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The relationships between organisms,ecosystems,biomes, and the flow of matter and energy

Priccila Davila

on 14 September 2012

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Pesticide Use
The use of pesticides in plants, can cause the consumer that eats the plant to receive the pesticide, which adds to the pesticide that is possibly already in the primary consumer. When another consumer comes along and eats the primary consumer, the secondary consumer receives the same amount of pesticide and the amount that is already there. This continues till the last consumer dies and decomposes. By Priccila Davila and Yuri Ahn THE TROPICAL RAINFOREST The Relationships within the Biome PARASITISM: includes an organism which is harmed and an organism that benefits in a relationship.
COMMENSALISM: includes an organism that benefits and an organism that neither is benefited nor harmed in a relationship.
MUTUALISM: interaction in which both organisms benefit TYPES OF SYMBIOSIS Global Warming
When fossil fuels are burned, this process releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
Too much of CO2 in the atmosphere causes the green house effect. The green house effect is when gases such as carbon dioxide is trapped in the atmosphere and causes the earth to heat up. Human Activities that Influence the Environment:
This breath-taking, green biome full of vegetation and life is being destroyed due to our carelessness and ignorance in many different ways. COMPONENTS OF A FOOD CHAIN ACCORDING TO ENERGY FLOW The distribution of energy among trophic levels is shown through energy pyramids.
In an ecosystem, the energy first comes from the sun which then gives its energy to plants to produce photosynthesis. This energy then goes through food chains all the way to the top consumer.
In an energy pyramid, the amount of kcal decreases as the organism goes up on the pyramid because some of the energy is lost along the way . IMPORTANCE OF CYCLING OF MAJOR NUTRIENTS Plant Adaptations Parisitism: Common Awl Skipper Hasora Badra surrounded by cocoons. Commensalism:The dart frog uses the bermiliad plant as a shelter. Mutualism:The ant defends the fungus while the fungus provides the ant with food. A food chain only follows the connection of one producer and a single chain of consumers in an ecosystem.
The sun is the source of energy in a food chain. That energy is then given to the producer. When it is consumed by a consumer that energy is transferred to that next level. If that 1st level consumer is eaten by a 2nd level consumer, the energy is then transferred to that organsim and etc. Global Warming Video Because of the abundant amount of rainfall in the Tropical Rainforest, plants have had to adapt certain characteristics to survive.
Drip Tips: many forest trees have leaves with drip tips to allowing raindrops to fall off faster to avoid growth of bacteria and fungus in the wet and warm climate.
Lianas: these vines which surround the trees in the forest, have their roots in the ground and then reach high into the tree canopy to receive its sunlight.
Epiphytes: these plants live on the surface of other plants taking advantage of the sunlight in the canopy.
Stilt and Prop Roots: these roots giv support to tropical palms in the wet and shallow soils they grow in.
Mangroves: these trees have wide-spreading stilt roots that trap organic matter and support them in the mud they're in. Population Growth
The increasing number of people in the world leads to more need and use of natural resources. Oil and coal are two of many that are non-renewable. Non-renewable resources are used up faster than can be replaced. This will eventually lead to using up all the oil and coal that is currently accessible. The Tropisms This is a phenomenon where a plant moves a certain way in response to a stimuli.
Phototropism: when a plant turns toward the sun in response to the sunlight
Geotrophism: a plants response towards gravity
Hydrotrophism: a plants response towards water Water Pollution and Consumption
Raw sewage, chemical contaminants and other waste products are continually put into bodies of water. Continuous water pollution could destroy an ecosystem.
Water is needed by all humans across the globe and the water is being contaminated by water pollution. This leads to the lack of usable water. This is why ground water is being extracted from aquifers at a rate that it's being used up too quickly. Power Consumption
Fossil fuels are burned to attain electricity. Electricity is used across the globe daily in immense quantities. The burning of fossil fuels releases CO2 in the atmosphere, and this causes global warming.
Hydroelectricity and wind energy does not affect the environment negatively but is neutral to the environment because they're renewable resources. Billions of species are found in tropical rainforests. In fact, about half the world's species lives here! Because of the great amount of different species, competition between organisms is very common in the tropical rainforest in order to survive.
