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114 Week 7 Schema Development
Transcript of 114 Week 7 Schema Development
What is a schema?
According to Reber and Reber's (2001) definition, schema is a plan, a structure, a framework, and a programme, and so on.
In all or any of the meanings, schemas (schemata)are mental plans that are abstract and that they function as guides for action, as structure for interpreting information, as frameworks for solving problems.
What do schemas do for us?
Schemas allow for us to form impressions. They affect how we may perceive, notice, and also interpret information. Unfortunately or fortunately schemas may bias encoding of social information.
When do we rely on schemas?
Schemas have a very strong visual component. For example, we all hold schemas for age, race, or gender. We also may rely on schemas when something encoded in our minds was recently used or that is used frequently. We also rely on schemas for information that may stick out (something that seems odd, unexpected, or novel)
Where did the concept of a schema come from?
Frederic Bartlett, in 1932, first introduced the concept of the schema while working on constructive memory.
Bartlett considered schemas to be "maps or structures of knowledge stored in the long-term memory.
Although there may be some debate over the origin of the concept of the schema, some suggest that Piaget first introduced it in 1926, the fact remains that Piaget believed humans develop through a series of qualitative stages built upon common knowledge he called schemas. In other words, a schema is a picture of what we know about life at a particular point in time. As a child develops, he tends to interprete experiences based on what he already knows; what his schema tells him. Piaget referred to this process of making the world fit into our schema as assimilation. If the experience does not fit into our model of knowledge, we begin to modify our schema. Piaget referred to this as accomodation.
In other words, a schema is a picture of what we know about life at a particular point in time. As a child develops, he tends to interprete experiences based on what he already knows; what his schema tells him. Piaget referred to this process of making the world fit into our schema as assimilation. If the experience does not fit into our model of knowledge, we begin to modify our schema. Piaget referred to this as accomodation.
Although there may be some debate over the origin of the concept of the schema, some suggest that Piaget first introduced it in 1926, the fact remains that Piaget believed humans develop through a series of qualitative stages built upon common knowledge he called schemas.
The word schema comes from a Greek word, which means shape, or more generally, plan, a mental set or representation. In English, both schemas and schemata are used as plural forms.
According to Chris Athey (1990) it is a ‘pattern of repeatable behaviour into which experiences are assimilated and that are gradually co-ordinated’ (Athey, 1990 p.27)
Skemp explains the functions of schema by saying that they integrate existing knowledge, act as a tool for future learning and that they make understanding possible
The majority of schemas are mathematical (Athey 1990)
Types of Schema include
Schemas can be described as a child’s repeated pattern of behaviour
Schemas cannot be taught, they come from the child’s own self-interest
Supporting children’s schemas feeds their natural curiosity which, in turn, extends their thinking.
Some key points
Arnold, C. (1997) Child Development and Learning 2 -5 Years: Georgia’s Story. London: Hodder and Stoughton
Athey, C. (1990) Extending Thought in Young Children: A Parent-Teacher Partnership. London: Paul Chapman Publishing
Nutbrown, C. (1994) Threads of Thinking: Young Children Learning and the Role of Early Education. London: Paul Chapman
Connecting - a child with a connection schema is interested in joining things together
Trajectories - vertical, horizontal and oblique, throwing, jumping, dropping, a fascination with the beginning and end of lines.
Rotational - going round and round
Enveloping and containing covering things up and putting things inside.
Transporting - a child may move objects or collections of objects from one place to another, perhaps using a pram, bag or truck.
A child who has a containment schema loves to put one thing inside another
schema are core patterns of behaviour
we tend to repeat throughout life
Skemp agrees with Athey that early schemas
developed during play form the basis to future
approaches to learning.
Repeating the behaviour encouraged by the schemas
promote a child's ability to form concepts in order to
accommodate ever improving problem solving,
reasonsing and memory skills.
Schemas of different types develop
according to a child's interaction with their environment. Piaget suggests that the maturation of the brain, therefore a child's readiness to learn, makes available new schemas.
So, in summary
Aim of the session
to broaden your understanding of