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Psychology by: Mr. Davey

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Matthew Davey

on 24 February 2015

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Transcript of Psychology by: Mr. Davey

is the study of the mind and behavior
- Every measurable internal and external activity a living thing does
7 Main Types of Psychology
1) Biological Psychology
2) Cognitive Psychology
3) Developmental Psychology
4) Learning and Memory
5) Perception
6) Personality
7) Social Psychology
Biological Psychology
Studies the neural, hormonal and other physical factors that affect behavior
Helps with addictions, eating disorders, health issues, effects of environmental pollutants, anger management, etc.
Cognitive Psychology
Studies how perception, thought, and interpretation affect behaviors and interactions with others ("The psychology of thought")
Provides counseling, therapy, psychotherapy, hypnosis, etc.
Developmental Psychology
Studies the mental and behavioral changes that occur over the life span of an individual
Helps parents, teachers, and doctors design plans for developing minds and learning disabilities
Learning and Memory
Studies how new associations are made and how information is stored
Helps improve curriculum design, memory strategies, and teaching methods
Studies the use of the senses to gain information about the world and give it meaning
Guides advertising, media design, interior design for specific effects, acoustic systems, etc.
Studies the factors that determine similarities and differences among individuals
Promotes team-building, creates appropriate work environments, people development, etc.
Social Psychology
Studies the ways in which human behavior is linked to culture and society
Works with groups of people-families, ethnic groups, people with alternate lifestyles, community groups, religions, and race relations
List all of the ways that psychology can help to study human behavior and the mind.
Key Figure
Key Figure
Key Figure
Key Figure
Wilhelm Wundt
William James
Sigmund Freud
John B. Watson
Work within your group, using any means of technology available, to gather information and prepare a 3-5 minute presentation on your
key figure
Your presentation should cover, at minimum:
Key Figure
Personal background info
Contributions to Psychology field
Famous Quotes
Interesting Facts
Definition of method
Uses in psychology
Pros and cons of method
Still in use today?
Teamwork 2pts
Informative 2pts
Accurate 2pts
Tasks 2pts
Presentation 2pts
10 Points Total
Wilhelm Wundt
The first to recognize Psychology as a separate scientific field
Pushed the ideas of
, which means looking inside oneself
He used the scientific method to study the mind and behavior
William James
Focused his studies on how the mind worked
- if an idea works, it is useful or valid
Studied all aspects of an individual's experience, including behavior and individual differences
Sigmund Freud
Focused his efforts on the unconscious mind
Believed heavily in dream analysis
Believed that early experiences shape the person you are
John B. Watson
Focused study on behavior, not mind
He only studied external, observable behaviors
He developed many tests to study behavior, and predict future behaviors
The Scientific Approach to Research in Psychology
Ask a Question
Questions may come from experience, previous psychological theory, common beliefs, etc.
Form a Hypothesis
Make a statement that answers the question. For example, "Gender affects behavior"
Test the Hypothesis
Select a method, participants, and decide on the data to be collected
Observe and collect data
Analyze the Data
Determine what the data means in terms of the truth or falsity of the hypothesis
Draw a conclusion
According to the data, is the hypothesis true or false?
Central Nervous System
The Brain
The most complex structure in the known universe
Made up of tissue and about 100 billion nerve cells
The "information cells"
Sends electric pulses throughout the nervous system - controls movements, decisions, etc
Short branch extensions of a neuron
Messages are sent and received using the dendrite
Long, slender nerve fiber on the neuron
Directs nerve impulses to and from the cell body
Soma & Nucleus
The cell body contains the nucleus of the neuron
The nucleus contains the genetic information of the neuron
The contact point between two neurons
Exchange of electric impulses, occurring through the dendrite
The chemicals that carry information from neuron to neuron
The Brain
How we know what we know
1. Dissecting brains after death

