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Marxist Critical Analysis Timeline

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Camille Walker

on 5 February 2013

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Transcript of Marxist Critical Analysis Timeline

Timeline of Marxist Critical Analysis Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) The most important representative of classical German philosophy; he represented an objective idealism; a brilliant investigator of the laws of dialectic, which he was the first consciously to apply. Heine, Heinrich (1797-1856) German poet and revolutionary democrat, friend of Karl Marx, first to recognise the underlying revolutionary character of classical German Philosophy. Karl Marx (1818-1883) German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary His ideas played a significant role in the establishment of the social sciences and the development of the socialist movement Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) German social scientist, author, political theorist, philosopher, and father of Marxist theory, alongside Karl Marx. Marx and Engels meet 1843 In 1845 he published The Condition of the Working Class in England Writes Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right, 1843 The Russian Revolution 1917 1920s Marxist literary theory systemized following Revolution of 1917 in Russia Rise of Stalin 1922 Leon Trotsky publishes Literature and Revolution, 1923 By discussing the various literary trends that were around in Russia between the revolutions of 1905 and 1917 Trotsky analysed the concrete forces in society, both progressive as well as reactionary, that helped shape the consciousness of writers at the time. Walter Benjamin writes The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, 1936 Georg Lukács - "The Ideology of Modernism," 1956 In his essay, “The Work of Art In The Age of Mechanical Reproduction”, Walter Benjamin discusses a shift in perception and its affects in the wake of the advent of film and photography in the twentieth century. He writes of the sense changes within humanity’s entire mode of existence; the way we look and see the visual work of art has is different now and its consequences remain to be determined. In “Ideology” Lukács critiques modernist trends in literature, concluding that “Modernism is not the enrichment, but the negation of art”… Lukács dislikes modernists’ “Exaggerated concern with formal criteria, with style and literary technique”.These elements do not differentiate modern literature from traditional literature because the content determines the form…“It is the view of the world, the ideology…underlying a writer’s work that counts. And…the author’s attempt to reproduce this view of the world…is the formative principle underlying the style. Frederic Jameson writes Marxism and Form, The Political Unconscious, 1971 In this ground-breaking and influential study Fredric Jameson explores the complex place and function of literature within culture. At the time Jameson was actually writing the book, in the mid to late seventies, there was a major reaction against deconstruction and poststructuralism. In 1848 they co-author The Communist Manifesto The Russian Revolution unleashed hitherto unseen resources. Millions were won to Marxism in the wake of the Revolution, among them both masses of workers and artists, scientists and other intellectuals, and this unleashed a flood of creative Marxist scholarship, continuing Lenin’s critique of the Marxism of the Second International. The Marxism of these days was, to use Lukacs’ word, “Messianic”; that is, it anticipated not a long historic struggle, but the immediate conquest of socialism.. The Russian Revolution dismantled the Tsarist autocracy. This eventually led to a Bolshevik (Communist) government. In 1923 the Frankfurt School of Philosophers was founded which included Walter Benjamin, Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, and Herbet Marcuse. Played an important role in introducing Marxist assessment of culture into the mainstream of American Academic life. The Frankfurt School refers to a school of neo-Marxist interdisciplinary social theory. The Frankfurt School's work cannot be fully comprehended without equally understanding the aims and objectives of critical theory... The original aim of critical theory was to analyze the true significance of "the ruling understandings" generated in bourgeois society, in order to show how they misrepresented actual human interaction in the real world, and in so doing functioned to justify or legitimize the domination of people by capitalism Louis Althusser - Reading Capital, 1965 Althusser asserted that it was necessary to clear away what people thought of as Marxism and start fresh by re-examining the writings of Karl Marx. It was Althusser's contention that Marx discovered historical materialism and dialectical materialism. Jürgen Habermas - The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity, 1990 1985 book by Jürgen Habermas, published by Suhrkamp Verlag, Frankfurt. It is regarded as an important contribution to Frankfurt School critical theory. The book reconstructs and deals in depth with a number of philosophical approaches to the critique of modern reason and the Enlightenment "project" since Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Nietzsche, including the work of 20th century philosophers Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, Martin Heidegger, Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida, Cornelius Castoriadis and Niklas Luhmann. Terry Eagleton - Marxism and Literary Criticism, Criticism and Ideology, 1976 This essay offers an approach to the ideological underpinnings of 20thcentury criticism, especially but not only American speech criticism. In juxtaposing social events with critical and metacritical statements offered by Herbert Wichelns, Kenneth Burke, Forbes Hill, Lawrence Rosenfield, and Martin Heidegger, the study isolates the ideological force of varied approaches to criticism.
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