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Speech and language disorders

Speech and Language disorders/ Autism
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Samantha Fecich

on 28 June 2013

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Transcript of Speech and language disorders

Speech and language disorders
Can also be called a communication disorder
Defined as: a disorder such as stuttering, articulation, language, or voice impairment which affects a student's education performance.
Speech and language disorder defined
How would you define communication?
Why do we communicate?
Elluminating experience
Can be defined as the exchange of information between individuals. To communicate you need a message, a sender, a channel, and a receiver.
We communicate
wants and needs
social closeness
exchange information
social etiquette
Communication
There are several types of language disorders
Aphasia - loss of language after it has developed
due to TBI or in older adults
Stuttering
Articulation disorders - omission, additions, substitutions
Apraxia
Select mutism
Individuals who can't speak
Language disorders
In 2009 the department of education
estimated that approximately 1.14 million students
ages 6-21 received services for speech and language
disorders.
Prevalence of speech disorders
Below are some causes of a communication disorder
Cleft lip
Cleft palate
brain injury
Cerebral palsy
Aphasia
TBI
Causes of speech disorders
Generalizations can not be made regarding the cognitive characteristics of individuals who have a speech disorder because they vary across gifted to severe and profound.
However, due to a communication disorder students may lag behind their typically developing peers in reading and writing because it is so deeply intertwined with language.
Socially and emotionally some students may be self aware about how they sound or pronounce words to their peers.
Some students may misunderstand social cues
Characteristics of Individuals
How can a speech or language disorder be linked to a behavior disorder?
Elluminating experiences
Ask the student first for any accommodations that were helpful in the past
Use speech to text software
Provide symbol supports for text if needed
Adapt any text into a format the student is able to read
Pace the lesson and give the student wait time if he or she has any questions regarding the content.
Use appropriate content for students
Allow students to actively engage in the content
Differentiated instruction
Low tech options
Social story - Used to provide routine information for students who may struggle with transitions.
Prompting tool - Index card, sticky-note, or a silent prompt that signifies that the student needs to be redirected or that a student needs a break (time-away).
Sign language
Communication by hand symbols and gestures
Visual Task Schedule - Can be used to provide students with graphics describing their daily routine inside and outside of school
Content enhancement frame - Used to organize specific content knowledge into a visual that students can easily access and use to study by.
Letter board
Planning book- Used to organize events and assignments for upcoming days and weeks throughout the academic school year or calendar year.
Low tech options
Symbol hierarchy

(This hierarchy originally appeared in MacDonald, A. (1998) Symbol Systems Augmentative Communication in Practice-An Introduction. Revised Edition, 1998)

Real objects (clearly representational)
Tactile symbols / objects of reference
Photographs
Miniatures of real objects
Colored pictures
Line drawings - realistic
Line drawings - stylized
Written words (completely abstract representation

Janice Light’s (2005) research indicates that symbols we select should reflect the child’s understanding of the concept (rather than an adult’s) and be taught and used within meaningful contexts.
Regardless of the activities selected for intervention, success with an augmentative/alternative communication system is highly dependent on appropriate vocabulary selection.
Motivation plays a huge role in selecting appropriate vocabulary.
Many times, teams begin with vocabulary such as “eat”, “drink” and “bathroom”.
When the motivation to communicate a message is greater than the physical effort, cognitive effort and time to compose it - communication will occur.
Motivation comes from the student when he/she realizes that communication can be a powerful and pleasurable thing. For example, it can be highly motivating to say “Tickle me” using a single message device.
Vocabulary selection
Buddy Speak - Non-electronic communication board that works everywhere.
Board Maker Software - Provides students and teachers a visual schedule of his/her daily routine in or outside of a school setting. Let's try it out! http://www.mayer-johnson.com/downloads/trials/details/id/282/
Big Mac - One phrase recording device that allows students to communicate by simply clicking the button.
Kidspiration - Allow students to create and utilize their own graphic organizer as a study tool or as a pre-writing tool. Let's try it! http://www.inspiration.com/FreeTrial/Kidspiration
Mid Tech options
Palm device - Portable calendar schedule that can be accessed by touch or by a palm-pen tool.

iPod touch - Portable learning tool that can be accessed by touch and enhance instructional lessons, such as the game SPORE can be used to relate the topic of evolution to students.

iPad - Portable computer that can be accessed by touch. It allows the students to have access to everything they would normally have access to by a generic desktop computer or laptop.

