Settings Theories have been extended to explain behavior in non-place settings, more specifically to explain behavior in virtual behavior settings.

Patterns of behavior are specific to a setting and we must assess settings as well as individuals when problematic behavior occurs.

Level of staffing - Different behavior settings attract different numbers of participants, or staff.

Overstaffing occurs when there are too many participants for the behavioral program of a given setting.

Understaffing occurs when there are too few participants.

Control Theories

Density is the ratio of persons per unit area of a space.
Crowding is the subjective feeling of having too many people around.

Gender differences in response to crowding - women living in crowded homes are more likely to be depressed, while men living in crowded homes demonstrate higher levels of withdrawal and violence.

Control Theories

Personal Space - known as interpersonal distance, is the physical distance we choose to maintain in interpersonal relationships.

Is not stable, but contracts and expands with changing interpersonal circumstances and with variations in physical settings.

Variations in personal space are also thought to be related to age, gender, attachment style, previous victimization, and culture.

Control Theories

Focus on the issue of how much control we have over our physical environments and the attempts we make to gain control.

Four concepts are central to the work of control theorists:
Personal Space

Privacy - “selective control of access to the self or to one’s group”.
It appears that people in different cultures use space differently to create privacy. (ex: the use of partitions)

Control Theories

Stimulation theories - focus on the physical environment as a source of sensory information that is essential for human well-being.

Patterns of stimulation influence thinking, feelings, social interaction, and health.

Stimulation varies by:
Amount  intensity
Frequency  duration
number of sources  type

The Relationship Between the Physical Environment and Human Behavior

Cultural change can be understood in terms of four processes:
assimilation- the process in which cultural uniqueness of the minority is abandoned and members try to blend with the majority.

accommodation- the process of partial cultural change.

acculturation-mutual sharing of culture

bicultural socialization-the process of a nonmajority group mastering both the dominant and their own culture.

Processes of Cultural Change

Tradition is a process of handing down from one generation to another particular cultural beliefs and practices.

Traditions and customs leave out the experiences, memories, and voices of some group members while highlighting and including others.

Groups hold on to the old ways to protect their worldview about what life means and who they are as a people.

Cultural Maintenance, Change, and Adaptation

Culture provides stability to social life, but it does change over time.
It does not change rapidly.

Common sense is a cultural system. It is what people have come to believe everyone in a community or society should know and understand as a matter of ordinary, taken-for granted social competence.

Customs, or cultural practices, come into being and persist as solutions to problems of living.

Cultural Maintenance, Change, and Adaptation

Human agency:
Asserts that people are not simply puppets, the pawns of history and structure; people are also active participants, capable of exercising their will to shape their lives.

Helps to counteract cultural hegemony as well.

All are constrained by external factors.

A Postmodern View of Culture

History is made by people, but it is made within the constraints of the systems in which people are living:
Social Political
Economic Physical

It also includes cognitive, emotional, and behavioral frameworks that are mapped onto who we are as people.

We reproduce structures when we assume the rightness of our values, beliefs, and meaning and see no need to change them.

When one set of values, beliefs, and meanings dominates, cultural hegemony results.

A Postmodern View of Culture

Practice seeks to explain what people do as thinking, intentionally acting persons who face the impact of history and the constraints of structures that are embedded in our society and culture.

Practice asks how social systems shape, guide, and direct people’s values, beliefs, and behavior.

But it also asks how people, as human actors or agents, perpetuate or shape social systems.

A Postmodern View of Culture

The term culture of poverty was originally used to bring attention to the way of life developed by poor people to adapt to the difficult circumstances of their lives.

The culture of poverty orientation was used to argue both for and against publicly financed social programs.

Culture of poverty line of reasoning is often used to explain people on welfare, poor single parents, and other problems of inner cities.

A Postmodern View of Culture

Ideology is the dominant ideas about the way things are and should work.

Ethnocentrism - Tendency to elevate our own ethnic group and its culture
over others.

Cultural symbols - A symbol is something, verbal or nonverbal, that comes to stand for something else. (Golden Arches=McDonalds)

Worldview is associated with the cognitive domain, what we think about things.