2. Using imaging technology to view activity during specific activities

3. Observing behavior changes that result from injury or disease
Remember Phineas Gage?
Brain Stem
Evolutionarily, the oldest part of the brain
Center for involuntary actions in the body (breathing, balance, heartbeat)
So yeah, pretty important
"switching station" from brain to spinal cord
Monitors the body's response to injury, blood pressure, and reflexes (coughing, sneezing, laughing, etc.)
Responsible for movement, balance, and posture
Limbic System
Includes the amygdala and hippocampus
controls emotional response, memory, and learning
This pea-sized portion of the brain controls body temperature and regulates the pituitary gland
Relays information from the body to the cerebral cortex
Makes up about two-thirds of the entire brain mass
It is divided into a left and right hemisphere
Covers the outer-most portion of the brain, where the majority of neurons exist
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
The nervous system's partner in controlling the body's functions
Nervous system controls immediate responses, endocrine system controls responses over weeks or months
Chemical messengers responsible for maintaining growth, sexual development, and metabolism
Organs and tissues scattered throughout the body that produce hormones
Pituitary Gland
Considered the "master gland" because it controls many other glands in the body
Creates the following hormones: growth hormone, thyroid simulating hormone, and oxytocin
Thyroid Gland
Produces energy (from nutrients) that the body can use
When overactive - You feel jittery or nervous

When underactive - You feel tired or drowsy
Parathyroid Gland
Pineal Body
Thymus Gland
Adrenal Gland
Controls level of calcium in blood
Important for healthy bones and teeth
Produces the hormone melatonin
Melatonin promotes tanning of skin, and affects the sleep-wake cycle
Aids the body's immune system
Helps by recognizing and destroying viruses and bacteria
The body's producer of adrenaline
Produces more in times of stress, fear, or anger
Impacts physical factors; such as body shape and hairiness
Makes insulin, which controls the levels of sugar in the bloodstream
Produces female sex hormones; such as estrogen and progesterone
Houses 60,000 reproductive eggs (only about 400 will ripen)
Producer of androgens - the hormone responsible for male characteristics
Produces about 12 trillion sperm cells in a lifetime
Sensory Systems
This is how we experience the world, using our five senses
Receptors -

These are contained in the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin and allow us to process the world around us
Receptors and Stimuli
Eye - Wavelengths of light

Ear - Vibrations of air molecules

Nose - Gaseous molecules in the air

Tongue - Chemicals in food

Skin - Pressure, temperature
Absolute Threshold
These are determined by psychologists, through many experiments, to be the absolute minimum stimuli that can be detected by our senses
A candle flame seen 30 miles away on a clear, dark night
The tick of a watch under quiet conditions at 20 feet
1 teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water
1 milliliter of perfume diffused into a three-room apartment
The wing of a bee falling on your cheek from a distance of 1 centimeter
Sensory Coding
The process of the receptor sending information about a stimuli to the brain
The brain then interprets this information and forms a perception
Sensory Adaptation
Repeated stimuli, without variation, weakens the response of the receptor over time
For example, the sound of an air conditioner blends into the background over time
Hearing and Sound
Sound Wave
- A flow of vibration moving through the air molecules
Sound waves travel slower than light
These waves exert pressure on the receptors in the ear drum
Characteristics of Sound
Every sound has three unique, measurable qualities that we use to interpret them
1. Pitch
2. Timbre
3. Intensity

Refers to how high or low a sound is
Determined by the frequency of sound waves
The quality, or complexity, of a tone
The loudness of a sound, as measured in decibels.
Absolute threshold - 0 decibels
Normal Conversation - 60 decibels
Dangerous to hearing - 130 decibels
External Ear
Middle Ear
Internal Ear
The visible part of the ear
Shaped in a way that aids in picking up sound waves
Air conducts the soundwaves here
After the sound is funneled into the ear canal, it strikes the eardrum
The eardrum sends it to three small bones: The hammer, anvil, and stirrup
These bones send it into the inner ear
Sound is funneled into a snail-shaped tube called the
The cochlea is filled with 20,000 tiny hair, called
, which are moved by the sound waves
Conduction Deafness
The eardrum or middle ear bones are immobilized by disease or injury
Hearing aids can assist with this type of deafness
Sound waves are partially or completely prevented from entering the inner ear
Nerve Deafness
Damage to the auditory nerve
Auditory messages cannot reach the brain, no matter how loud
Hearing aids are not helpful with this type
Stimulation Deafness
Permanent hearing loss caused by exposure to very loud noises
Any sound over 130 db can damage the cochlea and cause deafness
If there was a 'magic pill' that would allow you to never feel physical pain again, would you take it? Explain your answer.
Odor molecules released by animals to signal potential mates that they are 'ready to mingle'
There is an active debate amongst neurobiologists if humans react the same way
Skin Receptors
Receptors in the skin react to 4 stimuli:
1. Touch

