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Biochemistry

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by

Eric Friberg

on 7 November 2016

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Transcript of Biochemistry

BIOchemistry
Physical Science Review:
Elements: Pure substance that can not be broken down
Physical Science Review:
Compounds/Molecules: Two or more elements combined together.
Chemical Reaction: the process by which
atoms/molecules are
reorganized into different substances.
**A new substance is formed!
Chemical Reaction or Not? Why?
Chewing Food
Stomach Muscles squishing food
Boiling Water
Photosynthesis
Food mixing with acid and enzymes
Humans growing and developing
Chemical Equations: Reactants to Products
Reactants: the starting substances. Going to change.
(Opposite the arrow head)
Products: What is formed or was made
(Arrow points to it)
Balanced: Same # of Elements on each side of arrow
Identify the reactants. Products.
Balanced? How many of each element are on each side?
Energy
Activation Energy: Amount of energy needed
for reactants to form products.
Exothermic Reactions: Energy Exits reaction
All chemical reactions require some energy!
Light
Heat
Electricity
Motion
-gives off heat
-Energy in products
-How might this relate to ecology?
Endothermic Reactions: Energy ENTERS Reaction
-Energy in Reactants
Which is Endothermic? Exothermic?
How do you know?
Elements of Life
CHONPS
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Phosphorous
Sulfur
Carbon -The element of Life
Can form 4 bonds!!
4 bonds mean lots of shapes!
1. Straight Chain
2. Branched
3. Ring
Video #1
Video #2
4 Organic Compounds or MACROmolecules
-Proteins
-Carbohydrates
-Lipids
-Nucleic Acids
All of them contain CARBON!
How do we get these organic compounds?
We are heterotrophs and must consume food.
1. Why eat organic compounds?
2. What happens when they enter our body as food?
3. Is there a chemical reaction?
4. If so, Does it just happen on its own?
What do you need?
Video 3
It's all about Carbon Videos. NPR
Proteins
Elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen,
Nitrogen
Monomers: Amino Acids
-20 different amino acids
Proteins
Polypeptide - multiple amino acids bonded together with many peptide bonds.
Polymer Structure
Primary - The order of amino acids in the chain
The 3D shape - depends on Amino Acid order.
held together by hydrogen bonds

All proteins have a specific shape
Proteins
Functions
1. Transport Substances Across the Cell Membranes
II. Structural Support
III. Enzymes - Speed up reactions
Monomers and Polymers
Monomer
single part, building blocks
Polymer
many parts
large molecule of many monomers
Dehydration
Synthesis
-to make by
removing water
-Makes a polymer from 2 monomers
Hydro
lysis
-
to break
with water
-Make monomers from a polymer
Enzymes
Catalyst - speeds up reactions
Specific 3D shape for specific function
Works like a lock and a key.
Can break bonds AND make bonds
Reactants/Substrate fit active site
Enzymes work best .......
under certain environmental factors
Outside of that range.....
The 3D shape starts to change (unravel)
Hydrogen bonds break.....leads to unraveling
Different shape - doesn't work
Carbohydrates - Carbon + Water
Elements: Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
Monomers
Monosaccharides - one sugar
**Glucose**

Galactose
-All rings
-Carbon's have H's and OH's covering
Carbohydrates
Polymers
Disaccharides - Two sugars
Lactose
Sucrose
Carbohydrates
Polymers
Polysaccharides - Many sugars
Carbohydrates
Function
Quick Energy Source and Storage
-glucose is life's most
important carbohydrate
Carbohydrates
Function
Structural Support
Lipids
Elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
Monomers - Fatty Acids
Monomers - Fatty Acids
Saturated - Straight carbon chains
-Full of H's, solid at room temp.
Unsaturated - Bends in the carbon chain
- Not full of H's, liquid at room temp.
Lipids
Polymers - There are no polymers!
3 Examples of Lipids
Triglyceride
Lipids - Examples
Phospholipids
Lipids - Examples
Steroids
Lipids
Functions
Energy Storage
Lipids
Functions
Membrane Barriers
*Most Energy per gram!!
Nucleic Acids
Elements: Carbon, Hydrogen,
Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous
Nucleic Acids
Monomers - Nucleotides
3 Parts
1. Phosphate Group
2. 5 carbon sugar
3. Nitrogen Base
Polymers
Nucleic Acids
Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid = DNA
**Double (Stranded) Helix
Nucleic Acids
DNA Functions
- Genetic Information for all of life
Nucleic Acids
Polymers
Ribose Nucleic Acid = RNA
**Single Stranded
Nucleic Acids
RNA Functions
- the information for making proteins
1. Helps turn reactants into products