Specialization: when animals or plants adapt to eating things others usually wouldn't. Toucans eat nuts and have developed big strong beaks to crack them open.
Camouflage: many animals in the tropical rainforest use camouflage to "vanish" in the rainforest. Boa constrictors use camouflage to help them catch their prey by allowing them to blend in with its surroundings. Animal Adaptations Phototrophism Camoflage Specialization Although only about 2% of Earth is covered in rainforest, about half of the world's organisms live in this magnificent and lively place causing many interactions among such a small area!
The different relationships among this variety of organisms include predation, parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism.
The different populations both depend on each other and compete for resources.
The three different types of interactions between communities include predation, competition, and symbiosis. Deforestation
Deforestation is the process of removing a very large area of a forest or the whole forest itself. Deforestation occurs by nature causes or humans. This causes all the species of both animals and plant life that had lived in the forest to lose their habitat. Some organisms eventually become extinct because of the constant removal of their homes.
Trees are a vital component of the oxygen cycle and without them there will be an overflow of carbon dioxide. Deforestation can speed up the rate of global warming. Producer: 1000 kcal Primary comsumer: 100 kcal Secondary Consumer: 10 kcal Tertiary consumers: 1 kcal Quantity of Energy in the Steps of an Energy Pyramid Results of Deforestation Hydrogen The majority of organisms need oxygen for cellular respiration.
The oxygen cycle starts of when plants release oxygen when it comes out as a waste product of photosynthesis. Organisms then take it in and then release it as carbon dioxide through respiration.
This cycle is very important in the Tropical Rainforest because of the large amounts of plants that release it, and the large amount of animals that take it in due to the rain. Oxygen Nitrogen Phosphorus Carbon is the building block of life and is needed by all organisms on Earth.
Carbon is also an essential element in organic molecules that make up our body.
In the carbon cycle, plants receive energy from the sun and then convert carbon dioxide into organic material that becomes part of the plant's structure. Then, a consumer eats the plant, and a secondary consumer eats the primary consumer and so on. This continues till the consumer decomposes and the carbon is released back into the atmosphere.
Without the carbon cycle it would be impossible for all organisms to attain carbon. This is the only cycle which doesn't include an atmospheric part and instead mainly takes place below the ground.
It starts off when phosphate is released by the weathering of rocks. Then plants take it up and is moved from producers to consumers in the food web. When they die, decomposers break them down releasing phosphorus back into water or soil to be used by producers all over again.
Phosphorus is a limiting factor for plants' growth. Large amounts of it can lead to the blooming of algae crowding out other plant species and impacting wildlife populations in a negative way. Nitrogen is important because 78% of the Earth's atmosphere is made of it.
The cycle is equally important because nitrogen fixation occurs during the cycle. Nitrogen fixation is when certain types of bacteria convert gaseous nitrogen into ammonia. The process of nitrogen fixation is essential, because organisms can only use nitrogen in the form of ammonium and nitrates.
In the nitrogen cycle, nitrates are released by the bacteria in soil and are absorbed by plants. These plants change nitrates to amino acids and proteins. The nitrogen flows through the cycle as consumers eat the plant and another consumer eats that consumer. The organisms die and decompose and nitrogen is returned to the soil as ammonium. The hydrogen cycle is essential in life because all organisms need water for many reasons. Organisms are also made up of mostly water.
The hydrogen cycle starts off when precipitation falls down to the earth and seeps into the ground or drops in bodies of water such as, lakes, rivers, ponds, and oceans. Then, the water evaporates into the atmosphere by changing into a gaseous state. After evaporation, condensation occurs. Condensation is the process in which the water vapor is changed back into its liquid form. The droplets of water turn into clouds and become heavy enough to drop back to the earth by precipitation.
Without the hydrogen cycle, organisms will have little to no access to water. Carbon Expononential Growth: when the size of a population increases dramatically over a period of time, this occurs. A J-shaped curve is formed on a graph
Logistic Growth: a population starts off with a slow growth then continues on with a short period of exponential growth before ending at a stable size when it reaches its carrying capacity. A logistic growth graph creates a S-shaped curve. Population Trends
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