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Transcript of Sports Nutrition
1 Know the concepts of nutrition and digestion
2 Know energy intake and expenditure in sports performance
3 Know the relationship between hydration and sports performance
4 Be able to plan a diet appropriate for a selected sports activity.
Unit 11: Sports Nutrition
P1 Describe nutrition, including nutritional requirements using common terminology associated with nutrition.
P2 Describe the structure and function of the digestive system
Herefordshire NHS would now like you to produce and information leaflet describing:
P3 Describe/explain (M1) energy intake and expenditure in sports performance
P4 Describe/explain (M2) energy balance and its importance in relation to sports performance
D1 Analyse the effects of energy balance on sports performance
Food provides the energy and nutrients for your body, but before your body can make any use of the energy the food has to be broken down to release them through the digestion system.
Here is how is works:
You need to include:
Nutrition: macronutrients, micronutrients, fibre, nutritional requirement, common terminology (P1)
Digestion: structure of digestive, function of digestive system. (P2)
The 3 macronutrients of protein, fat, and carbohydrates all perform essential roles in the human body. Macronutrients are the main components of our diet. All three macronutrients are needed in the diet, as each perform vital functions in the body.
Protein- main role to build and repair tissue. It is also a secondary source of energy when carbohydrates and fat are limited.
Fat- primary function on fats is to provide a concentrated source of energy, forming your body's largest potential energy store.
Two types of fat- saturated and unsaturated
Carbohydrates- form your body's most readily available source of energy and can be accessed rapidly. Two types of carbohydrates- simple and complex.
Vitamins and minerals are required in smaller amounts than fats, protein and carbohydrates. However, they play a critical role in regulating chemical reactions in the body.
Vitamins- are vital for specific metabolic functions and prevent particular deficiency diseases. They also support growth and the immune and nervous system functions, and some are involved in producing hormones.
Minerals- are essential to health and form important components of your body such as bone, connective tissue, enzymes and hormones. They are split into to categories- macrominerals such as calcium because they are required in relatively large amounts and trace elements such as copper because they are needed in much smaller amounts.
Is a complex carbohydrate which is thought to help in the prevention of certain diseases such as cancer of the colon, diabetes, heart disease and irritable bowel syndrome. A high fibre intake also keeps your bowel functioning efficiently.
Two types- soluble can be found in oats, rye, barley, fruit and vegetables.
Insoluble is found in wholewheat bread, rice, pasta, whole grain breakfast cereals and fruit and vegetables.
The amount of nutritional requirement you need depends on age, sex, level of activity and state of health. Some nutrients are more essential during different stages of life e.g. calcium in childhood and iron during pregnancy.
Athletes would need more carbohydrates due to their intense training. For example a marathon runner would need 65-70% of their total energy from carbohydrates.
What is the government guidelines?
What do the following mean?
Recommended daily allowance (RDA)
Estimated average requirement
Function of the digestion system
The mechanical and chemical breaking down of food into smaller components, to a form that can be absorbed, for instance, into a blood stream. Digestion is a form of catabolism; a break-down of macro food molecules to smaller ones. It involves enzymes in the gut to help break down the food.
The movement of digested food from the stomach and small intestines into the body tissues and blood. Absorption happens in the villi that line the small intestine.
This is the removal of potentially poisonous end-products from metabolism, normally in your urine and faeces. Kidneys play a huge part in excretion of urine and large intestines eliminate solid or semi solid waste.
The kidneys are in charge of keeping the blood constant by filtering it to remove any excess water and waste products which are then secreted. Every 24hrs the kidneys filter around 150 litres of blood and produce around 1.5 litres of urine.
You need to know:
Energy: measures (calories, joules, kilocalories, kilojoules); sources, eg fats, carbohydrates, proteins; measuring requirements, eg body composition, lean body mass, percentage body fat (skinfold analyses, bioelectrical impedance analysis, hydrodensitometry); body weight; calorimetry (direct, indirect)
Energy balance: basal metabolism; age; gender; climate; physical activity
Energy intake and expenditure in sport performance
Energy is obtained from foods you eat and used to support your basal metabolic rate, the minimum amount of energy required to sustain the body's vital functions in a waking state, and all activity carried out at work and leisure.
