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Chapter 2: Nonverbal Communication Development

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on 1 September 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 2: Nonverbal Communication Development

Maslow's Framework
Nonverbal Communication Development:
A

Reflexive
Approach
Chapter objectives
Explain the concept of reflexivity

Identify the five phases of the Reflexive Cycle of Nonverbal Communication Development

Describe key elements within each of the five phases

Identify and provide examples of the eight codes of nonverbal communication

Discuss key research findings regarding nonverbal communication sending and receiving ability

Identify,define, and provide examples of Mehrabian's three dimensions
Phase 2: Change Self
Unconscious incompetence
: We're unaware of own incompetence

Conscious incompetence
: We become aware or conscious we're not competent

Conscious competence
: We're aware that we know or can do something, but it hasn't yet become an integrated skill or habit

Unconscious competence
: Skills become second nature. We know we can do something, but don't have to concentrate to be able to act on that knowledge
Codes of Nonverbal Communication
Environment
Space and Territory
Physical Appearance
Body Movement, Gestures, and Posture
Facial Expression
Eye Expression
Touch
Vocal Expression
The second phase in the Reflexive Cycle involves changing our nonverbal communication, based on the inventory completed in phase 1
By studying nonverbal communication or possibly through common, everyday interaction, you may decide you want to change your behavior
Phase 3: Inventory Others
Phase 3 challenges you to inventory others' nonverbal behavior closely, and pay attention to a wider range of nonverbal cues than you're used to doing
Covert observation
involves appropriately observing the nonverbal behaviors of other people without drawing much or any attention to oneself
Phase 1: Inventory Self
The first phase of the reflexive cycle is the continuous process of becoming more aware of your own nonverbal communication
Inventory first the nonverbal elements that other people have made you aware of throughout your life
Chapter 2: Nonverbal Communication Development
What Does
"Reflexive"
mean?
Communication scholars have described reflexivity as "a form of self-critical yet compassionate self-examination," explaining that "through reflexivity, we come to moments of self-discovery"
A
reflex
is an action "independent of will, as an automatic response to the stimulation of a nerve"
Phase 4: Transact with Others
In Phase 4 we interact with others and mutually affect one another's nonverbal behavior
This process if referred to as a
transaction
, because it implies a shared creation of meaning that occurs in a simultaneous, ongoing manner
Phase 5: Reflect, Assess, and Re-Inventory Self
Phase 5 calls on you to reflect on and assess the process you've just undertaken
Remember that the cycle is ongoing; we never stop evolving in our understanding and use of nonverbal communication
A second aspect of this inventory activity involves asking others for feedback about your nonverbal communication
Overt observation

involves asking people directly about their own nonverbal behavior or the nonverbal behaviors of others, also known as

perception checking
Environment
The choice we make about the environment in which we live and operate reveal a good deal about who we are;

our nonverbal behavior is altered by various environments in which we communicate

The physical environment in which we function can be seen as extensions of our personalities

Our behavior, perceptions, and even our physical and mental health may be altered because of the physical environments in which we find ourselves
Space and Territory
Proxemics
is the study of how people (and animals) create and use space and distance, as well as how they behave to protect and defend that space

The study of how people use space and objects to communicate occupancy or ownership of space is termed
territoriality

We communicate our ownership of space with
territorial markers
-objects and actions that signify an area has been claimed
Physical Appearance
Physical appearance encompasses the physical attributes of the face and body

People from many diverse cultures place a premium on appearance, including such physical actors as body weight, skin color and texture, hairstyle, and adornments such as clothing and jewelry

Artifacts
such as jewelry, tattoos, piercings, makeup, cologne, and eyeglasses are displays of culture
Body Movement, Gestures, and Postures
Kinesics
is a general term for the study of human movement, gestures, and postures
Facial Expression
Our faces reveal our emotions more than our body movement, tone voice, and so forth

When trying to infer what another person feels by focusing on his or her facial expression, it helps if we :

Know the person well, can see his or her whole face, have plenty of time to observe, and understand the situation that promoted the reaction

Eye Expression
Eye contact is extremely important in U.S. culture, as well as in many other cultures around the world

Eye contact plays a significant role in the judgement of a person's credibility in casual, everyday conversation, but it's particularly critical in a public presentation setting
Touch
Touch, or body contact, is the most powerful (and misunderstood) for of nonverbal communication

Studies of touch (or
haptics
) have shown that human contact is vital to our personal development, well-being, and physical and psychological health
Vocal Expression
Paralanguage, or
vocalics
, includes such aspects as the pitch, rate, and volume at which we speak; it also pertains to having a nasal, raspy, or breathy voice

Beyond the revealing or thoughts, emotions, and the nature of our relationships with others, our voices also convey how self confident, knowledgeable, and attractive we are, and influence how we are perceived by others
Noverbal sending and receiving ability (cont.)
Studies on encoding ability have found that women tend to be more nonverbally expressive than men, especially when it comes to communicating positive emotions such as surprise and happiness

Conversely, men tend to be better encoders of the emotions of anger and sadness, as well as better able to supress or control their emotional display, compared with women
Nonverbal Sending and
Receiving Ability
Norverbal encoding skill, or nonverbal expressiveness is defined as "the ability to convey nonverbal messages to others, particularly the sending of emotional messages, is a critical skill for social success, and a fundamental component of the larger construct of communication competence
Nonverbal Receiving (Decoding) Ability
Research using the PONS test shows that, across various cultures and nationalities, girls and women tend to score higher than boys and men, particularly when it comes to decoding facial expressions

Beyond research techniques, time and patience enhance our receiving ability
Mehrabians's Framework
Mehrabian identifies
immediacy
—nonverbal behavior that communicates liking and engenders feelings of pleasure—as the first component of his framework.

Immediacy cues that show liking and interest include:

Proximity- close, forward lean

Body orientation- face-to-face or side-by-side position

Eye contact- eye gaze and mutual eye gaze
Mehrabian's Immediacy
Cues (cont.)
Facial expression- smiling and other pleasant facial expressions

Gestures- hand nods, movement

Posture- open and relaxed, arms oriented toward others

Touch- culture and context-appropriate touch

Voice- higher pitch, upward pitch
Mehrabians Framework (cont.)
The second component in Mehrabian's framework is
arousal
, which simply means stimulation or activation

The third dimension of Mehrabian's framework communicates the balance of power in a relationship

Dominance cues
communicate status, position, and importance
Summary
The Reflexive Cycle of Nonverbal Communication enhances our understanding of how people come to know themselves better as communicators

Phase 1 (Inventory Self) involves taking stock of our own nonverbal behavior

Phase 2 (Change Self) asks you to change your nonverbal communication, based on the inventory completed in phase 1

Phase 3 (Inventory Others) asks you to inventory others' nonverbal behavior closely

Phase 4 (Interact With Others) asks you to interact with others and mutually affect each other's nonverbal behavior through transaction

Phase 5 (Reflect) asks you to reflect and assess the entire cycle and continue to repeat the process

The eight codes of nonverbal communication are environment, space and territory, physical appearance, body movement/gestures/posture, facial expression, eye contact, touch, and vocal expression

Mehrabian's framework includes three dimensions: immediacy, arousal, and dominance
Nonverbal Reflexive Cycle
Primary categories or codes of nonverbal information:
Full transcript