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Big Idea 2
Transcript of Big Idea 2
http://quadriv.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/drosophila_mutant.jpg?w=640 2.E.1.b.3 Temperature and the availability of water determine seed germination in most plants.
://media.pitchcare.com/L/zBz0lP875ZOrUBCqW5yn.jpg 2.D.4.b.6 A second exposure to an antigen results in a more rapid and enhanced immune response. 2.D.4.b.5 Antibodies are proteins produced by B cells, and each antibody is specific to a particular region 2.D.4.b.4 Antigens are recognized by antibodies to the antigen. 2.D.4.b.3. In the humoral response, B cells, a type of lymphatic white blood cell, produces antibodies against specific antigens. 2.D.4.b Mammals use specific immune responses triggered by natural or artificial agents that disrupt dynamic homeostasis.
2.D.4.b.1 The mammalian immune system includes two types of specific responses: cell mediated and humoral. Vertebrate immune systems have nonspecific and nonheritable defense mechanisms against pathogens Illustrative examples:
Invertebrate immune systems have nonspecific response mechanisms, but they lack pathogen-specific defense responses.
Plant defenses against pathogens include molecular recognition systems with systemic responses; infection triggers chemical responses that destroy infected and adjacent cells, thus localizing effects
Vertebrate immune systems have nonspecific and nonheritable defense mechanisms against pathogens 2.D.4: Plants and animals have a variety of chemical defenses against infections that affect dynamic homeostasis.
2.D.4.a Plants, invertebrates and vertebrates have multiple, nonspecific immune responses. 2.D.2. Continuity of homeostatic mechanisms reflects common ancestry, while changes may occur in response to different environmental conditions. 2.D.2.Homeostatic mechanisms reflect both common ancestry and divergence due to adaptation in different environments. 2.B.2.3. External environments can by hypotonic, hypertonic, or isotonic to internal environments of cells. 2.B.1.b.2 Phospholipids give the membrane both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties. The hydrophilic phosphate portions of the phospholipids are oriented toward the aqueous external or internal environments, while the hydrophobic fatty acid portions face each other within the interior of the membrane itself. 2.B.1.b.1 Cell membranes consist of structural framework of phospholipid molecules, embedded proteins, cholesterol, glycoproteins and glycolipids 2.A.3.b. Surface area-to-volume ratios affect a biological system’s ability to obtain necessary resources or eliminate waste products. 2.A.2.g.5 In cellular respiration, decoupling oxidative phosphorylation from electron transport is involved in thermoregulation. 2.A.2.f.4 Electrons that are extracted in the series of Kreb cycle reactions are carried by NADH and FADH2 to the electron transport chain. 2.A.2.f.2 Pyruvate is transported from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrion, where further oxidation occurs. 2.A.2.d.5 The energy captured in the light reactions as ATP and NADPH powers the production of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide in the Calvin cycle, which occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast. 2.A.2.d.3 When electrons are transferred between molecules in a sequence of reactions as they pass through the ETC, an electrochemical gradient of hydrogen ions (protons) across the thylakoid membrane is established. 2.A.2.d.2 Photosystems 1 and 11 are embedded in the internal membranes of chloroplasts (thylakoids) and are connected by the transfer of higher free energy electrons through an electron acceptor. 2.A.2.d The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis in eukaryotes involve a series of coordinated reaction pathways that capture free energy present in light to yield ATP and NADPH, which power the production of organic molecules. 2.A.2.b.2 Fermentation produces organic molecules, including alcohol and lactic acid, and it occurs in the absence of oxygen. 2.A.1.d.3 There is a relationship between metabolic rate per unit body mass and the size of multicellular organisms- generally, the small the organism, the higher the metabolic rate.
http://www.biog1105-1106.org/demos/105/unit3/media/metabolicrate_files/image004.jpg Coupled reactions
Energy released by an exergonic reaction captured in ATP
ATP is used to drive an endergonic reaction Second law:
Law of entropy
When energy is changed from one form to another, there is a loss of usable energy.
Waste energy goes to increase disorder 2.A.1.b.1 Order is maintained by coupling cellular processes that increase entropy (and so have negative changes in free energy) with those that decrease entropy (and so have positive changes in free energy)
2.A.1.b.2 Energy input must exceed free energy lost to entropy to maintain order and power cellular processes.
