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josephine urmeneta

on 30 September 2013

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Transcript of FASHION

Fashion is a general term for a popular style or practice, especially in clothing, footwear, accessories, makeup, body piercing, or furniture. Fashion refers to a distinctive and often habitual trend in the style in which a person dresses or to prevailing styles in behaviour. Fashion also refers to the newest creations of textile designers. The more technical term costume has become so linked to the term "fashion" that the use of the former has been relegated to special senses like fancy dress or masquerade wear, while "fashion" means clothing more generally, including the study of it. Although aspects of fashion can be feminine or masculine, some trends are androgynous.
Fashion Design
Fashion Industry
The fashion industry is a product of the modern age. Prior to the mid-19th century, most clothing was custom made. It was handmade for individuals, either as home production or on order from dressmakers and tailors. By the beginning of the 20th century—with the rise of new technologies such as the sewing machine, the rise of global capitalism and the development of the factory system of production, and the proliferation of retail outlets such as department stores—clothing had increasingly come to be mass-produced in standard sizes and sold at fixed prices. The fashion industry has long been one of the largest employers in the United States, and it remains so in the 21st century. However, employment declined considerably as production increasingly moved overseas, especially to China. Because data on the fashion industry typically are reported for national economies and expressed in terms of the industry’s many separate sectors, aggregate figures for world production of textiles and clothing are difficult to obtain.
1980s Lifestyle and Fashion
In the 1980s, fashion was influenced by the western economic boom. Youth culture stopped hogging the scene as the teenage market lost impetus. The dominant market was getting older and was also financially secure. Demographics changed the face of society. People were living longer and seemed to act younger at the same time. Old industries died, while new technologies developed and boomed.

Ronald Reagan and his wife Nancy Reagan in the USA celebrated presidential success with a style that used fashionable conspicuous clothes and social events to display the affluence of American society to a world audience.
Fashion design is the art of the application of design and aesthetics or natural beauty to clothing and accessories. Fashion design is influenced by cultural and social latitudes, and has varied over time and place. Fashion designers work in a number of ways in designing clothing and accessories; and, because of the time required to bring a garment onto the market, must at times anticipate changing consumer tastes.
Fashion designers attempt to design clothes which are functional as well as aesthetically pleasing. They must consider who is likely to wear a garment and the situations in which it will be worn. They have a wide range and combinations of materials to work with and a wide range of colors, patterns and styles to choose from. Though most clothing worn for everyday wear falls within a narrow range of conventional styles, unusual garments are usually sought for special occasions such as evening wear or party dresses.
History of Fashion Designer
the era: portrait by Giovanni Boldini (1845–1931) showing Elizabeth Wharton Drexel in 1905.
The outfits worn by the fashionable women of the 'Belle Époque' (as this era was called by the French) were strikingly similar to those worn in the heyday of the fashion pioneer Charles Worth. By the end of the 19th-century, the horizons of the fashion industry had generally broadened, partly due to the more stable and independent lifestyle many well-off women were beginning to adopt and the practical clothes they demanded. However, the fashions of the La Belle Époque still retained the elaborate, upholstered, hourglass-shaped style of the 19th century. No fashionable lady could (or would) yet dress or undress herself without the assistance of a third party. The constant need for radical change, which is now essential for the survival of fashion within the present system, was still literally unthinkable. The use of different trimmings was all that distinguished one season from the other.
This article is about the history of fashion design since 1900. Fashion design is the art of the application of design and aesthetics or natural beauty to clothing and accessories. The modern fashion industry, based around firms or fashion houses run by individual usually male designers, started in the 19th century with Charles Frederick Worth who was the first designer to have his label sewn into the garments that he created. For the fashion of earlier periods in the Western world, see History of European clothing.
History of Fashion
1960s Costume History. 50's fashion lives on until mid decade and 1965.

Fashion history of Mary Quant and the 1960s fashion of the mini skirt. The death of stockings and introduction of pantyhose. Pinafore dresses and knit fabrics.
Fashion History Revolution - the acceptance of trousers for 1960s women. Man made yarns and innovative materials help contour styles.
Fashion journalism involves all aspects of published fashion media, including fashion writers, fashion critics, and fashion reporters. The most obvious examples of fashion journalism are the fashion features in magazines and newspapers, may also includes books about fashion, fashion related reports on television and online fashion magazines,[1] websites, and blogs. Since pieces often deal with "tendencies" and "trends", which are subjective or speculative, fashion journalism does not carry the overall procedural and deontological aspects of professional journalism