Some Important Culture Concepts

Environmental differences interacting with accidents of history have produced three major types of cultures in recent centuries:

Traditional culture, or premodern culture, to describe preindustrial societies based on subsistence agriculture.

Modern culture characterized by rationality, industrialization, urbanization, and capitalism.

Postmodernism is the term many people use to describe contemporary culture.

Changing Ideas about Culture and Human Behavior

Ideas about culture have changed over time, in step with intellectual, social, economic, and political trends.

Biological determinism—the attempt to differentiate social behavior on the basis of biological and genetic endowment.

Thinking in terms of natural, ordained, and inevitable differences based on race reinforces the social tendency to think in terms of “we-ness” and “they-ness,” which often has unfortunate effects.

It leads to othering, or labeling people who fall outside of your own group as abnormal, inferior, or marginal.

Changing Ideas about Culture and Human Behavior

Culture includes both behavior and the material outcomes of that behavior.

It both constrains and is constrained by nature, biology, social conditions, and other realities of human existence.

It is expressed through our emotions and thought processes, our motivations, intentions, and meanings as we live out our lives.

It is through culture that we construct meanings associated with the social and material world.

History is an ongoing story about the connections among ideas, communities.

Culture includes multiple levels of traditions, values, and beliefs, as well as social, biological, and natural acts.

The Challenge of Defining Culture

Essentials of Human Behavior
Integrating Person, Environment,
and the Life Course
Elizabeth D. Hutchison and Contributing Authors

Chapter 6
Culture and the Physical Environment

The five titles of the ADA seek to eliminate environmental barriers to the full participation of persons with disabilities:

Title I addresses discrimination in the workplace.
Title II requires that all public services, programs, and facilities be accessible to persons with disabilities.

Accessible Environments for Persons With Disabilities

Many homeless rural people live in crowded situations with relatives or in substandard housing.

One problem in counting the number of homeless persons is that many people without homes

stay in places where researchers cannot easily find them.

Twenty-six percent of sheltered homeless persons have severe mental illness, and among surveyed homeless persons, sheltered and unsheltered, 38% report an alcohol problem and 26% report problems with other drugs.


International concern about the damage that is being done to the natural environment
by human endeavors and about the need to protect the natural environment.
Four major findings:

Humans have changed ecosystems more over the last 50 years than in any other historical period.

Although there are net gains for human well-being from these changes, they have exacerbated poverty for some groups of people. In addition, many costs of the changes will be deferred to future generations.

It is likely that the degradation of world ecosystems will grow significantly worse in the first half of the 21st century.

Reversing the degradation of ecosystems will require major changes in policies across the globe.

Control Theories

Crowding has been found to have an adverse effect on:
child development blood pressure and neuroendocrine hormone activity

poor compliance with mental health care

increased incidence of tuberculosis

aggressive behavior in prison inmates

Control Theories

Territoriality - the behavior of individuals and small groups as they seek control over physical space . Also used to refer to attempts to control objects, roles, and relationships.

Leads us to mark, or personalize, our territory to signify our “ownership,” and to engage in a variety of behaviors to protect it from invasion.

Classifies our territories as:

Control Theories

Negative effect on human behavior:
stimulus overload (too much stimulation)
restricted environmental stimulation (once called stimulus deprivation)

Some stimulation theories focus on the direct, concrete effect of stimulation on behavior.
Others focus on the meanings people construct regarding particular stimuli.

The Relationship Between the Physical Environment and Human Behavior

Over 53% of these immigrants were born in Latin America in general, and 37.7% were born in Central America in particular.

They constitute what the media have called the “browning” of the United States.

An understanding of cultural processes helps social workers interpret such issues when they encounter them in practice.

Processes of Cultural Change

Ethos is associated more with the emotional or affective and stylistic dimensions of behavior. (How we feel about things)

Cultural innovation - Culture is not static. (language, dress, food)

Cultural conflict - the symbols we use can mean one thing to you and something different to others. (Low riding jeans= coolness vs gang)

Culture is both public and private. It has emotional and cognitive components.

Symbols are a way of communicating private meaning through public or social action.

