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Food Security

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by

Kate Grant

on 23 January 2015

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Transcript of Food Security

Food Security
EASTBIO Study Day, Jan 2015
Reaping the Benefits
Royal Society
2009
Constraints
Biotic
Abiotic
Focus of the report...
Agricultural Production
Research

Energy & Climate
Germplasm
Tools
Innovation
Technology

Knowledge Exchange

Outputs
Definitions of Food Security
Biotic Threats
Strategies
Abiotic Threats
Strategies
Threats from Energy and Climate Change
Strategies
Germplasm
Strategies
Recommendations
But
Other Significant Constraints of Agricultural Production
Labour
Economics
Food security is determined by the entire supply chain
and...
Sustainability is determined by the entire supply chain
Challenge: Feed 9 billion people by 2050
"Sustainable Intensification"
Sustainable Intensification
Environment

Health

Social Development

Economic Development

Food Security & the Food Supply Chain
Poor harvesting technology and techniques means lower yields.

Food is less
available
.
Poor storage and processing means food decomposes. Food surpluses cannot be stockpiled.

Food is less
available
.
Poor distribution impedes food moving to areas of high demand. Also, more food decomposes or is damaged.

Food is less
accessible
and less
available
.
Even when food is available, some people lack the financial or social "buying power" to acquire it.

Food is less
accessible
.
Poor preparation facilities or knowledge means food cannot safely be consumed. Food may also decompose.

Food is less
accessible
and less
available
.
The Food Supply Chain:
Soil structure and function, climatic conditions, water availability and quality, nutrient availability and cycling, pollination services
Population growth and structure, urbanisation, dietary transition, education, technology, understanding of ‘best practices’, political context, economic context
Food security: food availability, food access and food utilisation

Social welfare: income, employment, health

Environmental security

Environmental Feedback Effects
Social Feedback Effects
Socioeconomic & Political Drivers
Biological, Environmental & Geophysical Drivers
Food System Outcomes
Production
Harvest
Processing & Storage
Distribution
Retail
Consumption
The Food Supply Chain
Bottleneck
Increasing production in isolation will not increase food security

This is a dangerous assumption
= "post-productionist" mindset
Food Security
Again, increasing the sustainability of production in isolation will have little effect on the total environmental cost of food security
Sustainability & the Food Supply Chain
Land
Water
Nitrogen fertilisers
Mineral fertilisers
Energy

Sustainability
Soil degradation
Water availability
Pollution
GHG emissions
Loss of ecosystem services
Non-Renewable Input
Environmental Cost
PRODUCTION
Land
Water
Energy
Materials for packaging


GHG emissions
Water availability
Pollution
consequences of buildings: habitat loss, biodiversity loss & ecosystem services

Non-Renewable Input
Environmental Cost
PROCESSING & STORAGE
Land
Energy

GHG emissions
Pollution
Consequences of infrastructure: habitat loss, biodiversity & ecosystem services

Non-Renewable Input
Environmental Cost
DISTRIBUTION
Land
Energy
Materials for packaging


GHG emissions
Pollution
Consequences of infrastructure: habitat loss, biodiversity & ecosystem services
Non-Renewable Input
Environmental Cost
RETAIL
Energy
Water
GHG emissions
Water availability
Pollution

Non-Renewable Input
Environmental Cost
CONSUMPTION
Limitations
"Increasing food production without adverse environmental impact and without the cultivation of more land”


A system must meet a four key criteria to be considered sustainable:

1. Persistence: the capacity to continue to deliver outputs over long time-scales.

2. Resilience: the capacity to absorb or utilise perturbations.

3. Autarchy: the capacity to deliver outputs despite input constraints.

4. Benevolence: the capacity to deliver outputs without adverse environmental impacts

Royal Society does not proscribe particular production techniques for sustainable intensification.



“The merits of diverse approaches --- conventional, `hightech,' agro-ecological, or organic --- should be rigorously tested … taking biophysical and social contexts into account,” for the evidence-based selection of practices.

Garnett et al. (2013)
Achieving the Sustainable Intensification of UK Agriculture
Global food production will need to approximately double in order to meet a projected world population
In 2009 the FAO World Summit committed to increase food production by 70% before 2050
Complications
Limited Productive Land
Energy Security
Water Security
Dietary Transition
Urbanisation
Limited Mineral Nutrients
Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and

economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their

dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.

Household food security is the application of this concept to the family

level, with individuals within households as the focus of concern.
"
"
(FAO)
Availability
Access
Use
+
+
Full transcript