2. Substrates = Reactants
The Digestive System
Homeostasis
maintaining a steady state
Digestive System Function
Breaks down food so it can be absorbed
by the body's cells.
Mechanical Digestion
Breaks down food into smaller pieces
Mouth:
Teeth and tongue chew food
Stomach: Smooth muscles break
food into smaller parts.
Mechanical Digestion
Breaks down food into smaller pieces
Chemical Digestion
Breaks down polymers into monomers
Amylase
-enzyme in the saliva
-breaks down polysaccharides
into monosaccharides
Chemical Digestion
Breaks down polymers into monomers
Pepsin
-Enzyme in the stomach
-breaks down polypeptides
into amino acids
-works well at a pH of 2
Chemical Digestion
Breaks down polymers into monomers
Pancreas -
Organ that produces
lots of different enzymes
that break down lipids,
proteins, and carbohydrates
Absorption
Nutrients move from the digestive system to the blood stream
Villi absorb the nutrients.
Eliminate Waste: Remove Extra Material
Large Intestine
-Absorbs water
-Mutualism
-Bacteria live all over you including your
large intestine.
Start at C picture. End after making all those shapes.
Water
Bonds
Two Kinds
Covalent
Hydrogen
STRONG bonds within a molecule.
Atoms share electrons
WEAK bonds between molecules
Made of hydrogen and oxygen
H2O
pH
The measure of how acidic or basic a solution is.
Measures the amount of H+ compared with OH-
pH Scale
Goes from 0 to 14
Acids

More H+ than OH-
pH from 0 to 6
(anything less than 7)
Neutral
H+ equal to OH-
pH of 7
Basic
Less H+ than OH-
pH of 8-14
(anything greater than 7)
pH
Temperature
Enzymes
I. Structure
A. Proteins
1. Made up of amino acids
2. Shape is based on the order of amino acids
Denatured Enzymes -
Learning Targets Day 1
1. Identify the 6 important elements in biology.
2. Identify parts of a chemical reaction as either reactants or products
Summary Day 1
I. What is the difference between an element and a molecule?
2.What are reactants? Products? Where are they in an equation?
3. What are the most important elements of life?
4. Most important element? Why? What shapes can it make?
Learning Targets Day 2
3. Distinguish between hydrogen bonds and covalent bonds in terms of their location (within molecule vs. between molecules), and their strength.
4. Distinguish between acids and bases in terms of pH and the amount of H+ and OH- ions present.
5. Explain dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis reactions in terms of reactants, products, and the use of water.
Summary
1. What is the difference between Covalent and Hydrogen Bonds?
2. Describes Acids, Bases, and Neutral Substances
3. What are monomers and polymers?
4. Describe dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis.

Digestion Learning Targets
10. Describe how the digestive system maintains homeostasis in humans in terms of how it obtains food for the body’s cell.

Includes ingestion, mechanical and chemical digestion, and waste elimination.
Summary
1. What is the function of the digestive system?
2. What is mechanical digestion? What does it?
3. What is chemical digestion? What things it?
4. What is absorption? What does it?
Proteins Learning Targets
6. Describe the structure of proteins, in terms of their monomer carbon arrangement (ring, chain, branching), the elements present, and the polymer shape.

7. Describe the function of proteins in cells and organisms.

Summary
1. What elements are in Proteins?
2. What is the name and shape of the monomers?
3. What is the name and shape of the polymers?
4. What are the functions of proteins?
Formed by dehydration synthesis
Proteins
Use hydrolysis to digest protein
Polymer
Monomers
Enzyme Learning Targets
8. Explain the function of enzymes as catalysts in terms of their effect on reactions,
specificity (lock and key), and the effect of pH and temperature on their functioning

9. Explain the structure and importance of enzyme shape in terms of amino acid order, 3D shape, and enzyme reaction specificity (Lock and Key).

Enzymes Summary
1. Describe the structure of enzymes.
-Molecule type, monomers, bonds
2. What is the function of enzymes?
3. Do enzymes work with any reactants? Explain.
4. Explain the effect of temperature and pH on enzymes.
Carbohydrate Learning Targets
6. Describe the structure of carbohydrates, in terms of their monomer carbon arrangement (ring, chain, branching), the elements present, and the polymer shape.

7. Describe the function of Carbohydrates in cells and organisms.

Lipids Learning Targets
6. Describe the structure of Lipids, in terms of their monomer carbon arrangement (ring, chain, branching), the elements present, and the polymer shape.

7. Describe the function of Lipids in cells and organisms.

Nucleic Acids Learning Targets
6. Describe the structure of Nucleic Acids, in terms of their monomer carbon arrangement (ring, chain, branching), the elements present, and the polymer shape.

7. Describe the function of Nucleic Acids in cells and organisms.

1. Formed by
Dehydration Synthesis
2. Chain of Carbon Rings
3. Examples -->


4. Broken apart by
Hydrolysis
Stems in Plants
Exoskeletons in arthropods
Carbohydrates Summary
1. What elements do Carbohydrates have?
2. Describe the monomers. Shape and Name
3. Describe the polymers Shape and Name.
4. Explain the functions of Carbohydrates.
Also known as FATS
1. Carbon Shape: Chain
- 3 fatty acid tails
Hydrophobic: Water Fearing
Hydrophilic: Water Loving
Lipids Summary
1. What elements do lipids have?
2. Describe the monomers using their name and carbon shape.
3. Describe 2 main functions of Lipids.
4. Describe 2 examples of Lipids.
5 Different Nitrogen Bases

Polynucleotides - many nucleotides
DNA --> RNA --> Protein
Nucleic Acid Summary

1. Name and Describe the shape of the monomer.
2. What are the different names and shapes of the polymers.
3. Describe the functions of the different polymers
Full transcript