2. Pressure

3. Temperature

4. Pain
Somatic Receptors
These are our "touch" receptors located all over the body
These receptors are most dense in tongue, lips, face, hands, and genitals; making these areas most sensitive to stimuli
Receptors are also located inside body, so we can feel organ pain
How Pain Works
Pain is a blessing in disguise
It serves as a warning signal to our body
Tolerance of pain varies person to person
Very important hormone; The body's natural pain reliever
Released by neurons in the upper spine, and parts of the brain
Relieves or eliminates pain as needed
Congenital Insensitivity to Pain
An extremely rare genetic disorder, which leads to the inability to feel pain
Although it sounds great, it is actually very dangerous and often leads to short life span
An experience caused by stimulation of the senses
Your perception of a stimuli is based on several factors that determine what it means to you
The behavioral aspects of a response to stimuli
An individual's psychological state changes how they interpret stimuli
Signal-Detection Theory
This takes into account someone's environment, physical condition, motivation, mood, and attitude.
Sensitivity to a stimuli based on personal criteria
The awareness of one's self and one's environment
Consciousness involves several psychological processes, including; sensory systems, neural impulses, etc
There are four main types of consciousness
External Sensory Perception
Awareness of sights, sound, tastes, smells, and touch sensations in the environment around you
Internal Sensory Perception
The ability to recall sensory stimuli from past experiences or imagine future experiences
Abstract Awareness
This is "extra-sensory" perception
Instead of using our five senses to interpret certain information, we use our mind to interpret abstract ideas
What feelings do the following images create within you?
Awareness of Self
The realization that you are separate and unique from people around you
The knowledge that your thoughts and feelings are internal and private
The use of imagination to temporarily escape reality
It can relieve stress and increase creativity
Done excessively, it can create productivity issues
Drug-Induced State
Chemical altering to mental state
Different chemicals create different alterations to state
Nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines, etc. stimulate mental state
Marijuana, heroin, alcohol, etc. depress mental state
Experiencing sights and sounds that do not occur
Can arise from mental illnesses, drug use, sensory deprivation, etc
Meditative State
A highly focused state of consciousness
Achieved by concentrating on a repetitive, peaceful stimulus
A great mechanism for fighting stress
Lucid Dreaming
Dreaming while you're aware you are dreaming
You can usually control the outcome of these dreams
I cdnuolt blveiee taht I aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdgnieg The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn’t mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porblem. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? Yaeh and I awlyas thuohgt slpeling was ipmorantt.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that results from practice or experience
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)

Unconditioned Response (UCR)

Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

Conditioned Response (CR)
Uses of Classical Conditioning
1. Counterconditioning

2. Flooding

3. Desensitization
Combining fear and pleasure simultaneously
Example - Eating your favorite food while experiencing something fearful
Forced exposure to a massive amount of fearful stimuli all at once
Once it is realized that no negative impact occurs, the fear is hopefully relieved
The gradual phasing in of fearful stimuli until the fear is reduced or limited
Starts with looking at pictures, then watching videos, and ultimately experiencing it
Operant Conditioning
The use of positive or negative reinforcements to encourage behavioral changes
Primary Reinforcements
A reinforcing stimuli that is tied to some aspect of survival - food, water, sense of security, etc.
Primary reinforcements provide the strongest motivation to cooperate/learn
Secondary Reinforcement
Non-essential rewards given as a way of motivating
Examples: Money, praise, recognition, etc.
Method of refining behavior by reinforcing behaviors that approximate it more and more closely
Example: "You're getting warmer"
Teaching each step of a complex system individually, and then linking them together
Example: Teaching an elaborate computer program in separate phases or stages
Memory - A mental process responsible for encoding, storage, and retrieval of information
The process of taking input from the senses and converting it to language the brain can understand
Encoded messages are retained either temporarily or permanently, depending on its potential use
This information lays dormant, until it is needed again
At the appropriate time, stored information can be access
Retrieval - The act of recalling stored information for a specific purpose
Stages of Memory
1. Sensory Memory

