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digestive function

Navneet Dhaliwal

on 4 January 2012

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Transcript of biology

Digestive system and functions SMALL INTESTINE
This is where the digestion is completed and most of the absorption for proteins occur. 3 major parts of the small intestine
Duodenum-extends from the pyloric sphincter of the stomach and it is the smallest part of the small intestine.It is about 10 inches in length.this is where the digestion starts.
Jejunum-extends from the duodenum and is about 8 ft in length.it is the site of digestion and absorption
Ileum-it is about 12 ft in length.It is absorption of simple nutrients..Examples: amino acids,simple sugar,fatty acids, Liver
produces bile
bile then sent to the small intestine to help digest
largest organin the body
Gall bladder
Bile is
stored In the end this is what happens in the digestive system
About 20-21 feet in lenght
and I inch in diameter Where the digestion is
completed and most of
the absorption occurs Absorption is
occurred due to
the villi. Pancreas
Produces enzymes and
other substances
essential to the digestive
process after poured into the
small intestine 6-9 inches in
length Large Intestine 6 feet length and
two to one and half
inches in diameter 3 main parts of the large intestine
Ascending Colon-rises on the right side of the abdomen to approximately the inferior of the liver
Transverse Colon-the large intestine continues across the abdomen to the left
Descending Colon-at the level of the spleen the large intestine drops inferiorly to the level of the iliac crest the main fuction is
to form solid waste Rectum Stores stuff until
time to let go. Oral Cavity Where mechanical and
chemical digestion take place Tongue - This
is a thick muscular organ
covered by mucous
membranes and is anchored in the midline to the
floor of the mouth by a fold of membrane. Salivary Gland -the first organs of chemical digestion within the digestive system.These glands secrete digestive juices containing carbohydrate-digesting enzymes.
Three types of glands Parotid Glands-about 25-35% of
the daily salivary secretion is
produced here.This gland lies
below our ear. Submandibular Gland-About 60-70%
of the saliva is produced here.This
gland lies under the mandible. Sublingual Gland-About 3-5% of the saliva produced here.This gland lies under the tongue.
This is the smallest salivary gland. Teeth-the organ of chewing.They cut, grind,and tear ingested food so it can be mixed with saliva and swallowed. Incisors-They are adapted for cutting food and are closest to the midline . Cuspids-These teeth are also known as canines.They have a pointed surface to help in tearing and shedding the food. Bicupids-In total we have four bicupids,two on the upper surface and two on the lower.They only have two roots.They have a flattened crown to help in crushing and grinding food. Molars-Act as millstones to
crush and grind food Epiglottis-A part of the
respiratory system.There is a
flap there which opens and
closes.It prevents food from
entering the trachea. Stomach About five-sixths of the stomach is to the left of the median line.The stomach lies in the epigastric and left hypochodriac regions of the abdominal cavity. 3 parts of the Stomach:
Cardia-The portion of the stomach where the food enters the stomach.
Fundas-Is the left portion of the stomach's body.It allows for an accumulation of stomach gases produced by chemical digestion.
It will also store undigested food for up to 1 hour.
Pylorus-Is the region of the stomach that connects to the duodenum.It is divided into two parts:
the pyloric antrum, which connects to the body of the stomach.
the pyloric canal, which connects to the duodenum.
The Outermost Muscle Layers Of The Stomach
Muscularis externa-it id the outer muscle layer
longitudinal layer-is the outermost layer which is a continuous with the muscles of the esophagus
Middle circular layer-it wraps around the body of the stomach and forms the pyloric sphincters.
Oblique layers-is the innermost layer
Serosa-a outermost layer which has a dense network with the arteries and veins which supplies the inner of the stomach
Submucosa-is a layer of loose connective tissue containing large blood vessels,lymphatic vessels,and a plexus of nerves.
The Inner layer Of The Stomach Called Mucosa
There are three types of mucosa layers:
Muscularis Mucosa-a narrow band of smooth muscle and elastic fits
Lamina Propria-is the underlying of loose connective tissue with blood vessels,sensory nerve endings,smooth muscle fibers and areas of Lymphatic tissue.
Mucosal Epithelium-the innermost layer whichcontains the secretingvcells of the stomach
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