2.A.1.b.3 Energetically favorable exergonic reactions, such as ATP->ADP, that have a negative change in free energy can be used to maintain or increase order in a system by being coupled with reactions that have a positive free energy change. 2.A.1.b Living systems do not violate the second law of thermodynamics, which states that entropy increases over time. 2.A.1: All living systems require constant input of free energy.
2.A.1.a Life requires a highly ordered system.
2.A.1.a.1 Order is maintained by constant free energy input into the system.
2.A.1.a.2 Loss of order or free energy results in death.
2.A.1.a.3 Increased disorder and entropy are offset by biological processes that maintain or increase order. 2.A: Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization of living systems require free energy and matter. Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis. Big Idea 2: http://kidsgrowingstrong.org/sites/default/files/Images/pollination2.jpg 2.E.3.b.2. In photoperiodism in plants, changes in the length of night regulate flowering and preparation for winter. 2.E.2 Timing and coordination of physiological events are regulated by multiple mechanisms.
2.E.2. In plants, physiological events involve interactions between environmental stimuli and internal molecular signals.
2.E.2. 1 Phototropism, or the response to the presence of light.
2.E.2.1. Photoperiodism, or the response to change in length of the night, that results in flowering in long-day and short-day plants. 2.D.4.b.2 In cell-mediated response, cytotoxic T cells, a type of lymphocytic white blood cell, “target” intracellular pathogens when antigens are displayed on the outside of cells. https://www.boundless.com/biology/immunology/innate-immunity/invertebrates-and-their-innate-immunity-mechanisms/ Invertebrates and their innate immunity mechanismsInnate immunity in invertebrates consists of the exoskeleton and the digestive system and its associated microorganisms. fig. 1
The process of phagocytosisA visual representation of phagocytosis encompasses the following steps. Step 1: The phagocytic cell forms temporary extensions called the pseudopodia that encircle the pathogens. Step 2: Endocytosis occurs and the pathogens are engulfed in the phagocytic cell. Step 3: A vacuole is formed around the pathogens. Step 4: The vacuole then fuses with a lysosome that contains toxic enzymes. Step 5: Toxic components of the lysosome obliterate the pathogen. Step 6: The remains of the pathogen are then removed from the cell through exocytosis. Insects' exoskeleton made mostly of a polysaccharide called chitin, serves as an effective barrier against microbes. Chitin is also found in the intestine of an insect where it serves to ward off dangerous pathogens from being consumed with the food.Immune cells termed hemocytes found inside the hemolypmh (circulatory system in insects) engulf pathogens via a process called phagocytosis (a form of endocytosis) and destroy them.Adaptive immunity is only found in vertebrates. Invertebrate immune systems have nonspecific response mechanisms, but they lack pathogen-specific defense responses. http://scienceblogs.com/oscillator/wp-content/blogs.dir/343/files/2012/04/i-e514a6c2edc41d6acdc554fd5392dd83-494px-Average_prokaryote_cell-_en.svg-thumb-250x203-42353.png 2.B.3.c. Archaea and Bacteria generally lack internal membranes and organelles and have a cell wall. 2.A.3.b.2. The surface area of the plasma membrane must be large enough to adequately exchange materials; small cells have a more favorable surface area-to-volume ratio for exchange of materials with the environment. http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio%20101/bio%20101%20lectures/cellular%20respiration/cellul13.gif 2.A.2.h. Free energy becomes available for metabolism by the conversion of ATP->ADP, which is coupled to many steps in metabolic pathways. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/%E2%80%8Chbase/Biology/imgbio/atpsyn.gif 2.A.2.g.4 The flow of protons back through membrane-bound ATP synthase by chemiosmosis generates ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. 2.A.2.g.3 The passage of electrons is accompanied by the formation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane or the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts, with the membrane(s) separating a region of high proton concentration from a region of low proton concentration. In prokaryotes, the passage of electrons is accompanied by the outward movement of protons across the plasma membrane. 2.A.2.g.2 In cellular respiration, electrons delivered by NADH and FADH2 are passed to a series of electron acceptors as they move toward the terminal electron acceptor, oxygen. In photosynthesis, this terminal electron acceptor is NADP+. 2.A.2.f.3 In the Krebs cycle, carbon dioxide is released from organic intermediates. ATP is synthesized from ADP and inorganic phosphate via substrate level phosphorylation and electrons are captured by coenzymes. 2.A.2.f Cellular respiration in eukaryotes involves a series of coordinated enzyme-catalyzed reactions that harvest free energy from simple carbohydrates.
