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Transcript of Behaviorism
That's Correct, That's Wrong A Chronology of Behaviorism What is Learning and
How Does it Happen? Critique of
the System How to Apply In the Classroom 1800s 1912 Early Behaviorism in Schools Schoolchildren in the first NYC school and schools in England given prizes and punishments-stopped due to concerns of "strife and jealousy" among the students (Kohn, 1993) 1911 Early Behaviorism in Workplace The book Principles of Scientific Management spoke about using a rewards strategy for business employees John Watson considered Father of Behaviorism
gave lectures at Columbia University on behaviorism
conditioned his child to be afraid of mice by making a terrifyingly loud sound whenever he brought a mouse close to his kid 1898 Thordike's Law of Effect The Law of Effect is that: Of several responses made to the same situation, those which are accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction to the animal will, other things being equal, be more firmly connected with the situation, so that, when it recurs, they will be more likely to recur; those which are accompanied or closely followed by discomfort to the animal will, other things being equal, have their connections with that situation weakened, so that, when it recurs, they will be less likely to occur. The greater the satisfaction or discomfort, the greater the strengthening or weakening of the bond. -Thorndike (1911, p. 244) 1920s Classical Conditioning: Pavlov's Dogs Conditioning creates associations between things that aren't naturally related
(dogs don't naturally drool when they hear a bell) Dog salivates when he is about to be fed
Pavlov rings bell before he feeds dog
Dog starts salivating when he hears bell 1930s believed we should look at actions, behavior, not speculate about what was going on inside the mind Skinner's Operant Conditioning experiments with mice and pigeons
action positive result
action (repeat) positive result (repeat) If you get rewarded for something, you will be more likely to do it over and over again. If you are punished for something, you will stop doing it/be less inclined to do it. Positive and Negative Reinforcements Operant conditioning: If you are positively reinforced, you will be more likely to do it again. If you are negatively reinforced, you will be less likely to do it again. Behaviorism is centered on these OBSERVABLE actions. "In behaviorism, learning is described as the production of a desired response to a given stimulus or set of stimuli. Teaching is the structuring of the environment so that a desired response or set of responses will be elicited from the learner." (Hiatt, 2009) So if you gave the correct response, you learned! Teacher-directed learning
Focus on outcomes
Use of positive and negative reinforcements People learn in different ways. Just because you produced the "right" response when it was solicited, did you REALLY learn anything? Behaviorists mostly did their experiments on animals and generalized their findings to people.
Don't our thought processes count for something?
Aren't we capable of higher reasoning than actions and reactions to positive and negative reinforcements?
Don't we want kids to think for themselves? Basic factoids When
is key multiple-choice tests,
fill-in the blank Praise, A's, Gold stars What are the positive and negative reinforcements in this scenario? Rewards and punishments Are you focusing on the reward or the material? Say it With Me! RESPONSE GIVEN LEARNING HAPPENED RESPONSE REINFORCED TEACHER
SETS IT UP RESPONSE
AGAIN RESPONSE TAUGHT (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr BEHAVIORISM
Chronology of Behaviorism
1.) Behaviorist techniques have existed in different forms for hundreds of years. True of False?
2.) Thorndike’s Law and Effect states: (Use back of paper to write five times)
3.) Watson is considered the _________ of behaviorism. He focused on ¬¬____________ actions.
4.) Whose classical conditioning experiment got a a dog to associate food with a bell and thus got the dog to drool whenever it heard a bell?
5.) What type of conditioning focuses on positive and negative reinforcements?
6.) In the video from The Big Bang Theory, ________ is used as a positive reinforcement and _________ is used as a negative reinforcement.
What is Learning and How Does it happen?
1.) "In behaviorism, ________ is described as the production of a desired response to a given stimulus or set of stimuli. _______ __is the structuring of the environment so that a desired response or set of responses will be elicited from the learner." (Hiatt, 2009)
Critiques of Behaviorism
1.) True or false: If you made an A, you know and understand the material you were taught.
2.) True or false: Behaviorist learning techniques focus on how and why students learn to best help each student understand the material.
3.) True or false: Rewarding students for producing the right answer helps students get interested in the material, explore the material, and be creative in how they respond to the material
How to Apply in the Classroom
1.) Examples of behaviorist learning techniques : (Circle the correct answer)
a.) Multiple choice tests, using flashcards, true or false questions, fill in the blank, lectures
b.) Science fair projects, student presentations, collaborative learning
c.) Open-ended essay questions, critical thinking
2.) Behaviorist learning is best for (higher/lower) level learning (circle one).
3.) Behaviorist techniques are _______ and ______ to use.
4.) What are three ways the presentation mentions that positively reinforce student learning? Outline handed out to go along with "Behavioral Kiss" Behavioral kiss idea from http://www.innovativelearning.com/teaching/behaviorism.html (give candy to those who say thank you, others should get gist) If time permits, candy to good scores on this worksheet Rewards and punishments take the focus away from learning "How to Train a Dog" "How to Train a Child" To create uniform standards Teaching a step-by-step process Lower-level learning Quick
Amsel, Abram (1989). Behaviorists, neobehaviorism, and cognitivism in learning theory: Historical and contemporary perspectives. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Culatta, R. (2011). Behaviorism activities. Retrieved September 2012, from Innovative Learning: http://www.innovativelearning.com/educational_psychology/behaviorism/behaviorism_activities.html
Hiatt, D. (2009). “Chapter 11: Teaching from alternative frames of reference.” International Journal Of Educology, 23(1/2), 251-261. Retrieved September 2011: http://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/College-Student-Journal/285532030.html
Kohn, Alfie (1999). Punished by rewards: The trouble with gold stars, incentive plans, A’s, praise, and other bribes. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
ed. Schwartz, Barry (1984). Psychology of learning: readings in behavior theory. Toronto: Norton and
Thorndike, E. (1911) from Steele, Kenneth. "Thorndike's Law of Effect." Retrieved September 2012, from Appalachian State University Psychology 5150: http://www1.appstate.edu/~kms/classes/psy5150/Thorndike.htm Images:
Dog http://www.classroomclipart.com/clipart-view/Clipart/Black_and_White_Clipart/Animals/ dog_02A_outline_jpg.htm
Factory worker https://dwd.wisconsin.gov/dwd/dwdhistory/images/child_labor_big.jpg
1800s kids http://capemay.com/magazine/2009/11/125-years-of-west-cape-may/&docid=T-8MPdq92sBCrM&imgurl
Little Albert http://www.wikipediaillustrated.org/letters/l/hairy-situation
Pavlov dog http://www.howstuffworks.com/search.php?terms=pavlov%27s+dogs
Skinner mouse http://learningkaleidoscope.pbworks.com/f/1205516281/op%2520mouse.jpg
Skinner bird http://rsrc.psychologytoday.com/files/imagecache/article-inline-half/blogs/43103/2010/09/47500-34964.jpg&w=230&h=173&ei=SSlSU
Black feather http://i453.photobucket.com/albums/qq256/KiwiBina/BookCovers/BlackFeather.jpg
Carrot and stick cartoon https://www.google.com/search?num=10&hl=en&site=imghp&tbm=isch&source=hp&biw=1024&bih=559&q=rewards+and+
Great job 2 http://www.lessons4sundayschool.com/images/greatjobsticker.jpg
Great job 1 http://www.paperdirect.com/Great-Job--Deluxe-Embossed-Foil-Seals/-141822
Gold star http://employee-rewards-incentives.blogspot.com/2008_12_01_archive.html