This is a brief history of RPG design in terms of general style. Many authors have portrayed RPG design as being evolutionary. For example, Greg Porter outlines four generations of RPGs in his article "Where We've Been, Where We're Going" from Inter*Action #1. This projects the common view that RPGs have become more "sophisticated" over the three decades since Dungeons & Dragons was introduced. This is fundamentally a technological view of RPG design. In contrast, I wish to look at the development of RPGs as an artistic history -- where there are trends which may die out, or classic fashions which may revive.
Typically art is characterized by having "movements" rather than "generations". This avoids the implication that there is some evolutionary improvement, which may not be the case. My concern is that perspective on back-and-forth changes may be overlooked from evolutionary thinking

Fifties Fashion Hangs on until 1966

In the 21st century it's easy to associate all 1960s fashion with short skirts, but the short skirt was not really worn by many until 1966 and not nationwide until 1967. Just as in the 1920s for half a decade clothes still showed signs of belonging to the late fifties. The fore runner of the mini dress the straight shift, which had developed from the 1957 sack dress, was still well below the knee.
1960s Fashion History 1962 Drawing
1960s Fashion History can be traced very accurately by looking at old sewing patterns. These illustrations were some I had torn from an old sewing pattern book, decades ago and kept as reference. 1962 was scribbled on the original pages and they are so typical of early 1960s clothes. All the images below will expand to fit an A4 sheet when printed out. Click the thumbnails for those enlargements.

These images are ideal for colouring in. Or use them as inspiration for fashion designing and pattern cutting with an early 1960s feel. Those unschooled in 1960s fashion history often wrongly assume that all 1960s fashion was extremely short. The mini skirt length was not really a mass fashion until the mid 1960s. Skirt lengths had gradually become shorter at the end of the 1950s. By the early sixties skirt lengths were as you can see just on, or just skimming the knee. Many people think that this is the perfect length for a dress as any style that ends on a body joint has a natural look that helps the body seems well balanced.
1960s Fashion History Colouring In Line Drawing-1962

1962 - Slimline sheath dresses of the early 1960s. 1962 - Slimline belted sheath dresses of the early 1960s. Overblouse style dresses 1962
1962 Day dresses. 1962 Empire line dresses. 1962 Two piece outfits - overblouses with matching skirts.
1962 - Slimline sheath, Empire line dresses, overblouse styles of the early 1960s. Jewellery brooches and decorative buttons were used to highlight the elegance of a dress or jacket.
1962 - Semi fitted dresses with wide set necklines a feature of 1960s clothes. 1962 dresses with contrast edge to edge duster coats. 1962 Coat with Kimono elbow length sleeves and suit variation.
1962 Dresses were worn with contrast edge to edge duster coats. Semi fitted dresses with wide set necklines were a feature of 1960s clothes, as were two piece outfits of overblouse and skirts of several styles, including pleated skirts on a hip Basque. The overblouses were often straight, but could also be similar to fitted scoop neck shell tops of the 1990s.
During the early years of the 1910s the fashionable silhouette became much more lithe, fluid and soft than in the 19th century. When the Ballets Russes performed Scheherazade in Paris in 1910, a craze for Orientalism ensued. The couturier Paul Poiret was one of the first designers to translate this vogue into the fashion world. Poiret's clients were at once transformed into harem girls in flowing pantaloons, turbans, and vivid colors and geishas in exotic kimono. Paul Poiret also devised the first outfit which women could put on without the help of a maid. The Art Deco movement began to emerge at this time and its influence was evident in the designs of many couturiers of the time. Simple felt hats, turbans, and clouds of tulle replaced the styles of headgear popular in the 20th century. It is also notable that the first real fashion shows were organized during this period in time, by Jeanne Paquin, one of the first female couturiers, who was also the first Parisian couturier to open foreign branches in London, Buenos Aires, and Madrid
Fashion Journalism
Old Fashion Industry
In 1920's

Fashionable Hollywood actress Louise Brooks
Soon after the First World War, a radical change came about in fashion. Bouffant coiffures gave way to short bobs, dresses with long trains gave way to above-the-knee pinafores. Corsets were abandoned and women borrowed their clothes from the male wardrobe and chose to dress like boys. Although, at first, many couturiers were reluctant to adopt the new androgynous style, they embraced them wholeheartedly from around 1925. A bustless, waistless silhouette emerged and aggressive dressing-down was mitigated by feather boas, embroidery, and showy accessories. The flapper style (known to the French as the 'garçonne' look) became very popular among young women. The cloche hat was widely worn and sportswear became popular with both men and women during the decade, with designers like Jean Patou and Coco Chanel popularizing the sporty and athletic look.
The great couturière Coco Chanel was a major figure in fashion at the time, as much for her magnetic personality as for her chic and progressive designs. Chanel helped popularize the bob hairstyle, the little black dress, and the use of jersey knit for women's clothing and also elevated the status of both costume jewelry and knitwear.
What is fashion?