2. Short - Term Memory

3. Long - Term Memory
Sensory Memory
This is the shortest form of memory (few seconds at most)
As we scan our environment, using our sensory systems, we interpret stimuli and then forget most of the information within moments
Short-Term Memory
From sensory memory, information goes into short-term, or working, memory
This information is retained for a few minutes at most
Long-Term Memory
Much like a computer's hard drive, your brain stores information for later use
Examples: Remembering names, how to get home, how to drive a car, phone numbers, etc.
Memorize the following number
Easier to memorize like this?
A process of grouping pieces of unrelated information
This memory strategy can be helpful to organize and remember information
Problems with STM
- Information that is determined to not be important enough to hold onto long-term
- While attempting to memorize information, an outside stimulus steals your attention and inhibits the process
Explicit vs Implicit Memories
Explicit Memories
- Memories that we can recall and easily describe. We recall experiencing the event.
Implicit Memories
- Memories that are not easily recalled or described. Knowledge that we have, but don't remember where it came from
Procedural vs Declarative Memories
- "Knowing How" memories. Motor skills that we can perform without much thought or effort.
- "Knowing What" memories. Memories or thoughts that can be put into words, or 'declared'.
Context Dependence
This describes the need to recreate the environment something was learned it, in order to remember it
If you encounter an item outside of its original environment, you may not recognize it
State Dependence
This describes the need to recreate the mood you were in when you learned something in order to remember it
If you learned something when you were happy, it may not be easily remembered when you are upset
Amnesia is a temporary or permanent inability to remember
There are several different causes of amnesia
Physiological Causes
Brain tumor, head injury, stroke, or other trauma to the central nervous system
Depending on the severity of the trauma, the damage can be very temporary or permanent
Substance Abuse
Korsakoff's Syndome
- A form of amnesia caused by vitamin deficiency associated with alcohol abuse
The side effect of several narcotics include temporary and permanent amnesia
Psychogenic Causes
These are repressed memories resulting from emotionally traumatic experiences
These memories may be repressed permanently, or recalled once a stimulus triggers the reactivation of the memory
Learning Curves
A way of organizing and storing information based on grouping words together based on similarities
For example, what other words come to mind when you hear the word "honest"?
Memory techniques that help to memorize a series of ideas, words, or thoughts
For example, learning middle names by associating a word with the same first letter
The rate at which someone learns something new
Generally, learning is slow in the beginning, faster in the middle, and then plateaus
The ability to learn and adapt to our environment
- The field of psychology that measures psychological characteristics, such as intelligence.
Intelligence Quotient
A method used for quantifying intelligence and comparing it to the score of others your age
Based on the work of German psychologist,
William Stern
Scoring Intelligence
165+ Genius
130-164 Superior Intelligence
120-129 Very High Intelligence
110-119 Bright
90-109 Average
85-89 Low Average
70-84 Dull
Below 70 Intellectual Disability

Genetic Inheritability
The study of the role heredity plays in intelligence
In has been determined that heredity plays, on average, a 50% role in determining intelligence
Why do siblings have different levels of intelligence from one another?
Sibling Intelligence Differences
Shared Environment
- Factors shared by both siblings, equally. Examples - genetics, economics, housing, etc.
Nonshared Environment
- Factors unique to you, separate from your siblings. Examples - friends, life experiences, priorities, activities, hobbies, life choices, etc.
Gender Differences
There is no noticeable difference in total I.Q. between genders
I.Q. by section - males tend to score higher on visual-spatial, and math; females tend to score higher on verbal skills
Marilyn vos Savant
The highest recorded I.Q. (228) belongs to Marilyn vos Savant
- A person with an IQ lower than 70, but an immense intelligent in one or more specific areas
Convergent Thinking
The ability to choose a logical answer from a selection of possibilities
Divergent Thinking
A thought process that results in many original and different solutions or ideas.
The incentive to act
5 Components of Motivation
- A stimulus that moves a person towards a behavior designed to achieve a specific goal