2.A.2.f.1 Glycolysis rearranges the bonds in glucose molecules, releasing free energy to form ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate and resulting in the production of pyruvate. 2.A.2.d.4 The formation of the proton gradient is a separate process, but it is linked to the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate via ATP synthase. 2.A.2.c Different energy-capturing processes use different types of electron acceptors.
NADP+ in photosynthesis and Oxygen in cellular respiration For example: Change in the producer level can affect the number and size of other trophic levels.
Change in energy resources levels such as sunlight can affect the number and size of the trophic levels.
http://files5.pdesas.org/070112214159147142055010099019241217008034040146/Download.ashx?hash=2.2 2.A.1.f Changes in free energy availability can result in disruptions to an ecosystem. 2.A.1.d.4 Excess acquired free energy versus required free energy expenditure results in energy storage or growth.
2.A.1.d.5 Insufficient acquired free energy versus required free energy expenditure results in loss of mass, and ultimately, the death of an organism. Free energy is the amount of energy available to perform work 2.E.3.b.4. Illustrative examples: Availability of resources leading to fruiting body formation in fungi and certain types of bacteria (THINK OF WHEN IT’S RAINING A LOT, YOU HAVE MUSHROOMS POPPING UP ALL OVER.); NICHE AND RESOURCE PARTIONING; MUTUALISTIC RELATIONSHIPS (LICHENS; BACTERIA IN DIGESTIVE TRACTS OF ANIMALS; MYCORRHIZAE); BIOLOGY OF POLLINATION
. http://fairyroom.com/WP/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/fairyring-l.jpeg 2.E.3.b.4 Cooperative behavior within or between populations contributes to the survival of the populations. 2.E.3.b.a In phototropism in plants, changes in the light source lead to differential growth, resulting in maximum exposure of leaves to photosynthesis. 2.E.3.b. Responses to information and communication of information are vital to natural selection. http://archiv.skoropsycho.cz/obrazky/archiv.skoropsycho.cz/supr.jpg 2.E.2.b. In animals, internal and external signals regulate a variety of physiological responses that synchronize with environmental cycles and cues. Illustrative examples: Circadian rhythms, or the physiological cycle of about 24 hours that is present in all eukaryotes and persists even in the absence of external cues;
Diurnal/nocturnal and sleep/awake cycles; Jet lag in humans; Seasonal responses, such as hibernation, estivation (hot summer months) and migration; release and reaction to pheromones; visual displays in the reproductive cycle. https://biology.mit.edu/sites/default/files/SharpFig1.jpg 2.E.1.b.6 Genetic regulation by microRNAs plays an important role in the development of organisms and the control of cellular functions. http://www.ralf-dahm.com/typo3temp/pics/7882f9261e.jpg 2.E.1.b.4 Genetic mutations can result in abnormal development. http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0168952509002674-gr1.jpg 2.E.1 Timing and coordination of specific events are necessary for the normal development of an organism, and these events are regulated by a variety of mechanisms.
2.E.1.a Observable cell differentiation results from the expression of genes for tissue-specific genes. 2.E Many biological processes involved in growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis include temporal regulation and coordination. 2.D.2. Homeostatic control systems in species of microbes, plants and animals support common ancestry. Illustrative examples: Excretory systems in flatworms, earthworms and vertebrates; osmoregulation in bacteria, fish and protists; osmoregulation in aquatic and terrestrial plants, circulatory systems in fish, amphibians and mammals: thermoregulation in aquatic and terrestrial animals (countercurrent exchange mechanisms) http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire8e/content/cat_010/f51003.jpg 2.D.2. Organisms have various mechanisms for obtaining nutrients and eliminating wastes. Illustrative examples: gas exchange in aquatic and terrestrial plants, digestive mechanisms in animals such as food vacuoles, gastrovascular cavities, one-way digestive systems; respiratory systems of aquatic and terrestrial animals; nitrogenous waste production and elimination in aquatic and terrestrial animals. http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/images/interviews/stoma_diagram.gif 2.D.2. Organisms have various mechanisms for obtaining nutrients and eliminating wastes. Illustrative examples: gas exchange in aquatic and terrestrial plants, digestive mechanisms in animals such as food vacuoles, gastrovascular cavities, one-way digestive systems; respiratory systems of aquatic and terrestrial animals; nitrogenous waste production and elimination in aquatic and terrestrial animals. http://images.sciencedaily.com/2007/10/071004143131-large.jpg 2.B.2.b.c.1 In exocytosis, internal vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane to secrete large macromolecules out of the the cell.
