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Enthymemes and Toulmin Method
Transcript of Enthymemes and Toulmin Method
Think of an enthymeme as a "because" or reason statement.
Alcohol should be banned from college campuses (claim) because alcohol hinders a student's learning (reasons).
An enthymeme is an incomplete or illogical statement because it is missing a premise (implicit) or has an unstated assumption:
Alcohol is bad for developing brains.
Enthymeme can be a successful way to establish a common ground with audience:
Alcohol should be banned from college campuses because alcohol hinders a student's learning
The audience also believes that alcohol inhibits a student's ability to learn and absorb information.
But what if the assumption is different?
E.G.: Alcohol helps students learn because it helps them relax
Now that you have a working enthymeme, you will need an effective and persuasive way to develop your argument.
The Toulmin method can help you establish this through a logical organization and contemplate rebuttals/counterclaims.
Claim: Alcohol should be banned from college campuses
Reason: because it hinders effective learning
Support for my reason of why it hinders learning:
1) 80% of students who imbibe on campus perform poorly on their exams.
2) Colleges that allow access to alcohol receive more complaints that students show up drunk to class.
3) Concrete examples of above assertions.
Continue to create an assumption that the target audience may accept or create more supportive information to back assumption:
Claim: Alcohol should be banned from colleges
Reason: it promotes violent and harmful behavior outside of the classroom
What other kinds of enthymemes could we establish to reach our target audience?
*Create 3 enthymemes for each genre (proposal, ethical, and causal) we have discussed.
*Have a partner identify the claim and reason for each enthymeme. Discuss how each enthymeme demonstrates the genre.
* Human Organ Trafficking, GMO foods, rising cost of tuition
Warrant: It is beneficial to not have alcohol on college campuses.
Backing: Support for Warrant
1) Alcohol promotes wild behavior on campus that is disruptive.
2) Concrete examples of universities with those problems
3) Information on how alcohol impacts developing students.
Counterclaim #1 (Reasons)
1) Perhaps alcohol will be the "forbidden fruit" and students will be more likely to imbibe.
2) There is no conclusive evidence that alcohol does not promote learning.
Counterclaim #2: Warrant
1) Alcohol allows students to relax; therefore, helping them achieve higher scores.
1) Proposal- suggest a solution
2) Causal- cause and effect
3) Ethical - is an action right or wrong?
1) Proposal: Should universities ban alcohol on campus?
Claim: Universities should ban alcohol
Reason: because students cannot effectively learn while intoxicated.
2) Causal: What is the cause of high usage of alcohol on university campuses?
Claim: University students consume a higher percentage of alcohol than a working adult
Reason: because they do not know how to moderate themselves
3) Ethical: Is condoning alcohol on university campuses right or wrong?
Claim: Condoning alcohol on UC is wrong
Reason: because most students are underage.
Enthymeme 1: We should buy this Geo Metro because it is extremely economical.
Enthymeme 2: We should buy this used Volvo because it is very safe.
Enthymeme 3: We should buy this Ford Falcon because it is red.
Enthymeme 4: Teachers should not curse because it is unprofessional.
Enthymeme 5: Andrew would make a good boyfriend because he is kind and considerate.
Enthymeme 6: William Blake is a good poet because his poetry is insightful and engaging.