Alphasmart - Portable keyboard that can hook into your computer and print documents. It can also be used as a communication device to simply type back and forth between yourself and another person.

Vantage Lite - An augmentative communication device that includes picture-to-sound-to-text to help communicate more easily.

Dynavox Speech Device - Mini-portable computer that is used to assist individuals in overcoming their speech, language, and learning challenges.
High Tech options
Provide the student with immediate reinforcement of correct responses
Utilize many modalities, e.g., oral presentation, board notes, overheads, diagrams, class discussion, activity-based learning, interactive whiteboards
Organize assignments so they are broken down step by step
use special materials, e.g., high interest low vocabulary reading material
reduce the quantity of material
Support the use of manipulative and concrete materials, such as, computer programs for drill and practice, calculators, cuing strategies, e.g., color coding, bold, underline, and models/charts
Differentiated instruction
prepare student ahead of time by explaining the expectations for the test
prepare review sheets; encourage student to do them.
make sure student understands test instructions
accept spelling as written unless it is a previously specified
allow adequate response time
allow short answer tests to be taken orally (Answers could be recorded and transcribed).
Differentiated Instruction

read questions to student
have students formulate a framework for their response/answer
have student dictate to peer-tutor
Record or transcribe answers
consider testing longer exams in shorter time segments
Differentiated instruction

oral test: teacher/peer reads questions and/or writes the student's answers
open book test
have students create a project or show their skill attainment in a different way
closed book test with different requirements for answers,
taped tests; student listens to tape and responds on tape
take-home tests
extended time to complete the test
short quizzes instead of major tests
critique early drafts of papers and encourage rewrites
Differentiated Instruction
If you had a student in your class who could not communicate, which 6 vocabulary words would you program?
Find the good, the bad, and the ugly in this video...
AAC are strategies, tools, and devices that are used to supplement or replace an individual's natural spoken voice.
Two categories
Unaided - do not require use of special equipment or materials (sign language)
Aided - Depend on equipment or materials (visual schedule)

Any person with a disability that makes it difficult for them to communicate may benefit from AAC. Some people need AAC only for a short time; others may use it throughout their lives.
AAC -Augmentative and Alternative Communication
We are going to take some time to test out some of these high tech tools
http://minspeak.com/demo.php - Here is a demo from PRC
http://www.dynavoxtech.com/support/downloads/Trial.aspx?id=89
Try it out!
Autism (ASD) is a spectrum disorder.
This continuum includes disorders from ‘low functioning’ to ‘high functioning’: autistic disorder, Rett Syndrome, childhood dis-integrative disorder, pervasive developmental disorder –not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger Syndrome
Autism is a disability that varies and affects individuals differently.
Some common behaviors of Autism Spectrum Disorder include: difficulty with speech and communication skills, repetitive behaviors, intellectual disabilities, motor skill disorders, health issues (sleep and gastrointestinal), and attention disorders.
Autism
Autism is a dynamic disability it is interesting to observe how it affects individuals differently
According to the Autism Speaks website (2012) the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that 1 in 88 American children are diagnosed with autism or autism spectrum disorders
Also, research shows that boys are diagnosed with autism three times more than girls
1 out of 54 boys are diagnosed in autism as compared to 1 in 252 girls diagnosed with autism in the United States
Currently there is not an identified cause of autism nor is there a ‘cure’ for autism. There are however, several interventions or treatments that can be utilized to address specific issues around autism such as behavioral therapies, sensory interventions, speech therapy, physical therapy, visual supports and cues, and occupational therapy
Autism
Although every person with autism is unique, some characteristics are considered to be particularly important in the diagnosis of autism. There are four major categories:
communication
social interaction
behavior
learning

These students may have issues with generalizing skills from one setting to another
They may also have sensory issues (tactile, olfactory, hearing, visual, vestibular, etc.)
Autism
Movies portray autism like this.....
But, what is it really like?
How might sensory issue affect learning?
and this...
For more information:
http://www.oneplaceforspecialneeds.com/resources_online/resource_online_results.html?category=&words=autism+specific+apps
http://www.oneplaceforspecialneeds.com/resources_online/resource_online_results.html?category=&words=speech+therapy+apps
Proloquo 2 Go
Artixpix
iCommunicate
Voice4U
iComm
Speaking Images
iAssist Communicator
Tap to talk
Tap 2 speak button
iConverse
SmallTalk Aphasia
My talk
SoundingBoard
Look2Learn – AAC
Grace
Full transcript