- A lack of something that one requires or desires

- A force that pushes a person to act

- A force that pulls a person toward a particular behavior

- The states of the body and mind associated with feelings
Primary Needs
- unlearned needs for basic things that affect the ongoing functioning of the body.
Secondary Needs
- learned, psychological needs for materials that are non-essential for survival
A self-adjusting process that maintains a constant internal environment in an organism.
Examples - Body temperature, glucose level, regulation of bacteria levels, etc
Drive-Reduction Theory
This theory states that "drive" occurs as an unpleasant sensation, and humans react by taking action to subdue the drive
Examples - Thirsty; drink something, Need Money; get a job
The Humanistic Theory
States that humans have more needs than just basic survival needs
The Humanistic Theory argues that humans also have the need to have fulfilling meaning in life, and worthwhile relationships
Social-Cognitive Theory
States that humans have a mental image of the "end result" of a specific goal
They compare that image to the current reality, and use the difference for motivation
Cognitive Consistency Theory
Motivation is the drive to maintain a balance between thoughts, beliefs, and behavior.
Cognitive Dissonance
- The discomfort that comes along with behaving in a way that goes against your thoughts or beliefs.
Expectancy/Value Theory
Explains the role that adults play in shaping the motivation to achieve in children
Children observe the behavior of adults, and particularly the results of that behavior
Extrinsic Motivation
This is the promotion of behavior by giving external rewards or punishment by others
Intrinsic Motivation
This is the promotion of behavior by internal rewards, such as self-satisfaction
"Father of Psychology"
Created field of
(Cell Body)
Any sensory trigger that we are unfamiliar with
Our "natural reflex" to that trigger
A sensory trigger we've experience before
Our trained response to a stimuli, based on prior experience
Write 5 personal goals you have. Under each goal, briefly explain why this is important to you.
1. One week from now
2. One month from now
3. One year from now
4. Five years from now
5. Lifetime

The relatively stable patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting possessed by an individual
The Psychoanalytic Approach
Freud developed this theory based on the idea that our personality is comprised of three separate components, the
, the
, and the
The ID
This is the earliest developed portion of the mind.
This lies entirely in the unconscious mind
It contains the most basic, primitive drives. e.g. The drive to survive, eat, and reproduce
The Ego
Contains our conscious perceptions that develop with maturity
The ego balances the needs of the id with the reactions of the real world
The ego ensures that we satisfy our needs in a "socially acceptable" manner.
The Super-Ego
This is the last forming portion of personality
The super-ego is driven by morals and values taught to us by adults we trust
The super-ego often overrides the primitive impulses of the ID
Defense Mechanisms
The Ego has the ability to avoid pain and reduce anxiety by using one of the following methods...
- pushes anxiety producing ideas into the unconscious

- involves making up a reason for your behavior and explaining it away

- involves placing the cause of your problems on someone else

- Emotionally "passing the buck" E.g. You are angry with a teacher so you yell at your best friend
Defense Mechanisms
- Refusing to accept something that is upsetting

Reaction Formation
- Acting contrary to your true feelings

- Finding acceptable outlets for your feelings

- reverting to earlier, immature behavior to get what you want
The following Psychologists believed in the basis of Freud's work, however disagreed on his emphasis on sexual and aggressive drives.
Alfred Adler
He believed that we are all born with feelings of inferiority, and believes this is the basis of our motivations.
- acting in an excessive way to overcome a physical or psychological defect
Inferiority Complex
- When a person's thoughts are dominated by an inability to succeed or be competitive
Karen Horney
She believed that social influences, rather than sexual drive, was the paramount motivating force
She believed that social anxiety was evidence that we put the most effort into being socially accepted.
Carl Jung
Developed the method of Analytical Psychology, which studied the collective unconscious of a society.
Archetypes -
Universal forms we encounter throughout life. Examples - Mother, Father, God, Hero, or Leader.
Persona -
The image we present to others. Jung believed that our persona is usually vastly different then our natural beings.
Erik Erikson
Erikson believed that the most important factor in developing personality was the formation of healthy reciprocating roles.
Examples - Mother-Child, Teacher-Student, Husband-Wife
The Trait Approach
The belief that our moral and social characteristics are relatively unchanging and they determine our behavior in various situation
An introvert tends to draw ideas and energy from themselves, and are often creative.
An extrovert tends to draw ideas and energy from others, and tends to be active and self-expressive
The Behavioral Approach
Behaviorists focus solely on the effects of the environment on people's behavior and personalities
John B. Watson believed that by controlling someone's environment from birth, you could determine their personality and behavioral tendencies.
The Humanistic Approach
Behaviorists believe personalities are shaped by environmental re-enforcements
Humanistic Psychologists believe that personalities are not determined by external factors, but instead internal factors
To prove this, they studied many successful people from varying backgrounds. The only similarities they found were internal characteristics, not environmental similarities
They also believe that individuals can consciously shape their own personalities.
The Sociocultural Approach
This study focuses on the effects of race, gender, and culture on the formation of personality
Socioculturalists look for common personality trends amongst similar backgrounds
For example, Americans focus more on individual achievements while African tribe members focus on the achievements of their entire community
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