2.B.2.b.c.2 In endocytosis, the cell takes in macromolecules and particulate matter by forming new vesicles derived from the plasma membrane. 2.B.2.b.c. The processes of endocytosis and exocytosis move large molecules from the external environment to the internal environment and vice versa, respectively. 2.B.2.b.1 Active transport is used where free energy (often provided by ATP) is used by proteins embedded in the membrane to “move” molecules and/or ions across the membrane and to establish and maintain concentration gradients.
2.B.2.b.2 Membrane proteins are necessary for active transport. 2.B.2.b Active transport requires free energy to move molecules from regions of low concentration to regions of high concentrations. 2.B.2.a Passive transport does not require the input of metabolic energy; the net movement of molecules is from high concentration to low concentration.
2.B.2.a.1 Passive transport plays a primary role in the improt of resources and the export of wastes.
http://www.okc.cc.ok.us/biologylabs/Images/Cells_Membranes/diffusion.gif 2.B.2 Growth and dynamic homeostasis are maintained by the constant movement of molecules across membranes. http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/M/MembraneProteins.gif 2.B.1.b.3. Embedded proteins can be hydrophilic, with charged and polar side groups, or hydrophobic, with non-polar side groups. 2.B.1.a Cell membranes separate the internal environment of the cell from the external environment.
2.B.1.b Selective permeability is a direct consequence of membrane structure, as described by the fluid mosaic model. 2.B.1: Cell membranes are selectively permeable due to their structure. http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4fv/page/image12.gif 2.A.3.a.3 Living systems depend on properties of water that result from it’s polarity and hydrogen bonding. Illustrative examples: Cohesion, Adhesion, High specific heat capacity, Universal solvent supports reactions; Heat of vaporization, Heat of fusion, Water’s thermal conductivity http://mrbrowns5thgrade.com/images/CarbonCycleGameBoard.jpg 2.A.3: Organisms must exchange matter with the environment to grow, reproduce and maintain organization.
2.A.3.a Molecules and atoms from the environment are necessary to build new molecules.
2.A.3.a.1 Carbon moves from the environment to organisms where it is used to build carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids. Carbon is used in storage compounds and cell formation in all organisms. 2.A.2.g The electron transport chain captures free energy from electrons in a series of coupled reactions that establish an electrochemical gradient across membranes. 2.A.2.d.1 During photosynthesis, chlorophylls absorb free energy from light, boosting electrons to a higher energy level in Photosystems 1 and 11. PHOTOPERIODISM affects breeding. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seasonal_breeder Partial list of seasonal breeders
Many non-mammals are seasonal breeders, such as many birds and fish.
Here is partially listed those that are mammals.[Long day breeders
Short day breeders
Sheep, Goat Fox,Deer, Red Deer,Elk,Moose.
Ruffed lemur (May - July)Select species of hamster, vole and mouse 2.A.1.d.2 Reproduction and rearing of offspring require free energy beyond that used for maintenance and growth. Different organisms use various reproductive strategies in response to energy availability. For example: Seasonal reproduction in animals and plants. Life History strategy (biennial plants, reproductive diapause) http://www.units.muohio.edu/cryolab/education/images/Science%20Digest%20Pictures/OsmoticDehydration.pnghttp://www.csulb.edu/depts/biology/media/cell751.gif
http://www.csulb.edu/depts/biology/media/cell751.gif 2.D.3 Biological systems are affected by disruptions to their dynamic homeostasis.
2.D.3.a. Disruptions at the molecular and cellular levels affect the health of the organism. Illustrative examples: physiological responses to toxic substances; dehydration; immunological responses to pathogens, toxins and allergens. http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-media/39/92939-034-C1B72B75.jpg 2.D.2. Organisms have various mechanisms for obtaining nutrients and eliminating wastes. Illustrative examples: gas exchange in aquatic and terrestrial plants, digestive mechanisms in animals such as food vacuoles, gastrovascular cavities, one-way digestive systems; respiratory systems of aquatic and terrestrial animals; nitrogenous waste production and elimination in aquatic and terrestrial animals. 2.D.1.b. Organism activities are affected by interactions with biotic and abiotic factors.