Some Important Culture Concepts

Essentials of Human Behavior
Integrating Person, Environment,
and the Life Course
Elizabeth D. Hutchison and Contributing Authors

Chapter 7
Social Structure and
Social Institutions

Structuration theory - the relationship between human agency and social structure.

Human actions produce social structure, and at all times human action is serving either to perpetuate or to transform social structure.

Critical consciousness - an ongoing process of reflection and knowledge seeking about mechanisms and outcomes of social, political, and economic oppression that requires taking personal and collective action toward fairness and social justice.

Structural Determinism Versus
Human Agency

The world systems perspective suggests that inequality is created and maintained by economic globalization.

The world is divided into three different sectors:

a core sector that dominates the capitalist world economy and exploits the world’s resources

a peripheral sector that provides raw material to the core and is heavily exploited by it

a semiperipheral sector that is somewhat independent but very vulnerable to the financial fluctuations of the core states

The Contemporary Debate

Karl Marx (1818–1883) and Max Weber (1864–1920)
Marx saw the relationship between the classes to be based on exploitation and domination by the owners and controllers of production and on alienation among the workers.

Marx believed that class consciousness is what motivates people to transform society.

Weber saw a class division based on “life chances” in the marketplace.

Life chances reflect the distribution of power within a community, including economic power, social prestige, and legal power.

Classical Sociological Theories of
Social Inequality

Two other trends:
1. A rise in divorce rates -Increase divorce rates exist in Argentina, China, Cuba, India, Iran, Kenya, and Kuwait the US divorce rate is nearly twice what it was in 1960.
2. Declining fertility - Declining fertility rates documented in Argentina, India, Iran, Kenya, Kuwait, South Africa, Turkey, the US birthrate dropped from 23.7 births per 1,000 pop in 1960 to 14.3 in 2007.

Two other long-term trends in family relationships are likely to continue:

greater valuing of autonomy and self-direction in children
equalization of power between men and women
The average life expectancy is increasing in all of the advance industrial societies.

Trends in Family and Kinship

Family and kinship institution is primarily responsible for:

the regulation of procreation for the initial socialization of new members of society
for mutual support

Three global trends in family life:
1. Modified extended family form -a family system in which family members are highly involved with each other but maintain separate dwellings
2. Mass migration -families become separated due to migration as a result of economics

3. Feminization of wage labor-Women make up 80% of the work force in Taiwan, Phillipines, Sri Lanka, Mexico, and Malaysia. In the US both parents work outside the home for wages (78% of married couples with children)

Trends in Family and Kinship

There are several important trends in the mass media landscape:
1. Growth in media outlets and media products
2. More time and money spent on media products
3. Integration of media functions
4. Globalization
5. Concentration of ownership

Trends in Mass Media

The mass media institution is the primary institution for managing the flow of information, images, and ideas among all members of society.

Mass media serves an entertainment role for society, but it also influences how we understand ourselves and the world.

Mass media technology is the engine of globalization, giving people worldwide immediate access to other cultures and other markets.

Electronic media now allow two-way communication as well as one-way communication, and they can store and manipulate vast amounts of information.

Trends in Mass Media

A religious belief system helps people to feel secure, and exposure to different belief systems can be unsettling and sometimes perceived as a threat to the integrity of one’s own beliefs and identity.

Today, it is almost impossible for believers in one religious tradition to be isolated from other religious traditions.
Both violence and nonviolence have been used in the name of religion.

Each of the major world religions has changed over time and place and become more diverse, a “patchwork of contradictory ideas stitched together over the centuries”.

Trends in Religion

The social welfare institution functions to promote interdependence and to deal with issues of dependence.

Individuals are interdependent with institutions, as well as with other individuals, for survival and for satisfactory role performance.

There are several major challenges facing the social welfare institution around the globe:
Aging population
Labor market insecurities
Debt in low-income countries
Increasing evidence of the importance of the early years

Trends in Social Welfare

Child development, adult well-being, and family stability are all affected by health.

The health care institution is the primary institution for promoting the general health of a society.

There is much disparity in the global health care institution, both between and within countries.

They are highly influenced by factors in the economic and health care institution, but also by factors in the education and family institutions.

In poor countries, basic health prevention and treatment services are almost nonexistent.