For centuries individuals or societies have used clothes and other body adornment as a form of nonverbal communication to indicate occupation, rank, gender, sexual availability, locality, class, wealth and group affiliation. Fashion is a form of free speech. It not only embraces clothing, but also accessories, jewellery, hairstyles, beauty and body art. What we wear and how and when we wear it, provides others with a shorthand to subtly read the surface of a social situation.
Fashion as a Sign System

Fashion is a language of signs, symbols and iconography that non-verbally communicate meanings about individuals and groups. Fashion in all its forms from a tattooed and pierced navel, to the newest hairstyle, is the best form of iconography we have to express individual identity. It enables us to make ourselves understood with rapid comprehension by the onlooker.
The Basics of Fashion Sketching

This section is for those nervous of fashion drawing. The hints and tips appear as more detailed information in my ebook, the first Fashion Drawing Figure Templates ebook on the web.

You may have to do some fashion drawing as part of a course or you may simply want to sketch out an idea you have for a special evening dress, ball dress, wedding dress or bridesmaid's dresses. With a little technique most people who insist they cannot draw can achieve a satisfactory fashion drawing. To aid results use some of the following items - you will find the list helpful if you do not have a clue where to start.
Haute Coulture Fashion History
Fashion Influence of the 1980`s
Power Dressing
1980s fashion history is memorable and quite distinctive. A variety of fashion looks ran parallel to each other in the 1980s. Women of this era began to feel they that really could at last choose from one of the many contrasting looks available. The fashion look that was the most powerful over the decade was the wide shoulder. Fashion history reveals that the 80s fashion look was a tailored look. It was hard to go anywhere without at least a jacket, but preferably a complete suit. This was influenced by several movements including media influence on 1980s fashion through the popularity of TV dramas like 'Dynasty' and 'Dallas'. Costume dramas brought fashion into real everyday eighties life.
The ClothesHorse Ambassadress of Fashion
Throughout her brief life Princess Diana supported many British designers especially Arabella Pollen, Bruce Oldfield, Amanda Wakeley and Catherine Walker. Initially the Princess of Wales was encouraged by staff of Vogue to pursue a particular look.

As the 1980s progressed she gained confidence in her own fashion style and became more and more elegant as she began to understand what suited her. Diana became an icon in fashion history.

Diana started to wear clothes by international designers of her own choice including Versace, Christian Lacroix, Ungaro and Chanel.
French Fashion Dolls in History
Louis XIV wanted all of Europe to know about Paris fashions so he began sending life-sized fashion dolls to every European Court. The dolls were dressed in the latest styles. Noble ladies would have their tailors imitate the clothes, footwear, hats and accessories on the latest dolls.The painstakingly correct dolls' clothes were beautiful and included every construction detail. The dressmakers were able to remove the clothes and copy them as patterns which they would then grade to the size of individual customers.If necessary they would unpick the stitched outfits, assess the cut of the pattern and then remake the fashion doll's costume. The miniature fashion dolls were passed from court to court throughout Europe. They were exquisite and represented the latest word in fashion and trimmings. These alabaster or china dolls were sent to Europe and America in the 19th century.Right - French fashion doll from the 19th century.
The New Princess Line 1866
In 1866 the new Princess gown also changed the line of fashionable dress. The Princess gown was cut in one piece and consisted of a number of joined panels fitted and gored from shoulder to hem that gave the figure shape through seaming.

The Gabriel Princess gown with a small neat white collar was mainly made in grey silk and followed the fuller skirt lines of the era. This is the dress style often used to depict the constrained buttoned up repressed governess character of Jane Eyre in films. Later Princess styles were slimmer and much more form fitting. Sleeves in day dresses were often of a banana shape.
Costume and Fashion history would not be the same without Haute couture.

Haute Couture is a French phrase for high fashion. Couture means dressmaking, sewing, or needlework and haute means elegant or high, so the two combined imply excellent artistry with the fashioning of garments. The purchase of a haute couture model garment is at the top level of hand customised fashion design and clothing construction made by a couture design house. A model haute couture garment is made specifically for the wearer's measurements and body stance. The made to measure exclusive clothes are virtually made by hand, carefully interlined, stay taped and fitted to perfection for each client.
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