Illustrative examples: Symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism); predator-prey relationships, water and nutrient availability, temperature, salinity, pH. http://jpkc.scu.edu.cn/ywwy/zbsw(E)/pic/ech5-6.jpg http://www.daviddarling.info/images/sodium-potassium_pump.gif 2.B.2.a.2 Membrane proteins play a role in facilitated diffusion of charged and polar molecules through a membrane.
Illustrative example: Glucose transport; Na/K transport http://wpcontent.answcdn.com/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/61/Chemiosmotic_proton_transfer.gif/400px-Chemiosmotic_proton_transfer.gif 2.A.2.g.1 Electron transport chain reactions occur in chloroplasts
(photosynthesis), mitochondria (cellular respiration) and prokaryotic plasma membrane. For example: Krebs Cycle, Glycolysis, Calvin Cycle, Fermentation. 2.A.1.c Energy-related pathways in biological systems are sequential and may be entered at multiple points in the pathway. http://www.finegardening.com/cms/uploadedimages/images/gardening/issues_91-100/041096082-01_ld.jpg http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/Resources/Toms%20Fungi/Lichens/Foliose_lichens_130_d.gif http://www.citruscollege.edu/lc/archive/biology/PublishingImages/0847l.jpg http://mtwow.org/BSCS_Blue_Chapter_10_Study_Guide.html 2.E.1.b. Induction of transcription factors during development results in sequential gene expression.
2.E.1.b.1. Homeotic genes are involved in developmental patterns and sequences.
2.E.1.b.2 Embyronic induction in development results in the correct timing of events. http://www.treeworld.info/attachments/f29/2582d1193044536-soil-salinity-cause-salinity.gif Illustrative examples:
Invasive and/or eruptive species
Hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, fires
Salination 2.D.3 Disruptions to ecosystems impact the dynamic homeostasis or balance of the ecosystem. http://www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/snpapp/iText/products/0-13-115075-8/text/chapter32/32images/32-02.gif 2.C.1.a. Negative feedback mechanisms maintain dynamic homeostasis for a particular condition (variable) by regulating physiological processes, returning the changing condition back to it’s target set point. For example: Operons in gene regulation, Temperature regulation in animals, plant responses to water limitations
http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/images/induction.gifons. 2.C.1. Organisms use feedback mechanisms to maintain their internal environments and respond to external environmental changes. http://www.edhsgreensea.net/Biology/html_stuff/cell.gif http://apbrwww5.apsu.edu/thompsonj/Anatomy%20&%20Physiology/2010/2010%20Exam%20Reviews/Exam%201%20Review/03-02_CellStructure.JPG 2.B.3.b. Membranes and membrane-bound organelles in eukaryotic cells localize (compartmentalize) intracellular metabolic processes and specific enzymatic reactions.
Illustrative examples: Endoplasmic reticulum, Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, Golgi, Nuclear Envelope 2.B.3 Eukaryotic cells maintain internal membranes that partition the cell into specialized regions. http://drinkrealwater.com/jpgs/aquaporinsmall.jpg http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lectures/cross_memb.jpg http://www.fastbleep.com/assets/notes/image/8869_1.jpg 2.B.1.b.4 Small, uncharged polar molecules and small nonpolar molecules, such as N2, freely pass across the membrane. Hydrophilic substances such as large polar molecules and ions move across the membrane through embedded channel and transport proteins. Water moves across membranes and through channel proteins called aquaporins. http://chickscope.beckman.uiuc.edu/explore/embryology/day15/graphics/alveoli.gif http://25.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lw32zgZg4U1qzz0yio1_400.jpg http://www.eschooltoday.com/photosynthesis/images/root-hair-stucture.png 2.A.3.b.1 As cells increase in volume, the relative surface area decreases and demand for material resources increases; more cellular structures are necessary to adequately exchange materials and energy with the environmental. These limitations restrict cell size. Illustrative example:
Root hairs, Cells of the alveoli, Cells of the villi, Microvilli http://www.jochemnet.de/fiu/vent3.jpg http://files5.pdesas.org/070112214159147142055010099019241217008034040146/Download.ashx?hash=2.2 2.A.2 Organisms capture and store free energy for use in biological processes.
