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Quotations, Paraphrases, and Summaries

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by

Kirsten Fournier

on 25 September 2012

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Transcript of Quotations, Paraphrases, and Summaries

Quotations, Paraphrases, and Summaries There are several ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own writing. Each of these ways differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing. What are the differences among quotations, paraphrases, and summaries? Quotations MUST be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. Quotations MUST match the source document word for word and MUST be attributed to the original author. Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase MUST also be attributed to the original source.

Paraphrases are usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly. The original:

"Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final research paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes." Example In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted materials down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim. A Legitimate Paraphrase: Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper. An Acceptable Summary: A Plagiarized Version: Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes. Why use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries? Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries serve many purposes. You might use them to... 1. Provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing 2. Refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing 3. Give examples of several points of view on a subject 4. Call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree with 5. Highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by quoting the original 6. Distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers that the words are not your own 7. Expand the breadth or depth of your writing How to use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries... 1. Read the entire text, noting the key points and main ideas 2. Summarize in your own words what the single main idea of the essay is 3. Paraphrase important supporting points that come up in the essay 4. Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you believe should be quoted directly A good rule of thumb: Remember that quoting should be done sparingly; be sure that you have a good reason to include a direct quotation when deciding to do so! Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s).
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