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humanistic & social cognitive
Transcript of humanistic & social cognitive
So they created a new psychological approach-Humanistic psychology.
they emphasis on the positive value of the person, rather than focus on the human pathological behavior and they emphasis on human growth and development
(known as self-realization). "third force." Source of theory the philosophies of existentialism Human beings, through their own consciousness, create their own values and determine a meaning to their life.
Emphasis on subjective experience phenomenal field (Rogers) In a period, the phenomenon that a person experiences and percepts from subjective perspective Need hierarchy theory Self-actualization Esteem Love and belonging Safety needs Physiological needs Self-actualized A self-actualized is a person who is living creatively and fully using his or her potentials. peak experience * The process of self-realization, that people in the most perfect state, overjoyed.
* Only can experience but cannot express in words.
* Outstanding people or people in a better environment are more likely to feel peak experience. self theory self-concept self congruence positive regard ideal self & self-image Consistent and harmony Positive regard is to do with how other people evaluate and judge us in social interaction.
Rogers made a distinction between unconditional positive regard and conditional positive regard. The person feels free to try things out and make mistakes, even though this may lead to getting it worse at times. People who are able to self-actualize are more likely to have received unconditional positive regard from others, especially their parents in childhood. Thus conditional positive regard would be the acceptance and support of a person given that they meet the assumed conditions.
For example : "I will love and support you as long as you maintain an A average and volunteer on weekends". *Unconditional positive regard *Conditional positive regard Incongruent congruent reference
http://psych.fullerton.edu/jmearns/rotter.htm Rotter’s Social Learning Theory Julian Rotter
Personality represents an interaction of the individual with his or her environment. Behavior potential (BP) Expectancy (E) Reinforcement value (RV) Psychological situation The likelihood of engaging in a particular behavior in a specific situation. Subjective probability that a given behavior will lead to a particular outcome, or reinforcer. Desirability of the outcomes (Subjective ) People's subjective interpretation of the environment. BP = f(E & RV) Locus of Control A degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate. Internal People who assume that their own actions and decisions directly affect the consequences they experience. External People who assume that their lives are more controlled by powerful others, luck, or fate. Cognitive Dissonance Theory Cognitive consistent
Cognitive dissonance Any incompatibility or inconsistency between thoughts or between thoughts and behaviors. Old beliefs New concept Conflict
Nervous Ways to Reduce Cognitive Dissonance BANDURA Rotter Four main components Change one inconsistence cognitive
Increase extra consistence cognitive
a.) Reduce the importance of cognitive dissonance
b.) Increase the importance of cognitive consistent OTHER PEOPLE'S BEHAVIOR
A PERSON'S OWN EXPECTANCIES
SOCIAL COGNITIIVE LEARNING THEORY *The view you have of yourself
*How much value you place on yourself
(Self esteem or self-worth)
*What you wish you were really like
(Ideal self) self-actualization occurs (Behavior Potential) (Expectancy) (Reinforcement Value) Psychological Situation (Leon Festinger) Consistent or compatible beliefs SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY After all, not all situations has to be personally experienced to reinforce the connection between stimulus and reaction.
so Bandura fixed Skinner's environment determination theory and refocus on humanity, which is the importance of cognitive and viewpoint. ( Increase persuasiveness) S(stimulus) R(reaction) S(stimulus) R(reaction) O Reciprocal Determinism Emphasize that personal behavior and cognition will influence future behavior. Emphasize that PERSONAL, BEHAVIOR, ENVIRONMENT are the three interact aspects that effect reaction. when the three aspects has changed, one have to reassess the relationship between behavior, environment and personal social cognitive mental factor self-efficiency outcome expectation observational learning environment Reinforcement self regulation Behavioral acquisition that occurs by watching the actions and outcomes of others’ behavior; Include credible role models of the targeted behavior. Factors physically external to the person; Provides opportunities and social support. Fully Functioning persons *Open to experience *Existential living
*Trust feelings * Creativity *Fulfilled life