2.A.2.a Autotrophs capture free energy from physical sources in the environment.
2.A.2.a.1 Photosynthetic organisms capture free energy present in sunlight
2.A.2.a.2 Chemosynthetic organisms capture free energy from small inorganic molecules present in their environment, and this process can occur in the absence of oxygen. Reproductive diapause
(arrested development) http://img.dictionary.com/diapause-266275-400-291.jpg http://www.extension.org/mediawiki/files/3/31/Lifecycles2.jpg http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/dog-training-18.jpg http://sunburst.usd.edu/~dlswanso/ornith/pics/gull%20bill%20pecking.gif 2.E.3.a Individuals can act on information and communicate it to others. http://cdn1.arkive.org/media/0C/0C3035D7-1FBE-482F-9139-365CC86161C8/Presentation.Large/Utah-prairie-dog-alarm-calling.jpg
2.E.3.a.1 Innate behaviors are behaviors that are inherited.
2.E.3.a.2 Learning occurs through interactions with the environment and other organisms. 2.E.3 Timing and coordination of behavior are regulated by various mechanisms and are important in natural selection. http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/images/b/b8/Strep_growth_cycle.gif http://mff.dsisd.net/Environment/PICS/FungiCycle.jpg http://www.chesterfield.k12.sc.us/cheraw%20intermediate/DaveEvans/BiologyII/Mushroom%20Diag.jpg 2.E.2.c In fungi, protists and bacteria, internal and external signals regulate a variety of physiological responses that synchronize with environmental cycles and cues. Illustrative examples:
Fruiting body formation in fungi, slime molds and certain types of bacteria; quorum sensing in bacteria http://www.scielo.br/img/revistas/zool/v26n1/a03fig03.gif http://utahpests.usu.edu/IPM/images/uploads/factsheet/codling-moth-md/fig-1-mating-disruption.jpg http://www.naturalheritage.com/!UserFiles/WebContent/NewsEvents/NaturalFeatures/Aug2012/estivation%20habitats.jpg http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/earthwormexcret.gif http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/flatwormexcret.gif 2.D.2. Homeostatic control systems in species of microbes, plants and animals support common ancestry. Illustrative examples: Excretory systems in flatworms, earthworms and vertebrates; osmoregulation in bacteria, fish and protists; osmoregulation in aquatic and terrestrial plants, circulatory systems in fish, amphibians and mammals: thermoregulation in aquatic and terrestrial animals (countercurrent exchange mechanisms) http://images.yourdictionary.com/images/science/AStransp.jpg http://www.accessscience.com/loadBinary.aspx?filename=478300FG0070.gif http://images.tutorvista.com/content/nutrition/paramecium-ingestion.jpeg 2.D.2. Homeostatic control systems in species of microbes, plants and animals support common ancestry. Illustrative examples: Excretory systems in flatworms, earthworms and vertebrates; osmoregulation in bacteria, fish and protists; osmoregulation in aquatic and terrestrial plants, circulatory systems in fish, amphibians and mammals: thermoregulation in aquatic and terrestrial animals (countercurrent exchange mechanisms) http://www.traditionalmedicine.net.au/images/diurnal_cycle.jpg http://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/EcoSnap/EcoSnap0605/EcoSnap060500122/410920-portrait-of-the-nocturnal-lesser-bush-south-africa.jpg http://www.hohenstein.de/media/image/press_300dpi/16_trage_und_schlafkomfort/2012_2/435_kaelteschutz_militaer_2012/Hohenstein_WhitePaper_ColdProtection_figures_473_TableCellImage.jpg 2.C.2.Organisms respond to changes in their external environments.
2.C.2.a. Organisms respond to changes in their environment through behavioral and physiological mechanisms.
Illustrative examples: Photoperiodism and phototropism in plants, Hibernation and migration in animals, Taxis and Kinesis in Animals, Chemotaxis in bacteria, sexual reproduction in fungi, noctural and diurnal activity: circadian rhythms, Shivering and sweating in humans. http://biofilmbook.hypertextbookshop.com/v003/r002/artifacts/images/illustrations/quorumSensing.jpg http://www.nicerweb.com/bio1151/Locked/media/ch51/51_04KinesisSowBug-L.jpg http://goldenmonkeyclan.wikispaces.com/file/view/fungal_repo.jpg/60345754/fungal_repo.jpg 2.C.2.Organisms respond to changes in their external environments.
