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Transcript of The Crusades
Elected Pope in March 12, 1088
Died July 29, 1099 He started the first crusade, which led to all nine of them Big question: For religion or for economic gain?
Fight over the Holy Land of Jerusalem
Christians: Where Jesus lived and site of his death
Muslims: Where Muhammad preached Causes Peter the Hermit Born around 1050
Toured around Germany and France in about 1095
Died July 8, 1115 He brought forth what the people of that time called "The people's crusade" Siege of Jerusalem Fought between June 7 and July 15, 1099, during the First Crusade Walter Sans Avoir Died around 1096 He was the leader of the army of the first crusades, which was at Bithynia Sources http://atheism.about.com/od/crusades/a/crusades_3.htm
http://atheism.about.com/od/crusades/a/crusadesoutcome_2.htm The Knights Templar Created in 1118 Disbanded in 1314 They patrolled the pilgrim route to the holy land, and help protect it. Siege of Antioch Occurred October 21, 1097 and June 3, 1098 and was at the beginning of the First Crusade Both leaders of the Crusaders wanted control of the city The crusaders faced famine which killed one in seven men The crusaders managed to enter the city by establishing a contract with a guard of the city Siege of Acre Took place between August 28, 1189 and July 12,1191 Guy of Lusignan, a Crusader leader, wanted to use the city as a base The Crusaders suffered from starvation, internal fighting, and disease. In the end, the Crusaders took the city from the Muslims The Crusaders managed to break into the city from two points The Crusaders killed the Muslim and Jewish population in Jerusalem to "cleanse" the city Causes Muslims wished to drive out (and/or convert to Islam) inhabitants of the time
Increase in problems for Christian pilgrims to the area Salah al-Din Yusuf Causes Italian trade was being blocked by Muslims on seaports on the Mediterranean
Richer Italian countries meant richer Vatican He was the leader of the Muslim in the third crusade Battle of Hattin Fought on July 4, 1187 http://www.umich.edu/~eng415/timeline/Urban.html
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/Saladin.htm Sources Started by Raynald of Chatillon by breaking the truce between Crusaders and Muslims The Crusaders were cut off from their source of water Resulted in the destruction of the majority of the Crusader army Consequences Historians now believe there was not much of an impact on the world from the Crusades
Caused decrease in European wealth
Italy ruled trade in the Mediterranean
One longer lasting impact was on the relationship between Greek & Latin churches
All hope of reconciliation was lost Consequences Changed military ideals of Christians
Previously against, later it was said to be a just war and killing was permitted
Relics were retrieved from holy sites and placed in major churches
The pope’s power and influence increased
The power of the Catholic church in general was reduced Consequences The Muslim capture of Constantinople was delayed
Increased demand for trade goods
Hundreds of Arabic words were introduced to European languages
Influenced literature and poetry
Public baths and latrines were introduced to Europe
European medicine improved Battle of Ascalon Fought August 12, 1099 and was the final battle of the First Crusade The Fatimids had an army of 50,000 men, but the Crusaders only had 10,000 men When the Crusaders invaded the enemy's camp, many Fatimids fled to Ascalon Bibliography http://militaryhistory.about.com/ http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_jerusalem1099.html http://allempires.com/article/index.php?q=siege_antioch http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/the-crusades.htm http://history-world.org/midcrusades.htm