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Chapter 7 The Study of Plants

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Dee Corbie

on 20 May 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 7 The Study of Plants

Chapter 7
The Study of Plants
List three reasons why plants are important to humans.
Name the six important characteristics of plants.
Describe what plants need in order to grow.
Learning Objectives
If you are artistic, you might get a job arranging flowers for flower shops.
Farmers work with plants every day.
Other plant lovers work as gardeners or rangers in parks.
Designing landscapes is another good job for plant lovers.
Careers Using Plants
Plants are used to make fabrics for clothes.
Coal and oil are fuels made from plant products.
Drugs for treating diseases come from plants.
Almost everything you eat is a product of plants, either directly or indirectly. Fruits, grains, and vegetables are plants.
Finally plants release oxygen you need to breathe and carry out cellular respiration.
The Importance of Plants
The 6 Characteristics of Plants
We studied four of the six kingdoms in the previous chapter.
Plants have a few special characteristics that distinguish them form other living organisms.
Plants are able to make their own food by using light energy. This process is called Photosynthesis.
Plants are always multicellular.
Blue-green bacteria and euglena can carry out photosynthesis. However, they are unicellular.
Plants have specialized cells. Each plant has several different kinds of cells. Like animals, plants have tissues and organs.
The cells of plants have cell walls. The cell walls give a plant strength and support.
Plants cannot move from place to place. Most plants stay rooted in the ground.
Plants have three basic parts: roots, stems, and leaves. However, each of these parts may have a different size, shape, or color in different plants.
Like all living things, plants need food, oxygen, and water to grow.
They also need light, carbon dioxide, and minerals.
Used for photosynthesis.
Chlorophyll is needed to absorb light energy.
The light energy allows plants to change the carbon dioxide and hydrogen from water to other products.
Sugar and oxygen.
The Needs of Plants
Michael Kasperbauer
Plant Researcher
Modern Leaders in Biology
Growing up on a farm in Iowa, Michael Kasperbauer was interested in plants. He noticed that plants that grew alone were shorter than plants that grew crowded together. He came up with the hypothesis that plants crowded together grew taller to stay in the sunlight.

When Kasperbauer became a researcher for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, he designed some experiments to test this hypothesis He found out that he leaves could absorb light reflected from nearby plants. This signal made the plant grow larger shoots.

Kasperbauer used this information to design a plastic mulch that reflects light to the underside of leaves. This mulch helps strawberry and tomato plants produce more fruit. It also improves the flavor and nutrient content of these crops.

CRITICAL THINKING:
How do you think the research of Kasperbauer could help gardeners?
Soil is a mixture of sand, silt, and clay. Soil also contains decayed organisms, living organisms, minerals, and water.
Loam
- soil with a good mixture of sand, silt, and clay.
Humus
- the organic material in soil, contains dead plant and animal materials that have been broken down by bacteria and other organisms.
Plants Grow in Soil
Plants as Healers
On the Cutting Edge
Plants provide food, oxygen, shelter, and fabric. Plants do a number of other amazing things as well.

One of the most used cancer drugs is taxol. Taxol is made from the bark of the Pacific yew tree. About six 100-year-old Pacific yew trees are needed to produce enough taxol to treat one patient for a year. Taxol fights cancer by preventing mitosis in cancer cells. It has been used to trreat breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and brain cancer. In the past, the yews were protected by the U.S. Forest Service for their taxol. Today, some taxol is made in the laboratory.

CRITICAL THINKING
: Why do you think it is important to study plants?
Plants are very important to our lives because they provide food, clothing, shelter, and fuel. Not only do we eat plants directly, but we eat animals that eat plants. Also, plants release oxygen for people and other animals to use for cellular respiration.

There are six important characteristics of plants: 1) Plants carry out photosynthesis. 2) Plants are multicellular. 3) Plants have specialized cells. 4) The cells of plants have cell walls. 5) Plants usually stay rooted in one place. 6) Plants have three basic parts - roots, stems, and leaves.

To grow, plants need food, oxygen, and water. They also need light, carbon dioxide, and minerals. The light usually comes from the Sun. The food comes from photosynthesis. The oxygen and carbon dioxide come from the air. The water and minerals come from the soil.

Almost all plants must grow in soil. Soil is made up of rocks, minerals, water, air, and decayed plant and animal material called humus. For most plants, the best soil is loam, which is a good mixture of sand, silt, and clay.
Summary
Aloe
Garlic - widely used as an antibiotic and, more recently, for treating cardiovascular disease.
The bark of a yew tree is used to make taxol.
Sustainable agriculture strives to produce food in a way that maintains the health of the land, protects the people who work it, and benefits those who enjoy its abundance.
Medicinal Plants
Specialized Plant Cells
Do now: How do you think plant cells differ from animal cells.
Do you think that plant cells should have any special features
or functions. If so explain.
Full transcript