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Kelsie Baker

on 15 March 2018

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Transcript of Alcohol

Why do people drink?
There are a lot of reasons why people drink
to celebrate
going out with friends
Effects of Alcohol
There are immediate and long term effects of alcohol use.
Factors that influence alcohol's effects include:
Body Size - a smaller person feels the effects of the same amount of alcohol faster than a larger person.
Gender - alcohol generally moves into bloodstream faster in females than in males.
Food - food in the stomach slows down the passage of alcohol into the blood stream.
Rate of intake - if a person drinks alcohol faster than the liver can break it down, the person becomes intoxicated.
Amount - as the amount of alcohol consumed increases, the level of alcohol in the bloodstream rises.
Medicine - alcohol can interfere with the effects of medicines, and medicines can heighten the effects of alcohol.
Choosing to live alcohol free
Benefits of living alcohol free:
Maintaining a healthy body
Establishing healthy relationships
Making healthy decisions
Avoiding risky behaviors
Avoiding illegal activities
Avoiding Violence
Achieving your goals
Why do young people drink?
peer pressure
look like a grown-up
available at a party
don't know how to refuse it
For any reason - alcohol does produce drug effects on the body:
Mood changes
Relieving pain
Releases tension
.....or more accurately ethanol, is a powerful and addictive drug.
Alcohol is a depressant - a drug that slows the central nervous system
Drinking in Moderation
There are some contradictory reports whether or not alcohol in moderation is good for you or harmful for your health.
Some reports say that 2-6 drinks a week will result in less death by heart disease.
Others suggest the same amount of alcohol can lead to cancer.
No matter what - nobody should drink for health's sake
Whats in a drink:
Where is water and other substances along with alcohol in each alcoholic beverage.
Wine and beer have a low percentage of alcohol.
Whiskey, vodka, rum, and brandy can have as much as 50% alcohol.

- the percentage of alcohol in an alcoholic beverage is called proof.
EX. 100 proof = 50% alcohol
1 ounce of hard liquor = 1 drink
1 10-ounce wine cooler = 1 drink
12 ounces of beer = 1 drink
3-4 ounces of wine = 1 drink
Myth: Beer or Wine won't get you drunk as fast as hard liquor.
Fact: The amount of alcohol consumed, not the type of drink, makes a person drunk.
Types of drinkers
Moderate drinker: does not drink excessively or behave inappropriately because of alcohol. Health is not harmed by alcohol.

Social drinker: drinks only on social occasions. Depending on how alcohol effects this person's life - they may be a moderate drinker or problem drinker.

Binge drinker: drinks 4 or more drinks in a short period of time.

Problem drinker: (an alcohol abuser) suffers social, emotional, family, job-related, or other problems because of alcohol. This person is on the way to alcoholism.

Alcohol addict: full blown alcoholism. Problems caused by alcohol are out of control.
Skills for moderation
Those who succeed in moderate drinking drink at appropriate times in the appropriate setting only. They limit intake and enjoy being in control. They typically:
decide in advance how much to drink.
they only drink small amounts. Glasses instead of pitchers.
Allow time for body to break down alcohol.
Sip drinks, add ice cubes or water.
Drink pop or water between drinks.
Know your limits, refuse to exceed it.
Short-term effects
From the moment you take a sip of alcohol the ethanol begins running through your body. The alcohol enters every cell, all organs, nerves, glands, and blood vessels.
Changes to brain:
Judgment and control
Risk of stroke
The effects you feel from the nervous system. You will:
talk and laugh louder
gesture more widely
Your fine tuning nerves have been depressed.
You loosen up, this causes people to think alcohol is a stimulant. It is not
Cardiovascular changes:
small amounts = increased heart rate & blood pressure.
large amounts can have the opposite effect. Irregular heart rhythm. Body temp drops.
Liver and Kidney problems
Liver - inflammation and scarring
Kidneys - increased urine output = dehydration
Stomach and Pancreas Problems:
Stomach - increases stomach acid production, cause nausea and vomiting.
Pancreas - pancreatitis.
More effects you will experience with moderate drinking:
warming of skin
cheeks flush
loses certain types of awareness
disrupts sleep
When you experience these physical affects, at this point, if you stop drinking the effects will wear off. if not the alcohols depressant effect can add up.
Immediate effects with excessive drinking:
With increasing doses of alcohol - behavior becomes unpredictable.
Coordination Disabled

You may act against your own desires or wishes:
pick a fight
have unplanned sex
drink and drive
attempt something dangerous
If you drink more now you will pass out. The amount of alcohol that causes unconsciousness is very close to the amount that causes death.
State of being poisoned. Called drunkenness.
Your bodies defenses
Your body is processing alcohol as fast as it can. Alcohol is a toxin - the body protects itself against toxins in many ways.
Your throat stings from alcohol. Induces choking reflex. Not allowing too much at once.
You vomit. Your stomach rejects too large of a dose.
Liver breaks down any alcohol that does get into the body.
This means that the liver is the first organ to be damaged by alcohol or drugs.
Headaches, nausea caused by drinking too much.
Cures of a hangover:
Pure oxygen
More alcohol
These are caused by several things:
Toxins called congeners. These are all different for each alcohol. Some people are affected differently by different toxins.
Dehydration. Alcohol causes the body to lose water. When you rehydrate your cells swell - causing symptoms of a hangover
Formaldehyde. This is created in your body when alcohol is broken down.
Don't Work!!!!!
Long Term Drinking Will Result In Negative Health Effects
Damage heart, pancreas, brain
Liver disease- Liver cells fill up with fat, excessive drinking causes liver to not be able to remove fat.
Liver damage = high blood reassure, increased risk of heart attack and stroke.
More infections
Fat collects everywhere because liver makes fat from alcohol.
Brain shrinks
Vission permanently impaired
Memory impaired
Learning impaired
Increased risk of cancer
Abnormal changes in blood
Skin Sores and Rashes
Testicular shrinkage
Overy failure
Lung damage
Psychological depression
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
If a person stops using alcohol, some of the physical effects of long-term alcohol use can be reversed.
Alcohol Poisoning
A severe and potentially fatal physical reaction to an alcohol overdose.
Involuntary actions (breathing, gag reflex, may be impaired. The person may eventually pass out. Even unconscious the alcohol that is in their stomach will continue to enter the blood stream. Never assume this individual can just "sleep it off".
Symptoms include:
mental confusion and stupor
coma and an inability to be roused
vomiting and seizures
slow respiration (ten sec. between breaths/less than 8bpm)
irregular heartbeat.
hypothermia or low body temp