Trends in Health Care

There is a shortage of trained teachers in many areas around the globe.

The education institution in the United States is becoming a prime force in perpetuating, if not exacerbating, economic inequalities.

The trends in education that perpetuate societal inequalities:
1. Trends in early childhood education
2. Trends in primary school education
3. Trends in secondary education
4. Trends in higher education
page 257-258
Trends in Education

The Education for All movement is an international effort to meet the basic learning needs of children, youth, and adults of the world.

There continue to be large global gaps in opportunities for education.

There are also inequalities in the resources available for schooling across the world.

Trends in Education

The economic institution has the primary responsibility for regulating the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

Most people, if they are not self-employed or independently wealthy, exchange labor for wages, which they then use for consumption.

The primary ingredients of economic globalization are:
a global production system-
a global labor force
global consumers

Much of what we wear eat and use has global origins.

Trends in the Economy

Countries around the world have attempted to adapt to the challenges of economic globalization by changing the way that government does business.

One common adaptation is to make change in the level of government that assumes power in particular situations:
Upward movement -Moving power upward from nation-states using The United Nations to ensure international peace and security, The World Bank, The General agreement on Tariffs and Trade, World Trade Organizations.

Downward movement-New Federalism the stated intent is to improve the responsiveness and efficiency of the government, using block grants, and increased federal mandates giving states more power and local governments.

Outward movement-Growing faith across the world led many nation-states to withdraw from direct control of activities in several ways:
- Privatization-The government sells enterprises that produce goods or deliver services to the private sector.
- Contracting out -The government retains ultimate control over a program but contracts with private organizations on some activities.
- Deregulation-Governments give up their claims to the right to regulate particular activities that they previously regulated but not controlled. (pgs. 249-250

Trends in Government and Politics

The government and political institution is responsible for how decisions get made and enforced for the society as a whole.

Three historical factors are supremely important for beginning to understand current complexities:
1. Colonialism -Colonial governments took power away from local governments and prevented localities from establishing stable political systems. The US advanced a new institutional framework that called for free trade and democracies referred to as neocolonialism)

2. Aftermath of hot and cold wars-Two World Wars left Europe war weary. The collapse of the Soviet Union economy in 1989 produced political instability..lead tot the European Union and super powers US, the EU, and now China.

3. Economic globalization-1970's brought about transnational corporations which carry on production/distribution in many nations.

Trends in Government and Politics

High levels of inequality are bad for the social health of a nation.

Poverty rates in the United States, one measure of social inequality, demonstrate that social inequality is related to:

race and ethnicity
family structure
geographic location
Vulnerability to poverty has shifted from older adults to children.
Women are more likely than men to be poor in the United States as well as globally.

Contemporary Trends in Global and U.S. Social Institutions

It is important to understand the patterns of inequality within a given country.

The most commonly used measure of income inequality is the Gini index, which measures the extent to which the distribution of income within a country deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. pg 243

Societal health is best maintained when economic growth is balanced with attention to social equality.

Contemporary Trends in Global and U.S. Social Institutions

The most important and troubling trend in contemporary life is the continued extremely high level of social inequality, both between nations and within nation states.

Regions of the world can be divided into three groups with different recent income trends:

Group 1: Rich regions that have been growing richer (Western Europe, Northern America, and Japan)

Group 2: Regions with lower than average per capita but rapidly growing income (South Asia, East Asia, and China)

Group 3: Poor regions with slower than average growth, or decline, in average income (Latin America, Middle East and North Africa, Eastern Europe and Russia,and Sub-Saharan Africa)

Contemporary Trends in Global and U.S. Social Institutions

Social structure - set of interrelated social institutions developed by human beings to impose constraints on human interaction for the purpose of the survival and well-being of the collectivity.

Social institutions - “Patterned ways of solving the problems and meeting the requirements of a particular society”. Organize rights and duties into statuses and roles and the expected behaviors that accompany them.

Patterns of Social Life

Social scientists who see human behavior as highly determined by one’s position in the social class structure (structural determinism) are challenged by social scientists who emphasize the capacity of humans to create their own realities and who give central roles to human actors, not social structures (human agency).