2.C.2.a. Organisms respond to changes in their environment through behavioral and physiological mechanisms.
Illustrative examples: Photoperiodism and phototropism in plants, Hibernation and migration in animals, Taxis and Kinesis in Animals, Chemotaxis in bacteria, sexual reproduction in fungi, noctural and diurnal activity: circadian rhythms, Shivering and sweating in humans. http://bio1152.nicerweb.com/med/Banana_ripening.jpg http://kageeamy2012.wikispaces.com/file/view/homeostasis-pregnancy-positive-feedback.jpg/298738290/homeostasis-pregnancy-positive-feedback.jpg Illustrative examples: Lactation in mammals, onset of labor in childbirth, ripening of fruit.
http://resource.rockyview.ab.ca/t4t/bio30/images/m4/b30_m4_039_l.jpg 2.C.1.b Positive feedback mechanisms amplify responses and processes in biological organisms. The variable initiating the response is moved farther away from the initial set-point. Amplification occurs when the stimulus is further activated which, in turn, initiates an additional response that produces system change. http://www.biologyjunction.com/images/nucleotide1.jpg http://www.enviroliteracy.org/images/page-spec//phoscycle2.gif http://www.fossweb.com/resources/pictures/16327852.gif 2.A.3: Nitrogen moves from the environment to organisms where it is used in building proteins and nucleic acids. Phosphorus moves from the environment to organisms where it is used in nucleic acids and certain lipids. http://sites.sinauer.com/ecology2e/ccc/CCC-5.1.3.jpg http://pandasthumb.org/archives/2009/08/09/Kocher_GunflintStroms_1.JPG http://www.nevillecoleman.com.au/media/142527/cyanobacteria%20_%20stromatolites%20shark%20bay%20wa.jpg 2.A.2.e Photosynthesis first evolved in prokaryotic organisms; scientific evidence supports that prokaryotic (bacterial) photosynthesis was responsible for the production of an oxygenated atmosphere; prokaryotic photosynthetic pathways were the foundation of eukaryotic photosynthesis. http://media.tumblr.com/tumblr_m00t77Omx31qhq5q7.jpg http://click4biology.info/c4b/5/images/5.1/heterotroph.jpg http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-ZosS6Bh-J7g/T0rRI90SBUI/AAAAAAAAI1o/shckdO_d8g8/s1600/PM+pic+for+Photosynthesis.jpg 2.A.2.b Heterotrophs capture free energy present in carbon compounds produced by other organisms.
2.A.2.b.1 Heterotrophs may metabolize carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins by hydrolysis as sources of free energy. http://www.shahrogersphotography.com/gallery/Hippopotamus/1140819.jpg Illustrative examples: Hibernation, Estivation, Migration,
Courtship 2.E.3.b.3 Behaviors in animals are triggered by environmental cues and are vital to reproduction, natural selection and survival. http://www.naturamediterraneo.com/Public/data3/albert2006/Artemia%20salina%20m.%20e%20%20f.jpg_200648174214_Artemia%20salina%20m.%20e%20%20f.jpg http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/manage/sites/default/files/01_algae_07.jpg 2.D.1.b. Organism activities are affected by interactions with biotic and abiotic factors.
Illustrative examples: Symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism); predator-prey relationships, water and nutrient availability, temperature, salinity, pH. http://www.nature.com/scitable/content/ne0000/ne0000/ne0000/ne0000/14264811/chow_fig1_2_1.jpg 2.D.1.a Cell activities are affected by interactions with biotic and abiotic factors. Illustrative examples: Cell density, Biofilms, Temperature, Water availability, sunlight. 2.D.1 All biological systems from cells and organisms to populations, communities and ecosystems are affected by complex biotic and abiotic interactions involving exchange of matter and free energy. http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_6DOIQVgUU7w/TLd_vTBBcTI/AAAAAAAAANc/cAKoAKP8nlc/s1600/3+Canada+Geese+Migrating.jpg http://mdundon.wikispaces.com/file/view/phototropism.png/119353109/phototropism.png http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/hibernation-dormouse.jpg 2.C.2.Organisms respond to changes in their external environments.