BAC - whats the big deal?
Blood alcohol level or concentration is associated with the rate at which alcohol is metabolized by the liver. The higher the alcohol level in the blood, the more intoxicated a person will be. As the liver removes the alcohol from the blood and processes it, the blood alcohol level will drop.
BAC depends upon
quantity and type of alcohol
rate of consumption
body size
Any amount of alcohol in the system can cause:
slowed reflexes
reduced ability to judge distances and speed
increase in risk-taking behaviors
reduced concentration and increased forgetfulness.
DWI - driving while intoxicated
DUI - driving while under the influence
Adult = .08 or up
Under 21 no acceptable BAC
Injury or death to driver and others
arrest, jail time, court appearance, fine or bail, a police record, possible lawsuit
severely restricted driving privileges and or immediate confiscation of driver's license.
higher auto insurance rates or canceled insurance policy
Every 15 minutes
Alcoholism - A disease in which a person has a physical or psychological dependence on drinks that contain alcohol

Alcoholics have a physical and psychological dependence on alcohol.
Symptoms include:
Loss of Control
Physical Dependence
Evidence suggests link between:
Genetics = 4x
Environmental factors (family, friends, culture, peer pressure, stress)
Age of first drink = by age 15 5x
Stages of Alcoholism
Stage 1 - Abuse : A physical and psychological dependece develops.
Drinks for relief
Develops increased tolerance to alcohol
Experiences blackouts
Stage 2 - Dependence : Person is physically dependent on alcohol.
Hide and sneaks drinks
Feelings of guilt
Refuse to discuss alcohol or drinking
Have more blackouts
Become more frequently unable to stop after one or two drinks
Make excuses or rationalizations
Experience remorse
Make promises and resolutions but fail to keep them.
Make efforts to control drinking but fail
Seek geographical escapes
Lose other interests
Stage 3 - Addiction: Final stage, individual is addicted. liver may be already damaged and less alcohol required to become drunk. If stops the individual will experience severe withdrawal symptoms.
Avoids family and friends
Starts having work and money troubles
Begins expressing unreasonable resentments
Neglecting food
May have tremors and drinking early in the morning

In the US there is an estimated 17 million alcoholics and problem drinkers.
Cost of alcoholism:
Sick days
Lose jobs
Quit school
Fail to contribute to society
Draw from resources
Loss of community status
Loss of physical and mental health
Alcoholism cannot be cured, but it can be treated. Recovering alcoholics must make a lifelong commitment to sobriety.
They must: 1. accept the problem exists, 2. quit using, 3. "stay quit"
Similar to stages of grief for alcohol recovery:
1. Denial 2. Bargaining 3. Anger 4. Guilt 5. Acceptance
Most important thing you can do for an addict is not enable them to escape their problems.
Enable: rescue from the consequences of their behavior.
This can block recovery because they do not have to learn form their mistakes. Family members who enable = codependent.
You enable by : giving money, making excuses for them.
Refusing alcohol:
Practice your refusal skills to build confidence.
Avoid parties or social gatherings that alcohol is served.
Plan alcohol free activities with friends.
What are some field sobriety test officers will do?
Ethanol - the type of alcohol in alcoholic beverages.
Ethanol can be produced synthetically or naturally by fermenting fruits, vegetables, and grains.
Fermentation - the chemical action of yeast on sugars.
Intoxication - a state in which the body is poisoned by alcohol or another substance.
If a person consumes too much alcohol he/she will become intoxicated.
Binge drinking - drinking four/five or more alcohol beverages at one sitting.
Can lead to alcohol poisoning.
binge drinking
alcohol poisoning
Using alcohol during the teen years can affect brain development.
Using alcohol slows reaction time, impairs vision, and diminishes judgment.
The amount of alcohol that can cause intoxication varies from person to person.
Alcohol and drug interactions can lead to illness or death.
Medicines that may cause reactions have warning labels that advise people not to use alcohol.
Anyone who drinks alcohol increases the risk of the negative consequences.
One consequence of alcohol use is psychological dependence.
A condition in which a person believes that a drug is needed in order to feel good or to function normally
Overuse of alcohol can lead to a physiological dependence.
A condition in which the user has a chemical need for a drug
A teen’s choices about alcohol use are influenced by:
Peer Pressure
Media Messages
Alcohol can harm more than just your health.
Alcohol use is linked to deaths from traffic collisions, drowning, fire, suicide, and homicide.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
psychological dependence
physiological dependence
Infants born to mothers who drink during pregnancy are at risk of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).
A group of alcohol-related birth defects that include physical and mental problems
fetal alcohol syndrome
Small head and deformities of face, hands, or feet
Heart, liver, and kidney defects
Vision and hearing problems
Central nervous system problems, developmental disabilities, and poor coordination
Difficulties learning and short attention span
Hyperactivity, anxiety, and social withdrawal
Infants born with FAS may have the following problems:
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