Macro-oriented sociologists argue that human action is a by-product of social institutions that are external to human consciousness.
Micro-oriented sociologists counterargue that humans are proactive agents who construct meaning in interaction with others.

Structural Determinism Versus
Human Agency

Functional theories of social stratification present structural inequality (social classes) as necessary for society.

Conflict theorists emphasize the role of power, domination, and coercion in the maintenance of inequality.

Functionalism was the root for modernization theory, which attempted to explain on the global level why some countries are poor and others are rich.

Conflict perspective counterargument to modernization theory was dependency theory, which argued that poor societies are created by worldwide industrial capitalism, which exploits natural resources and labor.

Neoliberalism is based in classic economics and argues that free trade and free markets, with limited government interference, will result in a fair distribution of resources.

The Contemporary Debate

Social class - contemporary structures of inequality.

In the conservative thesis, inequality is the natural, divine order, and no efforts should be made to alter it.

In the radical antithesis, equality is the natural, divine order; inequality is based on abuse of privilege and should be minimized.

Theories of Social Inequality

Each of the major world religions, but especially the Western religions, has an internal struggle, sometimes called a culture war.

The traditionalists believe that moral obligations are rigid, given, and absolute.

The modernists believe that moral commitment is voluntary, conditional, and fluid.

These two branches often engage in a struggle for the heart and soul of the religious tradition, sometimes using violence to press their case.

The religious institution is quite resilient.

Trends in Religion

The social welfare institution, like any other social institution, reflects the culture of the society.
The social welfare institution has had a mix of governmental and nongovernmental monies and activities, but the nature of this mix has changed over time.

The most controversial trend in the social welfare institution is the entrance of for-profit organizations into the mix of public-private partnerships, beginning in the 1980s.

Trends in Social Welfare

Level of uninsured individuals - bankruptcies related to health care costs
have been increasing.

The rapid growth in therapeutic medicine has drained resources from the U.S. public health system, which focuses on disease prevention and health promotion.

Societies around the world struggle with:
health care costs
quality and access to care
medical technology

Trends in Health Care

The global economy is driven by corporate desire for the bigger profits that come from cheap raw materials and cheap labor, and by consumer desire for cheap and novel products..

The future of globalization is not certain, but several trends can be identified at its current stage of development:

1. Regional disparities -Consumers in high-income countries benefit from cheap labor of workers in newly industrialized countries 2. Labor force bifurcation- Wage labor divides into two branches one is core stable well paid labor and the other is periphery or seasonal low-wage labor
3. Corporate downsizing-high wage workers are vulnerable to layoffs 4. Work intensification-struggles over the length of the workday and pressure to increase production
5. Limited protection by organized labor-Labor unions protect the worker's rights for safety in the workplace, wage protection penion protection.

Trends in the Economy

Economic globalization combined with war and political strife has produced mass cross-national migration.

Social work has been “at the mercy of political forces throughout its history”.

Social workers cannot afford to ignore processes and trends in the political arena.

Trends in Government and Politics

Insert Exhibit 7.1 here

Statuses are specific social positions; roles, are the behaviors of persons occupying particular statuses.

Each institution organizes social relations in a particular sector of social life.

Social institutions persist only when they are:
carried forward by individual actors
only when they are actively monitored

Three different types of processes that contribute to the stability of social institutions:

regulatory processes- involves rules, monitoring, and enforcement through rewards and punishment.

normative processes- involves values and norms about how things should be done.

cultural-cognitive processes- involve beliefs, internalized understandings about the world and how to behave in it.

Patterns of Social Life

Opening Questions Chapter 4:
How is human behavior influenced by cognitions, emotions, and relationships?

What are some different approaches to coping with stress?
Case Study discussion :
Consider each of the case studies described in the chapter: How would socio-economic status effect the likelihood of occurrence of the medical condition described in each of the case studies?

How would socio-economic status affect the quality of medical care?

Consider each of the case studies described in the chapter.
Identify a particular setting, i.e., school, hospital, private practice, etc., where a social worker might encounter a client with the particular medical condition.

Discuss some of the roles and activities that the social worker would perform for each of these clients in the identified setting.