Measured in calories and joules, which are units that are very small so they are multiplied by 1,000 and referred to as kilocalories (UK) or kilojoules (metric or international)
Fat and carbohydrate are the main source of energy fuel for the body. Glucose is the preferred fuel for exercising muscles particularly when the intensity increases. Protein may be used during prolonged periods of exercise. If the energy is not replaced as it is used, the muscles will tire and be unable to maintain high intensity.
Methods of assessing % of body fat includes:
Bioelectrical impedance analysis
Hydrodensitometry (underwater weighing)
Factors that effect basal metabolism
Physical Activity level
Is also known as body mass and is measured in kilograms. Over eating can cause obesity and being over weight causes health issues. Some sports are categorised based on body weight such as boxing. However, If people do not follow the energy and nutrition guidelines they can also suffer from health problems.
What other sports can you think of?
Body composition also know as somatotyping which recognises three body types.
Lean body mass and body fat make up the total body weight. Body mass includes bone, muscle, water, connective and organ tissue. Body fat includes both essential and non-essential fat stores. It is possible to alter body composition by exercising and changing diet.
Energy expenditure can be assessed by direct and indirect calorimetry, essentially through the measurement of heat production.
Direct calorimetry (DC) measures the actual amount of heat produced by the body. It uses an airtight chamber where heat produced by the subject warms water around them.
Indirect calorimetry (IC) estimates heat production by measuring respiratory gases. A mouthpiece and Douglas bag collection or mouthpiece and gas anaysis system, with energy consumption calculated from the amount of oxygen consumed.
There is an energy balance if the food and drink you take in (energy input) equals the amount of energy you expend (energy output). This means you will not gain or lose any weight.
There are four major components to energy output: resting metabolic rate, dietary thermogenesis, physical activity and adaptive thermogenesis.
The amount of energy required to maintain the body of an individual in a resting state.
Your basal metabolism represents the number of calories your body burns when at rest, but awake, over the course of one day. This number is one of the factors that determines your total calorie needs for the day.
Find out how much your body needs:
Age: your BMR reduces with age. After 30, it will fall by 2% every 10 years.
Gender: Males generally have greater muscle mass than females so their BMR will be higher.
Climate: exposure to hot or cold climate causes an increase in basal metabolism to maintain the body's internal temperature.
Physical activity: to estimate your total energy requirements you need to consider your physical activity level (PAL). Simplest form is multiplying your BMR by your PAL.
P5 describe hydration and its effects on sports performance
P6 describe/explain (M3) the components of a balanced diet
You need to include:
Hydration: signs and symptoms (dehydration, hyperhydration, hypohydration, superhydration); fluid intake
(pre-event, inter-event, post-event); sources, eg water, sports drinks (hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic)
Effects on sports performance: eg frequency, intensity, duration, specificity, progression, recovery
Diet: balanced diet (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water, fibre, vitamins, minerals)
Activities: eg aerobic, anaerobic, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility; timing, eg pre-season, midseason,
post-season, pre-event, inter-event, post-event
Water is an important nutrient for life because it helps regulate our temperature, lubricate our joints and transport nutrients throughout the body. Around 60% of our body weight is made up of water and it is vital to maintain that balance so that your body and mind can function correctly.
Water is lost through a number of routes such as urine, faeces, evaporation from the skin and expired breath. If your losing more water than you take on your body becomes dehydrated.
Dehydration can cause reduce strength, power and aerobic capacity. Heatstroke is a serve and maybe fatal. What are the warning signs of dehydration?
Is a state of increased hydration, producing a greater than normal body water content. Starting exercise in this state can improve thermoregulation, improving heat dissipation and exercise performance.
Is a state of decreased hydration, producing a less than normal body water content. It increases core body temperature, impairs sweating response and causes skeletal muscle fatigue.
Is a state of hydration achieved by manipulation of the ergogenic aid glycerol. When ingested with large volumes of water (1-2litres), glycerol has been shown to increase water retention in the body. This reduces overall heat stress during exercise in hot conditions, lowering heart rate and body temperature. However, there can be some side effects such as headaches, dizziness, stomach aches and bloating.
A human is required to drink 2-2.5 litres of fluid per a day (6-8 cups). 10% of this comes from your metabolic processes that release water within your body and the other 90% is from your diet. (60% comes from fluid and the rest from food).