2.C.2.a. Organisms respond to changes in their environment through behavioral and physiological mechanisms.
Illustrative examples: Photoperiodism and phototropism in plants, Hibernation and migration in animals, Taxis and Kinesis in Animals, Chemotaxis in bacteria, sexual reproduction in fungi, noctural and diurnal activity: circadian rhythms, Shivering and sweating in humans. http://nursingcrib.com/wp-content/uploads/thyroid1.jpg?9d7bd4 http://medical.cdn.patient.co.uk/images/359.gif http://www.idf.org/sites/default/files/da5/Fig%201.2%20Insulin%20production%20and%20action.jpg http://www.edscience.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/BLOOD-CLOTTING-DIAGRAM.jpg 2.C.1.c Alteration in the mechanisms of feedback often results in deleterious (causing harm or damage) consequences.
Illustrative examples: Diabetes Mellitus in response to decreased insulin, Dehydration in response to decreased antidiuretic hormone (ADH), Grave’s disease (hyperthyroidism), Blood clotting. http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmb/2012/920459.fig.001.jpg http://0.tqn.com/d/biology/1/0/Z/V/prokaryoticcell.jpg http://wiki.pingry.org/u/ap-biology/images/6/6d/Plant-Cell-Wall.jpg 2.B.1.c.1. Plant cell walls are made of cellulose and are external to the cell membrane.
2.B.1.c.2 Other examples are cell walls of prokaryotes and fungi. 2.B.1.c Cell walls provide a structural boundary, as well as a permeability barrier for some substances to the internal environments. http://image1.masterfile.com/em_w/02/25/25/832-02252597w.jpg http://www.the-little-family.com/daveblog/media/images/basking-turtle-01.jpg http://www.visualphotos.com/photo/1x7589713/elephant_thermogram_Z9410133.jpg 2.A.1.d Organisms use free energy to maintain organization, grow and reproduce.
2.A.1.d.1. Organisms use various strategies to regulate body temperature and metabolism. For example: Endothermy (the use of thermal energy generated by metabolism to maintain homeostatic body temperature); Ectothermy (the use of external thermal energy to help regulate and maintain body temperature; Elevated floral temperatures in some species. http://meetyourneighbours.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/MYN_neil_losin-copy.jpg http://belladia.typepad.com/.a/6a00d8341cc08553ef0167659e105d970b-800wi 2.D.1.c. The stability of populations, communities, and ecosystems is affected by interactions with biotic and abiotic factors. Illustrative examples: Water and nutrient availability; Availability of nesting materials and sites; food chains and food webs; species diversity; population density; algal blooms. http://functionalnutriments.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Apoptosis-ay-paw-TOE-sis-980x360.jpg http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/GenWeb/Molecular/Theory/Cell%20Fates/pressimage_eng.gif http://www.cabrillo.edu/~jcarothers/lab/notes/parasites/VISUALS/images/fatemap.png http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/images/thumb/d/d4/Mouse_interdigit_apoptosis_01.jpg/200px-Mouse_interdigit_apoptosis_01.jpg 2.E.1.c Programmed cell death (apoptosis) plays a role in the normal development and differentiation. Illustrative examples: Morphogenesis of fingers and toes; Immune function; C. elegans development; Flower development. 4 3 1 1 2 Recruitment of
that lay their eggs
within caterpillars Synthesis
in saliva Signal transduction
pathway Wounding Figure 39.28 http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Vt7GZM_YS3g/Tmif24yb5vI/AAAAAAAAAtI/2PJPB0lhcNo/s1600/latent_heat.gif http://www.ncstatecollege.edu/webpub/kekegren/enr280f00/Lesson5/img026.gif http://www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/SDPS/graphics/WaterSolvent.GIF http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/pictures/heat-capacity-pond.gif http://study-biology.wikispaces.com/file/view/water.gif/235646700/422x315/water.gif http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/graphics/adhesion-cohesion-2.gif Illustrative examples: Cohesion, Adhesion, High specific heat capacity, Universal solvent supports reactions; Heat of vaporization, Heat of fusion, Water’s thermal conductivity Figure 39.29 6 7 1 5 3 4 2 Signal transduction pathway Avirulent
response Signal Infected tobacco leaf with lesions R-Avr recognition and
hypersensitive response Avr effector protein R protein Systemic acquired