Opening Questions Chapt 2: What theories are needed to understand the multiple dimensions of person, environment, and time involved in human behavior?

What criteria should social workers use to evaluate theories of human behavior?
Opening Questions Chapt 1:
What is it about people, environments, and time that most social workers need to understand?

Why is it important for social workers to understand the roles that diversity and inequality play in human behavior?
Deductive reasoning is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logical conclusion.

Inductive reasoning is reasoning in which the premises seek to supply strong evidence for (not absolute proof) the truth of the conclusion.
Class Activity #1:

1. Analyze the following statement using an individual perspective:
"People on welfare are undeserving chiselers who would rather be on relief than work." First, write down your own personal reaction to the above statement and select three statements or facts that support your views and three that do not. Get into small groups and discuss each of your view points and the groups consensus. On your own paper record how the group discussion affected, changed, or supported your original view. As a class, discuss this exercise in reference to a systems perspective
Class Activity #2:

Break students into small groups and have them discuss their reactions to the following statements:
People make most decisions based on fear.
The story we choose to tell is the life we choose to lead.
Your life reflects what you believe.Discuss the humanistic perspective and the idea that human behavior can be understood only from the vantage point of the phenomenal self-from the internal frame of reference of the individual.
Class Activity #3:

Download the power point of the blank jeopardy game from this website: http://www.hardin.k12.ky.us/res_techn/sbjarea/math/JeopardyDirections.htm.

Divide the class into groups and have each group develop jeopardy answers for different jeopardy categories based on the theories in Chapter 2 of the text.
Active Learning Exercise:
In small groups students are to develop a proposal presentation, based on the material presented in chapter 3 to a Hospital Board of Directors advocating for a new social work position in a small but growing regiional hospital in a predominately rural area that has never had social work services before. Each small group presents their proposal to the class; other students in the class act in the role of the members of the Board of Directors and vote on which proposal to accept.
Web Activity:

U.S. military engagement in Iraq and Afghanistan has resulted in the return of many veterans suffering from a range of physical and mental conditions. Use the internet to:
1. Investigate the prevalence and types of combat related injuries in the American Armed forces.

2. Identify at least one combat related injury or condition associated with each of the interior environment systems described in Chapter 3; comment on the standard medical treatment for the particular injury or condition.

3. Describe some of the social work services appropriate for individuals with these injuries and conditions.

Play This Emotional Life Video Here 3 Clicks on Sadness/Depression
Active Learning Exercise 1:
* See Gardner's Eight Intelligences page 116
See 4.1 page 113 Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Operations
Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development pg. 147
Exhibit 4.12 P.I.E. page 149
To Fowler faith is broader than religious faith, creed, or belief. It derives from a developmental perspective.
Class Activity See Handouts
Dr. Seuss The Sneetches
Dr. Seuss: Show the movie the Sneetches. While watching the movie, ask students to think about the social dimensions of status, prestige, and power. Discuss what students learned about social class from the movie.
Reflection Exercise on Spiritually Healing Environments:
Discuss the following perspective: Sometimes you may not be able to impact the physical environment of your workplace. You are part of that environment. Your presence in a room can impact your colleagues, clients, and other staff. This includes your sounds, smells, and visual images. Have students break into small groups and discuss the following questions: In what ways are you a part of a healing environment? What can you do to impact your environment in a healing way?
Class Discussion
Break students into two groups. Have one group compare and contrast the terms "assimilation" and "accommodation" and acculturation when used in social learning theories and other the other group compare and contrast the same terms when used in cultural change theories. Discuss the implications of the different theories for different types of social work practice, particularly in regard to practice targeted to individual change vs that targeted toward social change.
Key concept for understanding physical environment pg. 28
Hegemony-the dominance of one group over another.
US & Turkish teens keep largest personal space, Latin, Asian & Arabs less personal space)
Ex: Animals mark their space, males more than females)
Benefits of time spent in the natural environment pg. 224
Abuse of the environment food, water, timber
(Correctional facilities)
(Ex: Heroin addicts from Viet Nam War)
Pg. 232
Word Bank Human Behavior Mid-Term 2015:
Multidimensional a
Full transcript