Sports performers should have a frequent fluid intake during pre-event, inter-event and post-event.
How can you check if your hydrated or not?
Water is the main fluid consumption however, some sports performance drinks may be useful for high intensity training.
Hypotonic- These drinks are absorbed rapidly from the intestine, and are good for rapid fluid replacement during and after exercise. These drinks are usually lower in calories than other types of sports drinks, and are therefore also suited for everyday consumption.
Hypertonic- drinks are best used after long endurance events to replenish glycogen stores, or for “carbohydrate loading” in the days prior to an endurance event. Hypertonic fluids are absorbed more slowly than isotonic or hypotonic drinks - water is drawn into the intestine to dilute hypertonic drinks prior absorption. Therefore, hypertonic drinks are not appropriate for use during exercise, only several hours before or after exercise.
Isotonic- allows for relatively rapid absorption of the ingested fluid from the stomach and small intestines. This allows for rehydration during exercise, and supplies fuel (simple carbohydrates) and electrolyes (critical for body function) to keep the athlete functioning at peak levels during endurance events.
Balanced Diet: that provides the correct amounts of nutrients without excess or deficiency.
Why do you need a balanced diet?
What are the components and how do they contribute to a balanced diet?
How do activities determine the diet plan?
Why would timing of the season have an impact on a diet?
P7 plan an appropriate two-week diet plan for a selected sports performer for a selected sports activity.
M4 explain the two-week diet plan for a selected sports performer for a selected sports activity.
D2 justify the two-week diet plan for a selected sports performer for a selected sports activity.
You need to include:
Planning diets: appropriate for selected activity; appropriate for selected sports performer; assessment of
needs, eg weight gain, weight loss, muscle gain, fat gain, fat loss; nutrition (macronutrients, micronutrients,
fibre); food groups (grains, vegetables, fruits, oils, dairy, meat); sources; availability
British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences www.bases.org.uk
British Nutrition Foundation www.nutrition-org.uk
Food Standards Agency www.foodstandards.gov.uk
Institute of Food Research www.ifrn.bbsrc.ac.uk
Sports drinks for athletes
Eat well plate
How should your diet change?
Protein contains 20 amino acids which your body needs to repair and build tissue and to sustain optimal growth and functioning.
Different proteins contain different numbers and combinations of amino acids.
Your body is unable to make 8 and these are called essential amino acids (EAAs). These are important for your diet.
The remaining 12 are called non-essential amino acids. Your body is able to synthesise these if all the EAAs are present.
Most vitamins can not be produced by your body so they need to come from your diet or supplements.
Only vitamin D which is supplied by sunlight and vitamin K which is produced by the bacteria in the large intestine are supplied by the body.
They are split into two forms:
Fat-soluble vitamins which are found in the fatty or oily parts of food. Once digested they are absorbed but because they are insoluble in water they can not be excreted in the urine.
Water-soluble vitamins (B&C) facilitate the use of energy within your body. To much of these vitamins are excreted in urine so your body has limited stores.
Minerals are split into two categories:
Macrominerals such as calcium as they are required in large amounts. (Several hundred milligrams per day)
Trace elements such as copper as they are required in much smaller amounts. (Micrograms per day)
Minerals are closely controlled by absorption and excretion to prevent excessive build up.
Fibre is a complex carbohydrate which resists digestion and provides bulk which aids the transit of food through the digestive system.
A high fibre diet helps keep your bowel functioning efficiently and prevents and treats certain diseases.
Two types of fibre:
Soluble- found in oats, rye, barley, beans, fruit and vegetables. They control blood glucose and cholesterol.
Insoluble- found in wholewheat bread, rice, pasta, wholegrain cereals, fruit and vegetables. They prevent bowel disorders.
Both are needed for a healthy diet- 18 grams per day
Long chains of simple sugars are called polysaccharides or complex carbohydrates.
Complex carbohydrates are often referred to as starch or starchy foods. They are found naturally in foods and also refined in processed foods. Natural examples are banana, brown rice, parsnips, potatoes etc.
Refined examples are biscuits, pastries, cakes, white rice and bread.
Complex carbohydrates provide a slower and more sustained release of energy than simple carbohydrates. They should form your largest % of your total carbohydrate intake.
Task: In 2's find out what happens to carbohydrate in you body?
