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1.2: Biologically Important Macromolecules

McGraw Hill Section 1.2
by

Ms. Klodt

on 25 August 2015

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Transcript of 1.2: Biologically Important Macromolecules

Biologically Important
Macromolecules

Macromolecule
Polymer
Monomer
Carbohydrate
Monosaccharide
Isomer
Disaccharide
Polysaccharide
Lipid
Triglyceride
Fatty Acid
Phospholipid
Lipid bilayer
Steroid
Wax
Protein
Amino acid
Polypeptide
Nucleic acid
DNA
RNA
Nucleotide
Key Terms
Macromolecules are large, complex molecules
Poly
mers - chain like molecules made of smaller molecules joined by covalent bonds
Mono
mers - smaller molecules that make up a polymer
Types of Biological Molecules
Energy storage but easily broken down
Always contain C, H, and O
General formula is CH2O
Mostly polar and hydrophilic
Carbohydrates
Long term energy storage
Hydrophobic
Insulation, cushion, cell membrane
Lipids
Mono & Disaccharides
Monosaccharides have between 3-7 sugar molecules joined together
Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
isomers - molecules with the same molecular formula (C6H12O6) but different structures
Disaccharides are made of 2 monosaccharides joined together
The covalent bond joining them is called a glycosidic linkage
Lactose = Glucose + Galactose
Made of monosaccharides joined together
Differences in linkages result in different biological uses
Glycogen, Starch, Cellulose
Polysaccharides
Made of a glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acid molecules
Joined with bonds called ester linkages
Fatty acids are hydrocarbon chains that end with a -COOH group
Saturated fatty acids: only single bonds
Unsaturated fatty acids: One or more double bonds
One double bond: Monounsaturated
Two or more: Polyunsaturated
Hydrogenation: adding hydrogens to unsaturated fats to produce saturated fats
Triglycerides
Cell membranes
2 Fatty acid tails attached to a glycerol, which is attached to a phosphate group. Attached to that group is another group of atoms
The fatty acid tails are hydrophobic, while the rest are hydrophilic
This allows for a lipid bilayer, with the tails facing in, and the heads facing out into water
Phospholipids
Steroids
Made of 4 carbon rings attached to each other
Includes cholesterol, testosterone and estrogen
Waxes
Made by plants and animals
Solid at room temperature
Coat and repel water
Other Lipids
Diverse group of macromolecules, defined by function
Enzymes & catalysts
Structure - hair, nails, claws, etc.
Transport
Movement
Regulation of cell processes
Immune functions
Proteins
molecules containing a hydrogen atom, an amino group, a carboxyl group and a side chain (or R group)
The side chains determine function
Essential amino acids cannot be created by the body and must be consumed
Bonds between amino acids are called peptide bonds
formed between the carboxyl group on one and the amino group on another
A polymer of amino acids is called a polypeptide. Multiple polypeptides make a protein.
Amino Acids
Amino Acids
There are four levels of organization
Primary Structure: Linear sequence of amino acids
Peptide bonds between amino acids form the backbone
Hydrogen bonds form between the C=O and N-H of different amino acids
Secondary Structure: Pleated or helix structure
Tertiary Structure: Complex, 3D folding forming a protein
Quaternary Structure: Multiple Tertiary Structures joined together
Denaturation is when proteins unfold, due to breaking of intramolecular bonds. This destroys the protein.
Caused by extreme temperatures and pH imbalances
Protein Organization
Nucleic Acids
Two kinds
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Contains genetic material
Turned into proteins
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
Assists in conversion of DNA to protein
Composed of nucleotide polymers
Nucleotides are made of a phosphate group, a 5 carbon sugar (deoxyribose or ribose) and a nitrogenous base (DNA: Adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine. RNA: Thymine is replaced with uracil)
Bonds between nucleotides is called phosphoidester bond, between phosphate on nucleotide and hydroxyl on the next
DNA resembles a ladder, with the uprights being made of the sugar and phosphate groups, and the rungs being the nitrogenous bases
Thymine (or uracil) always pairs with adenine and guanine with cytosine
Nucleic Acid Structure
Full transcript