There are two types of carbohydrates:
Simple carbohydrates are sometimes called simple sugars, mainly because they contain either natural or added sugar. They are easily digested and absorbed for quick energy stores. Natural sugars are from things like fruit and veg and refined sugars are from chocolate, biscuits, honey, jam etc.
The simplest carbohydrate unit is the monosaccharide, known as glucose, fructose and Galactose.
One gram of carbohydrate= 4Kcal of energy.
What is glucose, fructose and galactose?
Glucose is used to produce adenosine triphospate (ATP), needed for muscle contraction.
Frutose is known as fruit sugar as it it found in fruit and veg.
Galactose is found in milk.
Two monosaccharides= disaccharide or double sugar.
Sucrose or table sugar are there best examples.
Protein is used as a secondary source of energy if carbohydrate and fat are limited.
One gram of protein= 4Kcals
Excess protein can not be stored so it provides energy immediately or converted to fat or carbohydrate and then stored.
Split into complete and incomplete:
Complete= food that contains EAAs
Examples are meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, cheese and yoghurt. (animal sources)
Incomplete= Non-essential AAs
Examples are cereals, bread, rice, pasta, nuts and seeds. (plant sources)
Where would vegetarians and vegans struggle?
Basic component of fat is triglyceride which consists of 3 molecules with 3 fatty acids attached. When digested they are broken down into 2 main types saturated and unsaturated.
Saturated- generally solid at room temperature e.g butter and ordinary margarine found in meat, eggs, cream, cakes, chocolate and dairy products.
Unsaturated- generally liquid at room temperature
There are two types of unsaturated fat- monounsaturated which is olive oil, olive oli spread, corn oil, peanuts and peanut butter.
Polyunsaturated which is soft margarine, low-fat spead, sunflower oil, oily fish and nuts.
Fat is your largest energy source and is more than twice as energy dense than other macronutrients having 9 calories per one gram.
Task: Nutritional requirements
What are the nutritional requirements for these macro and micronutients?
Think about how much you need based on daily activity levels?
Why might athletes need more?
What do you need?
-From the last two lessons you should be able to complete P1.
You need to include energy intake:
What is it? Where do we get it from? Different food gives you different energy. Calories different for different people.
Should intake match expenditure? What happens if expenditure is more than intake? What is expenditure influenced by?
Calories burned is expenditure.
Use sport examples
Using activity on pg 262 calculate your BMR and total daily energy requirements.
What is a balanced diet?
Who is your athlete?
2 week diet plan for your selected sports performer
Description of a balanced diet.
Who is your performer?
What kind of activity do they do?
What do they need to eat for their sport?
Specific examples of food sources (macro/Micronutrients)?
When is it for e.g. pre-season/post-season?
Breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks, hydration
demands of the activity:
Athletes diet can change depending on the training undertaken during the year.
Pre-season: during this time athlete's need to build up energy so carbs and fluid intake will increase to prevent injuries.
Mid-season: maintaining energy balance and fluid as competition schedules get underway.
Post-season: athlete can relax with dietary intake, weight gain may occur but be monitored. Energy and fluid intake will be at there lowest.
Pre-event: meals should top up muscle and liver glycogen so foods rich in carbs but low in fat and fibre but moderate protein stores. Small meals but often so they are easily digested. Solid meals 2 hours before event but liquid 30-60 mins before.
Inter event: fluid loss is massive during this time so sports drinks and water should be consumed. Any events over 4 hours may require solid food such as energy bars or gels.
Post event: recovery meals are important at this stage so sensible choice of food and fluid will help you recover quicker. Foods high in carbs should be consumed within 2 hours of exercise but preferably small low-fat snack asap. Fluid should be taken on straight after to rehydrate the body.
Aerobic- increase carb intake 2-3 days before competition. Supplements e.g. energy drinks, bars and gels.
Anaerobic- combination of carbs and protein for lean body mass.
Muscular endurance and strength- e.g. rugby and judo (weight management) need a balanced diet with key nutrients being carbs and fluid.
Flexibility- weight control is a serious issue with these sports and may result in eating disorders. A balanced diet with key nutrients depends on the sport undertaken.
What do they need more of in there diet e.g. Carbs 8-10 grams per kg of body weight for heavy training
water- need to replace the fluid lost.